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1. Sentence / utterance are linked together

2. Discourse and context

2.1. Context

2.1.1. Physical environment in which a word is used

2.1.2. Is the environment in which a discourse occurs

2.1.3. Classifications Linguistic context Context within the discourse Relationship between words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs 3 aspects Situational context Environment, time, place, relationship between participants 3 basic headings Cultural context Refers to the culture, customs, background in which speakers participate (social role, social status, sex, age)

2.1.4. Roles Eliminating ambiguity Indicating referents Detecting conversational implicature

2.2. Discourse

2.2.1. Cannot be understood without their conetxt

2.2.2. Emerge from the interaction between different social group

3. Discourse and text

3.1. Text

3.1.1. To express ideas and beliefs, to explain something, to get other people to do certain things or to think in a certain way

3.1.2. Do not contain meaning, but are used to mediate it across discourses

3.1.3. Is an obj that can be read, whether it is a work of literature, a lesson written on the blackboard or a street sign

3.1.4. Non-interactive

3.1.5. Focuses on the structure of written language

3.2. Discourse

3.2.1. Refer both to what a text producer means by a text and what a text means to the receiver

3.2.2. Refer to the whole act of communication involving production and comprehension Production = speaker + writer Comprehension = reader + listener

3.2.3. Is a continuous stretch of (especially spoken) language larger than a sentence

3.2.4. Discourse = text + situation Vb dựa vào ngữ cảnh cụ thể

3.2.5. Transaction between speaker and hearer

3.2.6. Focuses on the structure of naturally spoken language

4. Lexical density

4.1. Lexical density (%) = (Number of lexical words / Total number of words) x 100

4.1.1. Lexical density = Noun, Adj, Verb, Adv

4.2. Lexical density = Number of lexical items / Number of clauses

4.3. Definition: a measure of how much info there is in a particular piece of language

4.4. Lexical words are words carrying info

5. Discourse and language

5.1. Language

5.1.1. Functions Interactional: concerned with social relationships Transactional: concerned with the transmission of info

5.1.2. Differences between written and spoken language Spoken: more dynamic and immediate Written: can be revised and thought out more thoroughly, precise, well-ordered, more sophisticated

6. What is discourse analysis

6.1. Study the ways sentences and utterances go together to make texts and interactions and how those texts and interactions fit into our social world.

6.2. Help

6.2.1. Understand how the societies are put together and how they are maintained through activities of speaking, writing and other modes of communication

6.2.2. Understand why people interact with one another and how they exert power and influence over one another

6.2.3. Understand how people view reality differently

6.3. Is concerned with the study of the relationship between language and the context

6.4. A general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, signal language use or any significant semiotic event


7.1. Conversational implicature

7.1.1. Something must be more than just what the words mean (additional meaning)

7.1.2. The gap between what is literally said and what is conveyed

7.1.3. Converse in an maximally efficient, rational, cooperative way

7.1.4. Presupposition: what we have known before

7.1.5. Implicatures are inferences that can’t be made in isolated utterances. They are dependent on context of the utterance

7.2. The cooperative principle and its maxims

7.2.1. 4 basic maxims The maxim of quality Say what u believe to be true and u have adequate evidence for The maxim of quantity Contribution can’t be more or less informative than is required The maxim of relevance Make contribution relevant The maxim of manner Contribution must be perspicuous (ro rang) and specific

7.2.2. When maxims are violated, the implicature must be understood


8.1. Discourse Cohesion

8.1.1. Cohesive: Linking with a text that holds a text together and gives it meaning

8.1.2. A text is cohesive when the elements are tied together and considered meaningful to the reader

8.1.3. Devided into Grammatical cohesion Reference (Referential cohesion) Substitution Ellipsis Conjunction Lexical Cohesion Links among content words (noun, verbs, adjs, advs) It is non-grammatical Effect achieved by the selection of vocab Reiteration Collocation


