# MSE 308

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MSE 308

## 1. Laws of Thermodynamics

### 1.1. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

1.1.1. If two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

1.1.2. If a = b and b = c, then a = c.

1.1.3. Heat energy cannot be created or destroyed.

### 1.2. First Law of Thermodynamics

1.2.1. Delta U (Change in Internal Energy) = Q (Heat) - W (Work)

### 1.3. Second Law of Thermodynamics

1.3.1. The total energy of both a system and its surroundings will never decrease.

1.3.2. Delta S (Change in Entropy) = delta Q (Heat Transfer)/ T (Temperature)

### 1.4. Third Law of Thermodynamics

1.4.1. The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as its temperature approaches absolute zero.

1.4.2. S (Entropy)=k (Boltzmann Constant) log W (Number of Microstates)

## 2. Systems

### 2.1. Boundaries

2.1.1. Open

2.1.1.1. Both mass and energy can cross the boundary.

2.1.2. Closed

2.1.2.1. Only energy can cross the boundary, no mass can cross, the mass is a fixed amount.

### 2.2. Categories

2.2.1. Unary/Multicomponent

2.2.1.1. Identifies the chemical components and chemistry found in the system

2.2.2. Homogenous/Heterogenous

2.2.2.1. Identifies the amount of phases existing in the system

2.2.3. Closed/Open

2.2.3.1. Identifies the exchange of matter or lack thereof across the system boundaries

2.2.4. Nonreacting/Reacting

2.2.4.1. Identifies whether or not a chemical reaction occurs within the system

2.2.5. Simple/Complex

2.2.5.1. Identifies if the system is undergoing thermal, mechanical, or chemical changes (simple), or if the system is undergoing electrical, magnetic, gravitational, motion, or surface tension effects (complex)

### 2.3. Properties

2.3.1. Extensive

2.3.1.1. Depend on the amount of matter in a sample (i.e.. Weight, Length, Entropy, Volume)

2.3.2. Intensive

2.3.2.1. Do not depend on the amount of matter in a sample (i.e. Temperature, Boiling Point, Concentration Luster)

### 2.4. State Function vs Process Variables

2.4.1. State Functions: A property of the system that depends only on the state of the system (i.e. Enthalpy, Entropy, Energy, Temperature, Volume, Pressure)

2.4.2. Process Variables: A property of the system that depends on the path by which the system took to get to its state (i.e. Heat and Work)

## 3. Maxwell Relationships

### 3.1. Coefficient Relations

3.1.1. All have explicit meaning, depending on what specific variable is held constant.

3.1.2. The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

3.1.2.1. A measurement of the volume change of the material when its temperature is increased, and its pressure is constant.

3.1.3. The Coefficient of Compressibility

3.1.3.1. A change in volume change proportional with the pressure while the temperature is constant.