Citizens were affected from the start of the war. This was partly due to the technologies availab...

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Citizens were affected from the start of the war. This was partly due to the technologies available to both sides which allowed civilians to become targets. Paris was shelled from a distance of 126 kilometres by the massive German gun known as 'Long Max' by Mind Map: Citizens were affected from the start of the war. This was partly due to the technologies available to both sides which allowed civilians to become targets. Paris was shelled from a distance of 126 kilometres by the massive German gun known as 'Long Max'

1. The First world War also witnessed the first genocide. Turkish propaganda at the time presented the Armenians as saboteurs and a pro-Russian fifth column. Hundreds of thousands of Armenians died from starvation and thirst when the Ottoman Turks deported them en masse from eastern Anatolia to the Syrian desert and elsewhere in 1915 - 1916.

2. The impact of economic warfare on civilians. The British blockade had a devastating effect on Germany, causing desperate food shortages and contributing to Germany's defeat in 1918.

3. In Serbia, thousands of civilians were slaughtered by Austro-Hungarian troops, while minority groups - Jews, Roma, Hungarians and Turks were all attacked or deported by Russia during the war.

4. In Serbia, thousands of civilians were slaughtered by Austro-Hungarian troops, while minority groups - Jews, Roma, Hungarians and Turks were all attacked or deported by Russia during the war.

5. Civilians were targeted by armies on the ground. This happened in Belgium where reprisals took place against those who resisted the German advance and extensively on the Eastern Front.

6. On the Eastern Front, due to the large advances and retreats, civilians were caught up in actual battles in a way that did not happen on the Western Front; after initial battles, civilians were able to keep away from the actual fighting.

7. the Zeppelins, and later planes, made raids on Britain. British planes also inflicted severe damage on German factories and towns in the last year of the war.

8. Germany's use of submarine warfare also subjected British civilians to shortages and Russia suffered as a result of the blockade of the Dardanelles.

8.1. Rationing was introduced in many countries.

8.1.1. In Britain the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA), 1914, gave the government wide-ranging powers to police many aspects of daily life

8.1.1.1. In France, a 'state of siege' was proclaimed by president Raymond Poincare who placed eight departments of government (later increased to 33) under the control of the Commander-in-Chief Joffre, and subject to military law

8.1.1.2. In Germany, executive power was given to the deputy commanding generals of Germany's 24 military districts

8.1.1.3. In Russia, the Tsar reasserted autocratic powers and ruled without the Duma

8.1.1.4. These powers were used to ensure government control over human resources e.g. introducing conscription, production - nationalising industry in Britain for example, and controlling morale by producing propaganda.