Learning Theories

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Learning Theories by Mind Map: Learning Theories

1. Behaviorism

1.1. Key Era

1.1.1. 1900s - 1950s

1.2. Scholars

1.2.1. Thorndike, Skinner and Hull

1.3. Theories

1.3.1. Response Strengthening Bullock (1982): objectivism, environmentalism, reinforcement

1.3.2. Rewards & Punishments Bullock (1982): learner generated (intrinsic) & external feedback (extrinsic) as either correctional or motivational feedback

1.3.3. Drill & Practice on Basic Skills Bullock (1982): behavior change is influenced by current behavior & it either competes with or enhances new behavior developments


1.4.1. Not all changes are observable

1.4.2. Learning is more than a behavioral change

1.4.3. A cross to Cognitive Learning Theory

2. Cognitivism

2.1. Key Era

2.1.1. 1960s - 1970s

2.2. Scholars

2.2.1. Jean Piaget, J. Anderson

2.2.2. Lachman, Lachman, & Butterfield

2.2.3. Newell & Simon

2.3. Theories

2.3.1. Information Processing Jonassen (1991): Objectivism (both Behaviorism & Cognitivism) sees reality as external to to the knower

2.3.2. Memories, motivation, thinking, reflection Tennyson (1992): provides a cognitive system model which relates the main areas of cognition (sensory receptors, executive control, working memory & long term memory) to their purposes & instructional needs

2.3.3. Text books & Lecturiing


2.4.1. Learning is more than information processing

2.4.2. A cross to Constructivism

3. Constructivism

3.1. Key Era

3.1.1. 1980s - 1990s

3.2. Scholars

3.2.1. Lev Vygotsky - Zone of Proximal Development

3.2.2. Jerome Bruner - Learning is an active process

3.2.3. Jean Piaget

3.3. Theories

3.3.1. Knowledge Constructing Jonassen (1991): Constructivist sees reality as determined by the experiences of the knower

3.3.2. Gale (1995) - six version of constructivism Social constructivism Social constructionism Radical constructivism Information-processing constructivism Cybernetic systems Social cultural approach

3.3.3. Discussion, guided discovery, supervised participation in academic tasks Needs a responsive environment to accommodate learner's individual style as an "active, self-regulating, reflective learner" (Seels, 1989)

3.3.4. Learning as social negotiation

3.3.5. Situated Learning (Lave & Wenger)


3.4.1. Current most popular learning theory

4. Development of Learning Theories

4.1. Behaviourism

4.1.1. Study animals in artificial contexts

4.1.2. Stimulus & response association

4.1.3. Teach the facts, the <what>

4.2. Cognitivism

4.2.1. Study human in artificial contexts

4.2.2. Information processing

4.2.3. Teach principles & procedures, the <how>

4.3. Constructivism

4.3.1. Study human in realistic contexts

4.3.2. Knowledge constructing, social negotiation

4.3.3. Teach causation & more complex notions, the <why>

5. Instructional Implication

5.1. Behaviorism

5.1.1. Teacher Role Dispenser of reward or punishment

5.1.2. Student Role Recipient of reward or punishment

5.1.3. Teaching Method Drilling, practising basic skills

5.2. Cognitivism

5.2.1. Teacher Role Information dispenser, transmitter

5.2.2. Student Role Information receiver, processor

5.2.3. Teaching Method Lecturing & presenting of textbooks

5.3. Constructivism

5.3.1. Teacher Role Guide, facilitator of academic tasks

5.3.2. Student Role Sense Maker, knowledge constructor

5.3.3. Teaching Method Learning by finishing academic tasks, experiencing, discovering, exploring problems

6. Types of Tools

6.1. Technical Tools

6.1.1. Word processor

6.1.2. Spreadsheet software

6.1.3. Image editor

6.1.4. Digital capture tool

6.1.5. Authoring tool

6.2. Psychological Tools

6.2.1. Learning objects

6.2.2. Web pages

6.2.3. E-books

6.3. Psycho-Technical Tools

6.3.1. Mind mapping tools e.g. MindManager Model

6.3.2. Construction tools e.g. Stella and Interactive Physics

6.3.3. Cognitive tools Spreadsheet e.g. Excel, Excelsius Concept Maps e.g. Mindmeiser, Mind Manager Database, e.g. Access Intentional information Search Tools e.g. Grokker Modeling tools e.g. Mathematica System modeling e.g. Stella, VnR Multimedia development tools as Mindtool e.g. Authorware MicroWorld e.g. Interactive Physics, WorldMaker Multimedia environments as cognitive tools e.g. Facedemo

7. Instructional Design

7.1. Behaviorism

7.1.1. Lamos (1984): center around B.F. Skinner & programmed instruction (PI)

7.1.2. Behaviorally oriented programmed instruction was task-based & developed stimulus-response chains of behavior

7.1.3. Softwares focus on skill building by observing & practicing the skill

7.1.4. Examples of drill & practice softwares: Math Blaster, Learn to speak Spanish, Numbers Munchers

7.2. Cognitivism

7.2.1. Lamos: programmed instruction (PI) was forced "toward the handling of the complexity of individual differences"

7.2.2. Technology focuses on thinking like a person, use animations to keep the learner's attention & use chunking to present information

7.2.3. Development of cognitively oriented computer-based learning, e.g. Intelligent tutoring, hypertext, hypermedia, expert systems, a design mechanism that emphasizes on content structure

7.3. Constructivism

7.3.1. Jonassen (1991): developing "mental construction toolkits" embedded in relevant learning environments that facilitate knowledge construction by learners "

7.3.2. Jonassen (1990): the use of cognitive & constructive 'mindtools' such as databases, hypermedia & expert systems

7.3.3. Sawyer (1992): envisions a virtual computer where it represents an access point to global resources for education

7.3.4. Learners use multimedia softwares to build knowledge through investigations & problem solving collaboratively with others

8. Use of Technology

8.1. Learning from Technology

8.1.1. Instructivist Model Drill & Practice Computer-based tutorials Intelligent tutorial systems Gange's 9-events of Instruction 1. Gain attention 2. Inform learner of objective 3. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge 4. Present the material 5. Provide guidance for learning 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance retention & transfer Reusable Learning Objects Teacher centered learning environment

8.2. Learning with Technology

8.2.1. Constructivist Models Student centered learning environment Technology as a tool in a learning activity Inquiries & problem solving Cognitive tools Online collaboration & knowledge building WebQuest & ActiveLesson Interactive Learning Objects

9. Education & Technology Integration

9.1. Scandura (1981): courseware developer requires three skills:

9.1.1. Content expertise

9.1.2. Computer expertise

9.1.3. Design expertise

9.2. Golub (1983): behaviorally based instruction seems most useful for clearly delineated content where the branching is constrained & learner responses are categorized as right or wrong

9.3. Cooper (1993): "a much stronger emphasis on applications that allow exploration, such as database management systems and expert systems, where the learner can interactively query the database; simulations where a model reality is explored; and 'virtual reality', an extension of the simulation idea which allows the user to physically interact with the application"

9.4. Current solution: the use of Web 2.0 technology

9.4.1. Cooper (1993): "when the applications require very powerful processing capabilities, it may make more sense to place just the user interface close to the user and utilize the network to deliver both data and processing resources"