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OCEB Fundamental by Mind Map: OCEB Fundamental
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OCEB Fundamental

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TIEXAMES

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Este mapa serve apenas para revisão dos principais tópicos antes do exame

Nem todo o conteúdo do curso elearning está contido aqui

A maioria das questões do exame pode ser respondida com este conteúdo

O conteúdo está em inglês (exame somente em inglês) e organizado conforme o curriculo do exame

Business Goals, Objectives

Typical Business Functions

Core (Principal), Finance, Ensure that money is available to operate the enterprise, Accounting, Tracks cash flow, counts revenues, expenses, etc, Operations, Produces the actual product or provides services, Marketing, Marketing monitoring, advertisement, product development, Information Systems, Selects, operates, and develops IT services, Sales, Sells the product to individual customers

Support, Human Resources, Recruits, hires, retains, and trains staff, Legal Department, Esures that laws are adhered to, provides legal and patent advice as well as legal representation, Facility Management, Manages and maintains buildings and facilities

Managers & competencies

Definition, Person who organizes, plans, supports, defines, and assesses the work of others

7 key competencies, Goal setting, Planning, Decision making, Delegation, Support, Communication, Controlling

Business Strategies

Means to the business end and must match the entreprise´s mission

Defines the direction into which and organization develops

Strategy Development Steps

Analyses the market enviroment

Divides the market into segments

Analyzes its strenghts and weakness

Sets objectives and plans the measures to be taken

Porter's Five Forces

Rivalry among competitors

Threats of new competitors/barriers to entry

Bargaining power of consumers/buyers

Threats of substitute products or services

Bargaining power of suppliers

STEP Analysis (or PEST analysis)

Sociological/Demographic factors

Technological factors

Economic factors

Political factors

Market Segmentation

Subdivided a market into small, manageable segments

SWOT Analysis

Strengths

Weakness

Opportunities

Threats

Marketing concepts

Definitions, Is the market-oriented realization of enterprise goals and alignment of the entire enterprise in the market, Is the process in the economic and social structure that individual and groups uses to meet their requirements

Process elements, Market segmentation, Market research, Placement, Strategy developement, Pricing, Value chain

Value chain, Represents a collection of activities that are performed to design, produce, market, deliver, and support its products., Consist of inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, service, infrastructure, human resources, technology, Example

Projects

Is an undertaking with limited timeframes and budget to delivery clearly results

Is undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives

Project Management

Is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a set of activities to meet a specified objective

Group of processes, Initiation, Planning, Executing, Controlling, Closing

Financial concepts

Cost types, Fixed costs, Are constant within a specific period of time and are independent of the production volume, Examples, Car insurance, Rent of a room, Variable costs, Are costs that vary if the production volume changes, Examples, raw material, Overhead costs, Can be allocated only INDIRECTLY to a cost unit (product, service), Examples, Electricity, Water

Working capital, the amount that enable a company meet its obligations, Includes the money in bank accounts and in cash register, stocks, sellable stocks, and receivables

Return on Investiment (ROI), How cost-effective is something for the capital invested

Analysis methods, Break-even analysis, point at which sales revenue equals production costs, Decision trees, allows us to evaluate different choices

Business Processes (BP) Concepts

Business Process (BP)

Definitions, Series of steps designed to produce a product or service, Coherent set of activities carried out by a collaborating group to achieve a goal

Main characteristics of a BP, Business process are complex, according to Howard Smith e Peter Fingar (Book The Third Wave), Number of branches makes a process complex, Ability to change, Because enterprises have to adapts to changes in market

Main BP elements, Roles, Processes are oriented toward roles and not toward individuals, Persons are actors in the processes, Employees and customers have roles in a process, Process steps, Activities executed by the roles, Business rules, something that must be adhered when a process is executed, Includes organizational policies and standards

Discovering BPs

Goal, To detect implicit knowledge about as-is processes and make it explicit

Business Process Analysis (PBA), Serves to discover weakness and enables as-is/to-be comparisons

Roles envolved, Sponsor, Setup a PBA project, assumes responsability for it and specifies goals, Subject Matter Experts (SME), Who provide the process content, Process Analysts, Who control and implement the methodologies of PBA

Degrees of abstraction

Descriptive modeling, Maps BP in a high level of detail (compact information), Provides an overview of the process, Consist of simple diagrams, Ideal to communicate BP across organization units, simple diagrams are easier to understand

Analytical modeling, Variants and exceptions of the BP are described here, Can be use to analyze the effectiveness of processes, Level that IT department requires to create an implementation

Executable modeling, Means that the model itself is executable and can be directly used for automating the BP, Requires a lot of details, Could be represented in BPMN or other languages

BP Management Concepts

Total Quality Management (TQM)

The initial ideas were developed by William Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, and Kaoru Ishikawa em 1940

Principles, Management by process because quality issues often arise there, Analysis of process deviations because uncontrolled deviations are the main cause of quality issues, Quality improvement projects, which should work on a solid data basis about the process, Quality improvement, which is a continuous process

Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

Was initiated by an article by Thomas Davenport and James R and other article by Michael Hammer

IT is key enabler of BPM

Approach more radical

Process-focused organization

Business processes are orthogonal to this structure

Alignment along business processes is referred as horizontal structure

Concentring on the horizontal structure may have the disadvantage that functional expertise is duplicated

Process owner, Assist in desing of process, Primarily responsible for process performance

SOA

Service-oriented architecture (SOA)

The aim is to create a platform that removes the business processes from any dependencies on the technology and applications.

