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English Language AS by Mind Map: English Language AS
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English Language AS

Theorists

Schlegloff - patterns in discoure in telephone communication

Summons/answer (opens channel of communication), Identification (face recognition), greeting sequence (shared space), "How are you" sequence (strengthens greeting sequence)

Erving Gothman- Saving/gaining/challenging face

Grices Maxims - Quantity, Quality, Relevance, Manner

All needed for functional conversation, if one is flouted conversation isn't functional

Fairclough - Every conversation is a power struggle

Althusser - interpellation shows how texts "call" or "target" a reader

David Crystal - Netspeak

E.g. Initialisms, number/letter combinations. Explains that language is expanding and is Ephemal.

Proitz - Can identify gender by analysing text messages e.g. use of empty adjectives and emoticons suggest a female writer.

Hatton- Younger generarion text more, older use phones.

Katz - Teenagers use mobile phones to be socially acepted and fit in.

George Keith -

Women - Talk too much , more polite, complain, indecisive, ask more questions, more co-operative.

Men - Swear more, less emotive, semantic field of sports, insult, talk about women and machines in the same way, compete for power, interupt more, more imperative.

Lakoff - Features of Womens language

Women : Apologize more, use more hedges, polite, tag questions "aren't you?" , weak expletives, empty adjectives, intensifiers.

Maslow Heriarchy of Needs

Self actualization- Ideal self

Self esteem - confidence/ respect

Love/Belonging - friendship/family

Safety - Physical , Health , Family

Basic needs - food, water ,shelter etc.

Don Zimmerman - in mixed-sex conversations men are more likely to interrupt than women

Key definitons

Accent- The way words are pronounced.

Dialect - The choices of vocab, grammar and pronunciation made by people in different areas and social contexts e.g Standard English

Ambiguosity - More than one possible meaning.

Adjective- Word that adds more detail.

Pre-modified - "the busy teacher"

Post-modified - "the dinner was awful"

A gramatical Agent is the participant in a sentence that carries out an action e.g the CAT sat on the mat.

An adverbial is a phrase that adds extra info, usually about time place or manner e.g. i worked out in the gym.

Auxilery verbs are used to give a sense of time,, mood, voice, or condition to the main verb e.g have, do, could

A clause is a group of words that is either a whole or part of a sentence

He hit him (main clause)

"eventhough he was his friend"(dependant) subordinate clause, helps the main clause

Cohesive words appear to work as a single unit/related e.g. "inside out"

A collocation is habitaully linked words e.g. fish and chips.

Colloquial language is the everyday language/register we addopt when talking to friends , sland is a form of colloquialsim e.g whats up.

Dennotation- The literal meaning of a word

Connotation the implied or associated meaning

Aspects of social power can be connoted in texts, e.g. between doctor and patient.

Dynamic verbs tell of an action e.g "hit" or "sing"

Lexis - The meaning of words, important in creating style and register.

Morphology- the way words are formed, e.g of morphemes = prefix "un" happy and suffix "ness"

Verb indicates and action/existance (doing word)

Noun- refers to a person, place, thing, quality, or action

Abstract -emotions (can't touch)

Concrete - can be touched, smelled, seen, felt, or tasted e.g table

Common - refer to general, unspecific things

Collective - refer to a group of something e.g. herd

Adverb- Modifies a verb, adjective or other advertbs e.g. unfortunately/luckily

Filler - sounds or words spoken to fill gaps in utterances e.g. erm.

Orthography- how words are spelt (language and technology-text messages)

Phonetics- how words sound

Pragmatics- How social context contributes to the meaning of language (an infered meaning) - important in language and power.

Semantics- Meanning of a sentence e.g. Baby sale- Going cheap"

Preposition - tells us about time,place or manner e.g. near,on,in.

Purpose- the reason the text was made , e.g. entertain ,inform, explain, persuade, instruct.

Register- recognisable style produced e.g. informal, scientific, formal , medical.

Exclamatory sentence- makes an exclamation "What a mess!"

A sociolect is the variety of language adopted by a social group.

Synonym - words with similar meanings to others.

Discourse- The way language is put together. Texts aimed at children will have an obvuous structure with "linguistic signposts" to guide the child through the text. Whereas a broadsheet newspaper will link ideas and present views far more complexed and sophisticately.

Usually in texts there is a struggle for power where a participant through language choices or interuptions positions the other person in a less powerful postition (e.g. men and women)

Ellision - ommision of sounds from a word e.g "I've"

Ellipsis - Missing out a word "I went down Hanley"

Ephemal - Lasts a short period of time e.g. fashionable words in "text speak" or "slang"

Function of a sentence is what it intends to do e.g. exclamatory, interogative, imperative, informative

Genre affects the production AND recepction of texts, easy way of catergorising e.g. advertisments, reports, horror, comedy, recipies.

Grammar- Set of rules that tell us how words are put into a sentence and allows their meaning to become unambiguous (clear)

Graphological features carry "pragmatic force" e.g. a texts layout, colour, font, italics create impact causing readers to react differently, these features can create pragmatic perceptions of gender,power and influence.

Idiomatic language refers to wordsphrases familiar in everyday use of language. An idiom wouldnt be understood by a foreginer but would in everyday conversation e.g "you're cool" dennotes he is cold, but connotes that he is popular.

Imperative - Command "Sit down!"

Intensifiers modify the verb or adjective, e.g very,quite, extremely.

Irony- Something is said but something else is implied - Your hair looks...nice"

Utterance- Spoken text

Standard syntax - used in written text (Standard English

Non standard syntax - used in spoken language , mostly regional dialects.