English Language AS

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English Language AS by Mind Map: English Language AS

1. Theorists

1.1. Schlegloff - patterns in discoure in telephone communication

1.1.1. Summons/answer (opens channel of communication)

1.1.1.1. Identification (face recognition)

1.1.1.1.1. greeting sequence (shared space)

1.2. Erving Gothman- Saving/gaining/challenging face

1.3. Grices Maxims - Quantity, Quality, Relevance, Manner

1.3.1. All needed for functional conversation, if one is flouted conversation isn't functional

1.4. Fairclough - Every conversation is a power struggle

1.5. Althusser - interpellation shows how texts "call" or "target" a reader

1.6. David Crystal - Netspeak

1.6.1. E.g. Initialisms, number/letter combinations. Explains that language is expanding and is Ephemal.

1.7. Proitz - Can identify gender by analysing text messages e.g. use of empty adjectives and emoticons suggest a female writer.

1.8. Hatton- Younger generarion text more, older use phones.

1.9. Katz - Teenagers use mobile phones to be socially acepted and fit in.

1.10. George Keith -

1.10.1. Women - Talk too much , more polite, complain, indecisive, ask more questions, more co-operative.

1.10.2. Men - Swear more, less emotive, semantic field of sports, insult, talk about women and machines in the same way, compete for power, interupt more, more imperative.

1.11. Lakoff - Features of Womens language

1.11.1. Women : Apologize more, use more hedges, polite, tag questions "aren't you?" , weak expletives, empty adjectives, intensifiers.

1.12. Maslow Heriarchy of Needs

1.12.1. Self actualization- Ideal self

1.12.2. Self esteem - confidence/ respect

1.12.3. Love/Belonging - friendship/family

1.12.4. Safety - Physical , Health , Family

1.12.5. Basic needs - food, water ,shelter etc.

1.13. Don Zimmerman - in mixed-sex conversations men are more likely to interrupt than women

2. Key definitons

2.1. Accent- The way words are pronounced.

2.2. Dialect - The choices of vocab, grammar and pronunciation made by people in different areas and social contexts e.g Standard English

2.3. Ambiguosity - More than one possible meaning.

2.4. Adjective- Word that adds more detail.

2.4.1. Pre-modified - "the busy teacher"

2.4.2. Post-modified - "the dinner was awful"

2.5. A gramatical Agent is the participant in a sentence that carries out an action e.g the CAT sat on the mat.

2.6. An adverbial is a phrase that adds extra info, usually about time place or manner e.g. i worked out in the gym.

2.7. Auxilery verbs are used to give a sense of time,, mood, voice, or condition to the main verb e.g have, do, could

2.8. A clause is a group of words that is either a whole or part of a sentence

2.8.1. He hit him (main clause)

2.8.2. "eventhough he was his friend"(dependant) subordinate clause, helps the main clause

2.9. Cohesive words appear to work as a single unit/related e.g. "inside out"

2.10. A collocation is habitaully linked words e.g. fish and chips.

2.11. Colloquial language is the everyday language/register we addopt when talking to friends , sland is a form of colloquialsim e.g whats up.

2.12. Dennotation- The literal meaning of a word

2.13. Connotation the implied or associated meaning

2.13.1. Aspects of social power can be connoted in texts, e.g. between doctor and patient.

2.14. Dynamic verbs tell of an action e.g "hit" or "sing"

2.15. Lexis - The meaning of words, important in creating style and register.

2.16. Morphology- the way words are formed, e.g of morphemes = prefix "un" happy and suffix "ness"

2.17. Verb indicates and action/existance (doing word)

2.18. Noun- refers to a person, place, thing, quality, or action

2.18.1. Abstract -emotions (can't touch)

2.18.2. Concrete - can be touched, smelled, seen, felt, or tasted e.g table

2.18.3. Common - refer to general, unspecific things

2.18.4. Collective - refer to a group of something e.g. herd

2.19. Adverb- Modifies a verb, adjective or other advertbs e.g. unfortunately/luckily

2.20. Filler - sounds or words spoken to fill gaps in utterances e.g. erm.

2.21. Orthography- how words are spelt (language and technology-text messages)

2.22. Phonetics- how words sound

2.23. Pragmatics- How social context contributes to the meaning of language (an infered meaning) - important in language and power.

2.24. Semantics- Meanning of a sentence e.g. Baby sale- Going cheap"

2.25. Preposition - tells us about time,place or manner e.g. near,on,in.

2.26. Purpose- the reason the text was made , e.g. entertain ,inform, explain, persuade, instruct.

2.27. Register- recognisable style produced e.g. informal, scientific, formal , medical.

2.28. Exclamatory sentence- makes an exclamation "What a mess!"

2.29. A sociolect is the variety of language adopted by a social group.

2.30. Synonym - words with similar meanings to others.

2.31. Discourse- The way language is put together. Texts aimed at children will have an obvuous structure with "linguistic signposts" to guide the child through the text. Whereas a broadsheet newspaper will link ideas and present views far more complexed and sophisticately.

2.31.1. Usually in texts there is a struggle for power where a participant through language choices or interuptions positions the other person in a less powerful postition (e.g. men and women)

2.32. Ellision - ommision of sounds from a word e.g "I've"

2.33. Ellipsis - Missing out a word "I went down Hanley"

2.34. Ephemal - Lasts a short period of time e.g. fashionable words in "text speak" or "slang"

2.35. Function of a sentence is what it intends to do e.g. exclamatory, interogative, imperative, informative

2.36. Genre affects the production AND recepction of texts, easy way of catergorising e.g. advertisments, reports, horror, comedy, recipies.

2.37. Grammar- Set of rules that tell us how words are put into a sentence and allows their meaning to become unambiguous (clear)

2.38. Graphological features carry "pragmatic force" e.g. a texts layout, colour, font, italics create impact causing readers to react differently, these features can create pragmatic perceptions of gender,power and influence.

2.39. Idiomatic language refers to wordsphrases familiar in everyday use of language. An idiom wouldnt be understood by a foreginer but would in everyday conversation e.g "you're cool" dennotes he is cold, but connotes that he is popular.

2.40. Imperative - Command "Sit down!"

2.41. Intensifiers modify the verb or adjective, e.g very,quite, extremely.

2.42. Irony- Something is said but something else is implied - Your hair looks...nice"

2.43. Utterance- Spoken text

2.44. Standard syntax - used in written text (Standard English

2.45. Non standard syntax - used in spoken language , mostly regional dialects.