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Gamification by Mind Map: Gamification

1. 1. What is Gamification

1.1. 1.1 Introduction

1.1.1. gamification is about learning from games understanding what makes the game successful

1.1.2. Samsung Nation leaderboards badges point systems samsung wants you to spend time on their website so you buy more of their products

1.2. 1.2 Course Overview

1.2.1. what you'll get out of the course what is gamification why it might be valuable how to do it effectively some specific applications

1.3. 1.3 Definition of Gamification

1.3.1. the use of game elements and game design technqiues in non-game contextx

1.3.2. game elements toolbox points leaderboards quests resource collection avatars social graph progression levels rewards badges challenges teams and their peer pressure

1.3.3. game design technqiues also artistic, experiential

1.3.4. non-game context some objective other than success in the game you're playing because of business, school, social impact, personal improvement what you're doing may be game-like but the purpose has some validity independently of the experience of the game

1.4. 1.4 Why Study Gamification

1.4.1. make everyday business tasks more engaging

1.5. 1.5 History of Gamification

1.5.1. Serious Games Initiative

1.6. 1.6 Examples and Categories

1.6.1. External Marketing Sales Customer engagement

1.6.2. Internal HR Productivity enhancement Crowdsourcing

1.6.3. Behavior change Health and wellness Sustainability Personal finance

2. 2. Games

2.1. 2.1 Gamification in Context

2.1.1. gamification is not making everything a game or an immersive 3D virtual world you stay in your context, but improve the experience there through game elements and game design techniques

2.1.2. gamification is not any games in the workplace like Windows Solitaire rather find tasks that are boring and make them fun

2.1.3. gamification is not any use of games in business like Monopoly at McDonald's

2.1.4. gamification is not simulations although they may constitute serious games

2.1.5. gamification is not just for marketing or customer engagement, just about PBLs points badges leaderboards

2.1.6. gamification is not game theory set of algorithms, formulas, quantitative techniques for analysing strategic decision making "Prisoner's dilemma" more about defining formal models

2.1.7. gamification IS listening to what games can teach us learning from game design (and psychology, management, marketing, economics) appreciating fun

2.1.8. Sebastian Deterding's classification whold <=> partial whole game / artifacts partial games / artifacts / parts play <=> game play ... pure, exuberant fun, release of energy games ... rules, structure, winning or losing play & whole ==> toys play & partial ==> playful design game & whole ==> serious games games & partial ==> gamification

2.2. 2.2 What is a Game?

2.2.1. Wittgenstein: it is impossible to define what a game is

2.2.2. precise, comprehensive definition winning <=> losing

2.2.3. Bernard Suits: Grasshoppers Pre-lusory Goal in any game there is some objective in a 400m race, the "pre-lusory goal" is simply to get from A to B Constituve Rules a set of rules that make the activity to a game <=> just some work objective Lusory Attitude a game-like attitude the players follow the rules voluntarily no cheating the game means something to the players, therefore they want to follow the rules a game = voluntarily overcoming unnecessary obstacles

2.2.4. Huizinga: Homo Ludens The Magic Circle in a game there is a virtual boundary divides the world of the game from the real world the game is different within the magic circle, the game rules matter, not the rules of the real world if we think that the game matters the challenge of gamification: put the player as much as possible into the magic circle such that the player feels that the game matters and therefore he likes to play it and stick to the rules

2.3. 2.3 Games and Play

2.3.1. Roger Callois Paidia latin for "play" Friedrich Schiller: "Play is the aimless expenditure of exuberant energy" George Santayana: "Play is whatever is done spontaneously and for its own sake" Lev Yvgotskyy: "play creates a zone of proximal development of the child. In play a child always behaves beyond his average age." Katie Salen & Eric Zimmerman: "Play is free movement within a more rigid structure" play is freedom, doing whatever you want - within some circle Ludus latin for "game" Tracy Fullerton, Chris Swain, Steven Hoffman: "A game is a closed, formal system that engages players in a structured conflict, and resolves in an unequal outcome" Sid Meier: "A game is a series of meaningful choices" Thomas Mallaby: "A game is a ... domain of contrived contingency that generates interpretable outcomes" Jesse Schell: "A game is a problem-solving activity, approached with a playful attitude" fundamental difference games: choices that lead to outcomes with the goal to get from a start and a finish plays: within some boundaries, do whatever you want things from work / school / social life / interaction with government or businesses game-like play-like

2.3.2. Voluntariness choices are voluntary "whoever must play, cannot play"

2.3.3. Learning (= play) or problem solving (= game)

2.3.4. balance of structure (= game) and exploration (= play)

2.4. 2.4 Video Games

2.4.1. games industry has 66 billion USD worldwide

2.4.2. China is now the largest online gaming market

2.4.3. virtual goods: 7.3 billion globally (2 billion in the US)

2.4.4. 44% if US/UK adults have played a mobile game in the last month

2.4.5. Angry Birds: 100 mio unique users per month, 12 billion minutes played per month

2.4.6. 97% of kids 12-17 play videogames

2.4.7. the average game player is 30 years old, 37% are older than 35

2.4.8. 47% of all game players are women

2.5. 2.5 It's Just a Game?