BPMS

Business Process Management System

Is a collection of IT applications that supports and measures the business process

Facilitates the integration of data in back-end systems

Systems Thinking

Means to consider the system as a whole

All parts, their connections, and interactions are taken into account

Business Modeling

BMM

Business Motivation Model (BMM)

Created by Business Rules Group (BRG) and now is mantained by OMG

Provides a structure for defining and developing a business plan

BMM elements, End, Vision, Future image of the enterprise, Desirable state, Example, Become a renowned company in Brazil for elearning courses, Desired Result, Goals and objectives describe some kind of desired result, Goal, Describes a long-term goal that must be achieved to amplify the vision, Example, Achieve high compentency in training, Objective, Quantify a Goal, Should be SMART, Example, At the end of next year, 80% of our regular students evaluate our training compentency with 9 or better on a scale of 10, Means, What are necessary to achieve the Ends, Mission, Describes what an enterprise does to achieve a vision, Example, We offer elearning courses to invididuals enabling them to pass on exams, Course of Action, Strategies and Tatics support any desired results, Strategy, Supports any desired results (goals and objectives), Examples, We increasingly publishing new elearning courses, Establish a partnership with a renowned university, Tatic, Implement the strategies, Describes a very concrete action toward a strategy, Examples, Hire new authors to develop courses in new areas, Establish a partnership with London university to develop business courses, Directive, Govern any number of courses of action and support any number of desired resultds (goals or objectives), Business Policy, Tends to be less structured, Tt is not directly actionable, Example, To provide high-quality customer support, Business Rule, Tends to be more structured, Provide specific, actionable governance, Example, Only certified trainers with more then 5 years of expirience should be hired, Influencer, Which influencers the enterprise is exposed, Current trends in the market, Activities by competitors, Employees´ attitude, Influencers can shape the others elements of a business plan, Can be external ou internal, Could be an events that ocurred on the market, Example: The price of fuel has increased in the last month, Could be facts or habits, Example: Managers are always recruited from within the organization, Its something neutral without an assessment, Assessment, The presence of qualitative words indicates a statement about an Influencer, Judges the impact of the influencer on the end or means of the enterprise, SWOT analysis is used for this, Example, The rising price of fuel in recent months is forcing a transportation company to increase the price of service

BP Modeling Concepts

BPMN

Provide a standardized graphical notation for modeling BPs

Can be mapped to executable XML-based process language as BPEL4WS

Flow objects

Activities, generic term for work that company performs, Types, Task, Represent the work into the process, Subprocess, Is a compound activity that is included within a process, Pools and lanes cannot exists inside, Collapsed view, Expanded view

Events, Something that “happens” during the course of a business process., Types, Start, Indicates where a particular process will start, Intermediate, Occurs between a Start Event and an End Event, End, Indicates where a process will end

Gateways, Used to control the divergence and convergence of Sequence Flow, Types

Connecting Objects

Sequence Flow, Show the order that activities will be performed in a process, Connect flow objects, Never used to connect elements in separated pools (for this use Message Flow)

Message Flow, Show the flow of messages between two participants (pools), Never used to connect elements into the same pool

Association, Associate (connect) information with Flow Objects, Text and Data Objects can be associated with Flow Objects, Example of use

Swimlanes

Pool, Represents a Participant in a Process, Pool without objects = Black box, Pool with objects inside = White box

Lane, Sub-partition visual within a Pool

Artifacts

Data Object, Represent information used or produced, Connected to flow object using the Association, Example of use

Group, Visual mechanism to group elements of a diagram, Has no effect on process execution

Annotation, Mechanism for a modeler to provide additional information for the reader

BP Modeling Skills

Types of models created using BPMN

Private (internal) business processes, Internal to a specific organization, If Swimlanes are used, then a private business process will be contained within a single Pool, Example, Sem título

Abstract (public) processes, Represents the interactions between a private business process and another process or participant, Only those activities that are used to communicate outside the private business process, plus the appropriate flow control mechanisms, are included in the abstract process, The external participant pool doens´t show the activities (is a black box), Example, Sem título

Collaboration (global) Processes, Depicts the interactions between two or more business entities, Can be shown as two or more abstract processes communicating with each other, Every pool shows activities considered the “touch-points” (are white boxes), Example

Subprocesses

Types of standard markers

Could be used as a Parallel box, Expanded Sub-Process may be used as a mechanism for showing a group of parallel activities, Does not include a Start Event or an End Event and the Sequence Flow to/from these Events, No marker is shown, All activities inside are executed in parallel, Example

Ad-hoc, The activities within an Ad Hoc Process are not controlled or sequenced in a particular order, their performance is determined by the performers of the activities., Shall be marked with a "tilde", Example

Events

Start, Indicates where a particular process will start, is OPTIONAL when doesn´t exist any End Event, If there is an End Event, then there MUST be at least one Start Event, If no Start Event is not used, then all the starting Flow Objects will start at the same time, There MAY be multiple Start Events for a given Process level, Each Start Event is an independent event.