8.2.1. Adjacency pairs The second utterance is identified as related to the first one as an expected follow-up Include Call/beckon -> response Complaint -> Excuse/Remedy Compliment -> Acceptance/refusal Degreeting -> Degreeting Inform -> Knowledge Greeting -> Greeting Offer -> Acceptance/Rejection Request -> Acceptance/Rejection

8.2.2. Insertion sequence A sequence of turns that intervenes between first and second parts of an adjacency pair

8.2.3. Preferred or dispreferred reponses A preferred response is a short acceptance without hesitation A dispreferred response is refusal and is usually performed hesitantly

8.2.4. Repairs Things done to fix a conversational breakdown and restore alignment Breakdown can be misunderstandings, disagreements, rejections, assessments, newsmarks, continuers, formulations, collaborative completions

8.2.5. Given and new Info New info Introduced for the first time Given info Has been already known to the reader or listener


8.3.1. In a clause, theme is the initial element, and rheme follows the theme

8.3.2. The theme is the point of departure of the message, is what the clause is concerned with

8.3.3. The rheme is the remainder of the message, provide info about the theme

8.3.4. 3 Types Topical themes info conveyed in the discourse Interpersonal Express the attitude of the speaker or readers Textual Link a clause to the rest of the discourse Ex: James went to steal in Mr.Brown field. James: Topical themes Went to steal...: rheme 1. Thematic fronting Often associated with syntactic inversion Occur when the theme is "marked" 2 types 2. Thematic progression When the theme in the following sentence stands for the one or a part of the rheme in the preceding sentence there is thematic progression

8.3.5. Rhetoric patterns (mẫu câu mang tính tu từ) Rhetoric relationship: cause-consequence, problem-solution, instrument-achievement

8.3.6. Grammatical devices Change the sequencing of the info in the text in acceptable way


8.4.1. Propositional A declarative sentence which describes some state of affairs (miêu tả trạng thái của vđ) Ex: Mary took the garbage out - Mary took out the garbage Sentence belongs to some particular language. However, propositions do not belong to any

8.4.2. Utterance Is a piece of language used by a particular speaker, on a particular occasion, for a particular purpose Could be sequence of sentences, a sentence, a word, phrase

8.4.3. Propositional analysis A single statement about some entity or event May contain a single or several propositions


9.1. Discourse coherence

9.1.1. Sentence are linked together

9.1.2. 2 types of connections Endophoric connections -> cohesion Which have their manifestation in the discourse itself Is not sufficient for constructing a coherent discourse Exophoric connections -> coherence Can be made based on information or knowledge outside the discourse Is distinguished from random sentences by the existence of certain text-forming and cohesive devices

9.2. Speech acts

9.2.1. Is an utterance as a functional unit in communication

9.2.2. We not only make propsistional statements but also fulfill functions

9.2.3. 6 functions / classifications Representative: hành động biểu hiện Describe a state of affairs - asserting, stating, claiming, affirming, making hypotheses, describing, predicting, reporting... Can be true or false Expressive: biểu cảm Indicate speaker's psychological state or feeling / attitude about sth - greeting, apologizing, complaining, thanking Directive: cầu khiến Get the listener to carry out an action - commanding, requesting, begging, warning, challenging, inviting, suggesting, giving, advice Rogative: Hỏi để lấy thông tin deal with requests for info and which is typically in form of a question Commissive: Cam kết Commit the speaker - promising, vowing, threatening, offering... Thương dùng future & simple present Declarative: Tuyên bố Change the words by bringing about or altering the state of affairs - dismissing, sentences, naming, announcing, declaring

9.2.4. 3 kinds of meaning Locutionary meaning (propositional meaning) Is literal meaning; the saying of something which is meaningful and can be understood Illocutionary meaning (Illocutionary force) To perfrom a function Perlocutionary act (hoạt động xuyên ngôn) -> thông qua 1, 2 => results The results or effects