5: introduction to the trunk

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5: introduction to the trunk by Mind Map: 5: introduction to the trunk

1. Thoracic wall

1.1. function of the rib cage

1.2. comprises

1.2.1. 12 thoracic vertebrae

1.2.2. 12 pairs of ribs & associated costal cartilage

1.2.2.1. 1-7 true ribs

1.2.2.2. 8,9,10 false ribs

1.2.2.3. 11, 12 floating ribs

1.2.3. sternum

1.3. intercostal space

1.3.1. 3 layers of muscle

1.3.1.1. deepest 2 layers have different angle than the superficial layer

1.3.2. neuromuscular bundle

1.3.2.1. run between the 2 inner layers of muscles

1.3.2.2. ordre: VAN

1.3.2.2.1. vain

1.3.2.2.2. artery

1.3.2.2.3. nerver

2. Thoracic cavity

2.1. thoracic inlet

2.2. thoracic outlet

2.3. mediastinum (central)

2.3.1. superior mediastinum

2.3.2. middle mediastinum

2.3.3. anterior mediastinum

2.3.4. posterior mediastinum

2.4. The diaphragm

2.4.1. principle muscle in breathing

2.4.1.1. contracts on inspiration (diaphragm descends)

2.4.1.2. relaxes on expiration (diaphragm ascends)

2.4.2. muscle fibers attach to the central tendon

2.4.2.1. anterior fibers are more horizontal

2.4.2.2. lateral and posterior fibers are more vertical

2.4.3. openings

2.4.3.1. vena cava hiatus

2.4.3.2. oesophageal hiatus

2.4.3.3. aortic hiatus

2.4.4. L & R phrenic nerves (C3-C5)

2.5. contents

2.5.1. Respiratory system

2.5.1.1. lungs

2.5.1.2. trachea

2.5.1.3. bronchi

2.5.2. Cardiovascular system

2.5.2.1. heart

2.5.2.2. aorta

2.5.2.2.1. ascending aorta

2.5.2.2.2. arch of the aorta

2.5.2.2.3. descending (thoracic) aorta

2.5.2.3. large vains

2.5.2.3.1. superior vena cava

2.5.2.3.2. brachiocephalic vain

2.5.2.3.3. azygos vain

2.5.2.3.4. upper part of inferior vena cava

2.5.3. Digestive system

2.5.3.1. oesophagus

2.5.4. Lymphatic system

2.5.4.1. thoracic duct

2.5.4.2. thymus

2.5.5. Nervous system

2.5.5.1. phrenic nerve

2.5.5.2. vagus nerve

2.5.5.3. sympathetic trunk

2.6. serous membranes

2.6.1. pleural sac

2.6.2. pericardium

3. abdominal walls

3.1. diaphragm (roof)

3.2. anterolateral abdominal wall

3.2.1. muscular and expansile

3.2.2. from: costal margin & xiphoid process

3.2.3. to: inguinal ligament, pubic bone, and pubic symphasis

3.2.4. subcutaneous tissue (superficial facia)

3.2.4.1. fatty layer

3.2.4.2. membrane layer (deep)

3.2.5. 4 pairs of muscles

3.2.5.1. external oblique

3.2.5.2. internal oblique

3.2.5.3. transverse abdominis

3.2.5.4. rectus abdominis

3.2.6. transversalis facia (part of endoabdominal facia)

3.2.7. parietal peritoneum

3.2.8. inguinal canal

3.2.8.1. spermatic cord in male

3.2.8.2. round ligament in female

3.3. posterior abdominal wall

3.3.1. less extensive, more protected by bone

3.3.2. muscles

3.3.2.1. psoas major

3.3.2.2. quadratus lumborum

3.3.2.3. iliacus

3.4. pelvic inlet

4. abdominopelvic cavity contents

4.1. major viscera

4.1.1. suprarenal glands

4.1.2. urinary system

4.1.2.1. kidneys

4.1.2.2. ureters

4.1.2.3. bladder

4.1.3. digestive system

4.1.3.1. stomach

4.1.3.2. intestins (except the anal canal)

4.1.3.3. liver

4.1.3.4. gall bladder

4.1.3.5. pancreas

4.1.4. spleen

4.1.5. internal genitalia

4.2. serous membrane

4.2.1. visceral peritoneum (in contact with viscera)

4.2.2. parietal peritoneum (in contact with the walls of abdominopelvic cavity)

4.3. major vessels

4.3.1. abdominal aorta

4.3.1.1. renal

4.3.1.2. common iliac

4.3.1.3. internal iliac

4.3.1.4. external iliac

4.3.2. inferior vena cava

4.3.2.1. ranal

4.3.2.2. common iliac

4.3.2.3. internal iliac

4.3.2.4. external iliac

4.3.3. portal vein and tributaries

4.4. bony pelvis

4.4.1. comprises

4.4.1.1. 2 hip bones

4.4.1.2. sacrum

4.4.1.3. coccyx

4.4.1.4. joints

4.4.1.4.1. sacroiliac joints (posterior)

4.4.1.4.2. pubic symphysis (anterior)

4.4.2. pelvic inlet

4.4.2.1. upper opening of the true pelvis

4.4.2.2. bounded by pelvic brim

4.4.3. pelvic outlet

4.4.3.1. diamond shaped region

4.4.3.2. bounded by bone & ligaments

4.4.4. divided to

4.4.4.1. false (greater) pelvis

4.4.4.2. true (lesser) pelvis = pelvic cavity

5. pelvic cavity

5.1. in both sexes

5.1.1. coils of small intestines and large intestines

5.1.2. bladder

5.1.3. rectum

5.2. in males

5.2.1. prostate

5.2.2. seminal vesicles

5.2.3. vas deferens

5.3. in females

5.3.1. ovaries

5.3.2. uterine tubes

5.3.3. uterus

5.3.4. upper vagina

6. perineum

6.1. under the pelvic diaphragm to the skin

6.2. urogenital triangle

6.2.1. external genitalia

6.2.2. opening of urethra

6.3. anal triangle

6.3.1. anal canal & sphincter

6.3.2. anus

7. innervations

7.1. somatic nerves innervates body wall and parietal layer of serous membrane

7.2. autonomic nerves & visceral affrents innervate viscera and visceral layer of serous membrane

7.3. nipple

7.3.1. T4

7.3.2. T5

7.4. xiphoid

7.4.1. T7

7.5. umbilicus

7.5.1. T10

7.6. inguinal fold

7.6.1. L1

7.7. diaphragm

7.7.1. C3-C5 (phrenic nerve)

8. Hernias

8.1. hiatus hernia

8.2. inguinal hernia

8.3. femoral hernia

8.4. herniation of disc

8.5. herniation of viscus

9. Body cavity punctures

9.1. Thoracocentesis

9.1.1. needle through intercostal space into pleural cavity to remove air or fluid

9.1.2. needle near lower part of intercostal space to avoid damage to intercostal nerve

9.2. Thoracotomy

9.3. Thoracoscopy

9.4. Paracentesis of abdomen

9.5. Laparoscopy