End, Indicates where a process will end, Will not have any outgoing Sequence Flow, There MAY be multiple End Events within a single level of a process, is OPTIONAL when doens´s exist any Start Event, If there is a Start Event, then there MUST be at least one End Event., If the End Event is not used, then all Flow Objects that do not have any outgoing Sequence Flow mark the end of a path in the Process. However, the process MUST NOT end until all parallel paths have completed.

Intermediate, Indicates where something happens (an Event) somewhere between the Start and End of a Process, Basic events, Message, Receive (cacth), Wait for the message within the main flow, Send (Trow), Send a message to another participant (pool), Timer, If used within the main flow it ALWAYS acts as a DELAY mechanism, When attached to the activity represent an EXCEPTION

Gateways

Data-Based Exclusive, Alternatives based on the boolean expression, “X” inside is OPTIONAL, Only one of the paths can be taken, Example, Sem título

Event-Based Exclusive, Alternatives are based on events that occurs, Only one of the paths can be taken, TaskType Receive, Message, Timers and others Intermediate Events could be used as alternatives, Example, Sem título

Inclusive, Alternatives are based on conditional expressions, Each path is independent, all combinations of the paths may be taken, Two forms, Using collection of conditional Sequence Flow, Using an Inclusive Gateway, When the Inclusive Gateway is used as a Merge, it will synchronize all Tokens that have been produced upstream

Parallel, Is optional to create a parallel flow, Is used for synchronizing parallel flow, Wait for all tokens

Frameworks

Process Frameworks

PFC, Process Classification Framework (PFC), Created by American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC), Categorizes a wide range of processes, Serve as basis to assess processes in a enterprise, obtain best practices, otimize a process, Organized hierarchically, 5 operating processes, 7 Management and support services, Figure, Structure, Process categories > Process groups > Processes > Activities, Example of structure

SCOR, Supply Chain Operations Reference Model (SCOR), Created by Supply Chain Council (SCC), Hierarchical reference model for supply chain processes, Defines business processes, dependencies between processes, metrics, and best practices, Comprises 5 management processes, Plan, Source, Make, Deliver, Return, The process chain goes from the suppliers´suppliers, to the enterpise considered, to the customers´customers, Image Structure

VRM, Value Reference Model (VRM), Created by Value Chain Group, Addresses the planning, governing, and execution of value chains, Describes reference processes on three process level, Strategic Processes, Tactical Processes, Operational Processes

Quality Frameworks

Basic Concepts, Quality, Means to meet the customer´s requirements

BPMM, Business Process Maturity Model, Maintained by OMG, Similar to CMMI, Follow the principles of Watts Humphrey, Who developed the first maturity model at SEI(Software Engineering Institute), There are 5 maturity levels, 1 - Initial, 2 - Managed, 3 - Standardized, 4 - Predictable, 5 - Inovative, Appraisal teams, Who determine whether businesses processes of an enterprise comply with maturity level of BPMM, Consist of an external team leader and team members, Some of them could work for the enterprise appraised

Six Sigma, Is a methodology for quality improvvement, Developed by Motorola in the mid-1980s, Comprise five steps named DMAIC, Define the improvement goals, Measure the current process, Analyze the process, Improve the process, Control the changed process, A process with Six Sigma has 3.4 DPMO (Defects per Million Opportunities), Means that only 3.4 defective results exist in one million opportunities, Uses Controls Charts to monitor the process output, Example of Graph

ISO 9000, Specify a set of guidelines for quality improvements, ISO 9001 certification does not certify products or service, certify only the quality management system

Regulations and Governance Frameworks

Basel II, Regulations for the banking and financials area, Created by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, Consist of 3 pillars, Minimum capital requirements, Supervisory review and evaluation process, Advanced information disclosure; for example, owner´s equity structure

SOX, Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), Was created by USA after accounting scandals of the U.S. companies Eron and Worldcom, The goal is ensure the correctness and reliability of published financial data of enterpreses whose stocks are dealt on the U.S. stock exchanges

COBIT, Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology, Developed by ISACA and ITGI, Comprises a range of best practices for IT Governance and Management, Defines 34 IT processes and 210 control objectives, Can be used in the enviroment of SOX and Basell II implementations

Management Frameworks

BSC, Balanced Scorecard (BSC), Developed by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton, Used as basis for strategic planning, The scorecards are subdivides in 4 perspectives, Financial, Customer, Internal, Learning and growth, Help to identify Key Performance Indicator (KPIs), Business metric that measures the degree of fulfillment of a goal or Critical Success Factor (CSF)