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5: introduction to the trunk by Mind Map: 5: introduction to the trunk
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5: introduction to the trunk

Thoracic wall

function of the rib cage


12 thoracic vertebrae

12 pairs of ribs & associated costal cartilage, 1-7 true ribs, 8,9,10 false ribs, 11, 12 floating ribs


intercostal space

3 layers of muscle, deepest 2 layers have different angle than the superficial layer

neuromuscular bundle, run between the 2 inner layers of muscles, ordre: VAN, vain, artery, nerver, intercostal nerves

Thoracic cavity

thoracic inlet

bounded by T1 vertebra, 1st intercostal rib & costal cartilage, and manubrium helps in forming the neck and upper limb

thoracic outlet

bounded by T12 vertebra, rib 12, costal margin & xiphisternal joint closed by diaphragm

mediastinum (central)

superior mediastinum

middle mediastinum

anterior mediastinum

posterior mediastinum

The diaphragm

principle muscle in breathing, contracts on inspiration (diaphragm descends), relaxes on expiration (diaphragm ascends)

muscle fibers attach to the central tendon, anterior fibers are more horizontal, lateral and posterior fibers are more vertical

openings, vena cava hiatus, oesophageal hiatus, aortic hiatus

L & R phrenic nerves (C3-C5)


Respiratory system, lungs, trachea, bronchi

Cardiovascular system, heart, aorta, ascending aorta, arch of the aorta, descending (thoracic) aorta, large vains, superior vena cava, brachiocephalic vain, azygos vain, upper part of inferior vena cava

Digestive system, oesophagus

Lymphatic system, thoracic duct, thymus

Nervous system, phrenic nerve, vagus nerve, sympathetic trunk

serous membranes

pleural sac


abdominal walls

diaphragm (roof)

anterolateral abdominal wall

muscular and expansile

from: costal margin & xiphoid process

to: inguinal ligament, pubic bone, and pubic symphasis

subcutaneous tissue (superficial facia), fatty layer, membrane layer (deep)

4 pairs of muscles, external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis

transversalis facia (part of endoabdominal facia)

parietal peritoneum

inguinal canal, spermatic cord in male, round ligament in female

posterior abdominal wall

less extensive, more protected by bone

muscles, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, iliacus

pelvic inlet

abdominopelvic cavity contents

major viscera

suprarenal glands

urinary system, kidneys, ureters, bladder

digestive system, stomach, intestins (except the anal canal), liver, gall bladder, pancreas


internal genitalia

serous membrane

visceral peritoneum (in contact with viscera)

parietal peritoneum (in contact with the walls of abdominopelvic cavity)

major vessels

abdominal aorta, renal, common iliac, internal iliac, external iliac

inferior vena cava, ranal, common iliac, internal iliac, external iliac

portal vein and tributaries

bony pelvis

comprises, 2 hip bones, sacrum, coccyx, joints, sacroiliac joints (posterior), pubic symphysis (anterior)

pelvic inlet, upper opening of the true pelvis, bounded by pelvic brim

pelvic outlet, diamond shaped region, bounded by bone & ligaments

divided to, false (greater) pelvis, true (lesser) pelvis = pelvic cavity

pelvic cavity

in both sexes

coils of small intestines and large intestines



in males


seminal vesicles

vas deferens

in females


uterine tubes


upper vagina


under the pelvic diaphragm to the skin

urogenital triangle

external genitalia

opening of urethra

anal triangle

anal canal & sphincter



somatic nerves innervates body wall and parietal layer of serous membrane

autonomic nerves & visceral affrents innervate viscera and visceral layer of serous membrane








inguinal fold



C3-C5 (phrenic nerve)


hiatus hernia

stomach up through diaphragm

inguinal hernia

femoral hernia

herniation of disc

herniation of viscus

Body cavity punctures


needle through intercostal space into pleural cavity to remove air or fluid

needle near lower part of intercostal space to avoid damage to intercostal nerve


thoracic wall incision


endoscopeexamination of pleural cavity and mediastinal structures via pleural sac

Paracentesis of abdomen


examination of abdominopelvic organs via endoscope in peritoneal cavity - incision at umbilicus; gas introduced in to distend the space