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1.1. Aphasia is the a language disorder that usually develops after a stroke (neurological injury) that interrupts the left hemisphere of the brain. Aphasia literally means "the absence of language" or "without language", caused by the disturbance after the language has been acquired/established, resulting in a loss of reading/writing and speaking skills.

1.1.1. characterized by the "site of lesion"

1.1.2. TAXONOMY: the way aphasia is classified

1.1.3. Aphasia is NOT! psychiatric problem a motor speech disorder developmental disorder

1.1.4. How is Aphasia classified impact of fluency Sensory/fluent aphasia: a person can speak with a nice sized phrase length. Nonfluent aphasia: a person who speaks with short choppy sentences. motor output language comprehension Receptive aphasia: the person has comprehension problems repitition naming Anomia: a word meaning no name Phonemic paraphasia:a sound is substituted in a word. Semantic par-aphasia: a word in the same category is substituted. reading/writing

1.1.5. Other Types of Aphasia Transcortical Motor Aphasia Have good language and auditory comprehension. However their speech is non-fluent,they have difficulty initiating speech,parahasias, have short utterances and good repetition.(damage to the frontal lobe: usually posterior or anterior) Global Aphasia They have poor language and auditory skills.Their speech is also nonfluent,delayed, or have no speech initaition or output. And have naming and word finding problems. (damage to many ("multiple") lobes. Conduction They have okay language and auditory comprehension. There speech is fluent, and have imitation problems as well as naming. And have normal prosody and articulation. (damage to "Arcuate fasciculus") Anomic There speech is fairly good, and have fluent speech and problems finding words.(damage is to the "Angular gyrus") Transcortical Sensory Have poor language and auditory comprehension. Their speech is fluent,meaningless and jargon-ed, they have paraphasia, and naming problems. (damage to the "Pareto-occipital region")

1.1.6. Typical items on a Aphasia battery test: Spontaneous speech Auditory Comprehension Repitition Naming Reading Writing

1.1.7. There are two types of screening processes used 1)ALPS:The Aphasia Language Scale.2) BEST: The Bedside Evaluation Screening Test. Both these test survey speech and language performance, that requires a limited amount of items, yet give very informative information.

1.1.8. Culturally and Linguistically diverse clients impacts Parallel impairment Differential Impairment Differential Aphasia Blended Impairment Selective Aphasia

1.1.9. Dererminig the treatment setting Community re-entry programs How the client reacts to public setting like banks and restaurants. A group approach Practices communication and provides an avenue for cooperative learning setting for the client. Co treatments with occupational therapist How the client reacts in to directions and and daily activities..

1.1.10. Real-World Communication is communication used in functional and authentic communication acts and third-party payers of communication.



2.1.1. BROCA'S APHASIA SARAH SCOTT She had a stroke at the age 18, after the stroke she had trouble walking and swallowing. She had a stroke because she had a hole in her heart.

2.1.2. WERNICKE'S APHASIA A PROBLEM WITH A MEANING OF SPEECH The lady in the video had problems understaning what was being asked of her at time. She also had problems with repeating words and sentences. it sounded like she was stuttering a little bit.

2.1.3. ANOMIA PROBLEMS ACCESSING THE NAME OF WORDS The lady in the video had trouble identifying the image of the saw; she knew what she wanted to say, how it was supposed to sounf and the what if did. She just couldn't get the word, it was like her mind and her mouth were working on two different actions.


2.2.1. MEGHAN'S STORY She found out that she could have HD because she knew her father had it. She started realizing the symptoms of HD. When she was diagnosed with HD in 2006, she was angry at first but then she became a little more accepting of it. She now does advocacy work to spread the awareness of HD, she feels like it gives her purpose.

2.2.2. DANIEL MY BROTHER He was diagnosed in 1997, Its hard for him to walk,and to do anything really. He has a lot of involuntary movements. He has HOPE because his daughter is what keeps him going knowing that she could have a fifty-fifty chance of having HD.


2.3.1. As the years progressed Grace's memory got worse. She forgot the things she loved to do the most, and things she has already done earlier.


2.4.1. DEMENTIA Helps the group of people feel together and helps them realize that they aren't alone. Helps the people feel comfortable talking. Some songs are memory practices.

3. CVA: Cerebrovascuar accident

3.1. AKA stroke

3.1.1. African-American men are twice as vulnerable to have a stroke than Caucasian males.

3.2. occurs when blood circulating to the brain is disrupted.


4.1. logorrhea: talking excessively

4.2. circumlocution: talking around a word without being able to retrieve the word.

4.3. Echolalia: frequently repeating auditory stimuli.

4.4. Polytrauma: injuries that are both open and closed head injuries.

5. Right Hemisphere Dysfunction (RHD):

5.1. RHD is also a result from a neurological injury but in the right cerebral hemisphere.Commonly referred to as cognitive-linguistic disorder.

5.1.1. Causes of RHD/Major impacts Stokes,illness,diseases Characteristics lack of awareness of complete neglect and cognitive linguistic deficits. Difficulty recognizing faces,compromised pragmatics.A tendency to use wordy expressions when trying to provide tangible information. Also difficulty understanfing and problems with dysarthia and dysphagia.

5.1.2. Identifying RHD To help Speech Language Pathologist identity RHD from other disorders they uses testing such as.. Mini Inventory of Right Brain Injury (MIRBI), Right Hemisphere Language Battery, and the Clinical Management of Right Hemisphere Dysfunction. A "interdisciplinary team whose collective findings identify strengths and weaknesses of cognitive,linguistics, and neuropsychological functioning."

5.1.3. Treating RHD targets management of attention, visual disruptions, and cognitive linguistic tasks.

6. Traumatic Brain Injury

6.1. Occurs when there is damage to the brain caused by an external force. Which is the leading cause of death and disabilities in the United States.

6.1.1. Characteristics of TBI Closed Head Injuries Open Head Injuries

6.1.2. Identifying TBI The"SLP works as a member of tan interdisciplinary rehabilitation team." Using 1)Glascow Coma Scale (GCS): "best-observed response for eye opening, and motor response,2)Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functions: ten levels of cognitive functioning.

6.1.3. Treating TBI Arousing the clients response,using initial communication systems,compensatory strategies

7. Dementia

7.1. Dementia is a "chronic and progressive decline in memory,cognition, language and personality from central nervous system.

7.1.1. Traits of Dementia Affects both short and long term memory, impairment in cognitive skills, and presences of aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia.

7.1.2. Types of Dementia Mild Dementia Frequently misplacing things, decreased vocabulary,hard time naming things Moderate Denentia disoriented in time and place,poor attention,memory and marked language difficulties. Severe Dementia Extreme disoriented, language skills are profound, with few meaning and frequent repetition.

7.1.3. Identifying Dementia Using MRI's or CT scans to see neurological changes of gray or white matter,etc. Along with other test such as Mini Mental State Examination,the Arizona Battery of Communication Disorder of Dementia (ABCD).

7.1.4. Treating Dementia Medication Active Support groups nursing homes