MSE 308 Shannon Smith
Get Started. It's Free MSE 308 1. Laws of Thermodynamics

1.1. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

1.1.1. If two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

1.1.2. If a = b and b = c, then a = c.

1.1.3. Heat energy cannot be created or destroyed.

1.2. First Law of Thermodynamics

1.2.1. Delta U (Change in Internal Energy) = Q (Heat) - W (Work)

1.3. Second Law of Thermodynamics

1.3.1. The total energy of both a system and its surroundings will never decrease.

1.3.2. Delta S (Change in Entropy) = delta Q (Heat Transfer)/ T (Temperature)

1.4. Third Law of Thermodynamics

1.4.1. The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as its temperature approaches absolute zero.

1.4.2. S (Entropy)=k (Boltzmann Constant) log W (Number of Microstates)

2. Systems

2.1. Boundaries

2.1.1. Open

2.1.1.1. Both mass and energy can cross the boundary.

2.1.2. Closed

2.1.2.1. Only energy can cross the boundary, no mass can cross, the mass is a fixed amount.

2.2. Categories

2.2.1. Unary/Multicomponent

2.2.1.1. Identifies the chemical components and chemistry found in the system

2.2.2. Homogenous/Heterogenous

2.2.2.1. Identifies the amount of phases existing in the system

2.2.3. Closed/Open

2.2.3.1. Identifies the exchange of matter or lack thereof across the system boundaries

2.2.4. Nonreacting/Reacting

2.2.4.1. Identifies whether or not a chemical reaction occurs within the system

2.2.5. Simple/Complex

2.2.5.1. Identifies if the system is undergoing thermal, mechanical, or chemical changes (simple), or if the system is undergoing electrical, magnetic, gravitational, motion, or surface tension effects (complex)

2.3. Properties

2.3.1. Extensive

2.3.1.1. Depend on the amount of matter in a sample (i.e.. Weight, Length, Entropy, Volume)

2.3.2. Intensive

2.3.2.1. Do not depend on the amount of matter in a sample (i.e. Temperature, Boiling Point, Concentration Luster)

2.4. State Function vs Process Variables

2.4.1. State Functions: A property of the system that depends only on the state of the system (i.e. Enthalpy, Entropy, Energy, Temperature, Volume, Pressure)

2.4.2. Process Variables: A property of the system that depends on the path by which the system took to get to its state (i.e. Heat and Work)

3. Maxwell Relationships

3.1. Coefficient Relations

3.1.1. All have explicit meaning, depending on what specific variable is held constant.

3.1.2. The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

3.1.2.1. A measurement of the volume change of the material when its temperature is increased, and its pressure is constant.

3.1.3. The Coefficient of Compressibility

3.1.3.1. A change in volume change proportional with the pressure while the temperature is constant.