2.5.1. analytics A/B testing all the time change based on gathered data to make it more effective

2.5.2. cloud

2.5.3. mobile

2.5.4. leveraging the social graph

2.5.5. loyalty programs

2.5.6. organizational behaviour

2.5.7. work design

2.5.8. marketing research

2.5.9. reality gets into games first-person shooter from the US army is the most effective recruiting tool

2.5.10. Games get real Julian Dibbell: "Play Money" how I quit my day job and struck it rich in virtual loot farming 100-400,000 WoW players in China make their living

3. 3. Game Thinking

3.1. 3.1 Why Gamify

3.1.1. to achieve serious results in the real world

3.1.2. example dodgeball chicken-and-egg-situation bought by Google foursquare original founder of dodgeball took same idea and gamified dodgeball already was social - so no need to improve concept of mayorship social sharing leveling up success

3.2. 3.2 Thinking Like a Game Designer

3.2.1. viewing your business problem like a game designer without having to be a game designer sound story telling without having to be a gamer who doesn't think too much about the structure of the game => you need to think about which components you have to fit together to bring the experience

3.2.2. Jesse Schell: Book of Lenses five words I am a Game Designer it's a state of mind we all have designed games in our childhood

3.2.3. Your Participants (= users of gamified systems) as Players customers, employees, community, target population consumers just consume costumers are slightly more active guests are "just invited" players are the center of a game the game evolves around the player players feel a sense of autonomy / control think about how to give them choices that are meaningful that lead to outcomes/results their free will is exercised players play free-motion within a set of constraints

3.2.4. Goal: 1. get your players playing 2. keep them playing not "how do I trick them" they need to engage for an extended period of time

3.3. 3.3 Design Rules

3.3.1. The Player Journey not just a random walk have a beginning, a middle, and an end, in some sort of progression Onboarding Scaffolding Pathways to Mastery example: Plants vs. Zombies level 1 onboarding and scaffolding makes a quite complex story easy for everyone balance not too hard, not too easy not too many choices, not too few choices not too easy for one, too hard for others game needs to be balanced at every stage if you want to encourage people to do something example: Monopoly numbers / prices need to be properly ordered inject just enough money at each round example: gamify the experience

3.4. 3.4 Tapping the Emotions

3.4.1. What makes games engaging? => the emotional component of the experience because they are fun makes us want to start playing makes us want to keep playing

3.4.2. Mary Poppins "In every job that must be done, there is an element of fun. You find the fun and snap! The job's a game." even in things that you have to do not just in entertainment not just in recreation also in work, social behaviour change, etc.

3.4.3. What things are fun? categories of emotions / experiences that you think of as fun when children ask you something how children behave when something unexpected happens when we chat / interact with each other when something is out of the norm when people act on purpose to highlight some stubbornness winning problem-solving overcoming obstacles exploring just finding something new chilling lying on a beautiful beach, relaxing teamwork we enjoy achieving a goal as a team recognition like winning but someone else tells you that you did a good job triumphing similar to winning you win, someone else looses this feeling may be stronger collecting put individual things into collections assemble a bunch of things surprise some novelty, something that we didn't expect => dopamine is released imagination daydreaming thinking about ideas sharing being altruistic giving money to charity role playing we love trying on roles inhabiting another character customization to be able to make something individually goofing off just letting it all hang out exploring the opportunity to just be silly

3.5. 3.5 Anatomy of Fun - Understanding Fun

3.5.1. Nicole Lazzaro's 4 Keys specialized on emotion in games what in games actually produces fun 4 keys 4 different kinds of fun, general categories 1. easy fun 2. hard fun 3. people fun 4. serious fun those categories are not mutually exclusive, a game can fall into more categories => don't just make a game casual

3.5.2. Marc Leblanc's 8 Kinds of Fun 1. sensation 2. fantasy 3. narrative 4. challenge 5. fellowship 6. discovery 7. expression 8. submission casual kind of fun, pastime

3.5.3. Raph Koster: A Theory of Fun for Game Design

3.5.4. takeaways fun can (and should) be designed fun doesn't just happen use less electricity spend more time on website => you need to design expressly for that fun can be challenging! not always easy, simple, purely positive can be hard, serious appeal to different kinds of fun look to exploit as many kinds as possible, don't just focus on one

3.6. 3.6 Finding the Fun

3.6.1. sometimes in unexpected places

3.6.2. speeding competition if you speed, you'll have to pay a fine if you aren't speeding you participate in a lottery where some part of that money is then given away again

3.6.3. example Volkswagen's piano stairs LinkedIn fill out a profile if the profile it's filled out completely, it's more valuable to LinkedIn how to make it fun?

4. 4. Game Elements

4.1. 4.1 Breaking Games Down

4.1.1. game elements your toolbox regular patterns tools that we can extract from games use in different way to make business practices more game like examples points quests resource collections avatars social graph progression levels tic-tac-toe what are the regular patterns, the pieces of the game? my guess his list diagram experiences at the top game in the middle elements at the bottom

4.2. 4.2 The Pyramid of Gamification Elements

4.2.1. pyramid framework (for game elements) dynamics the big-picture aspects, the "grammar" a few examples mechanics the processes that drive action forward, the "verbs" more examples components specific instantiations of mechanics and dynamics, the "nouns" a lot examples

4.2.2. around that pyramid is the experience the whole is greater than the sum of the parts aesthetics visual experience sound

4.2.3. MDA framework (from LeBlanc) mechanics dynamics aesthetics "fun" in the gamification lecture

4.3. 4.3 The PBL Triad

4.3.1. some game elements are more influential they serve more functions than others

4.3.2. PBL points to keep score to determine win states to connect to rewards to provide feedback to display progress to provide data for the game designer they are fungible badges are representations of achievement they are flexible they have a (graphical) style they signal importance they function as credentials they can support collections they show social status, they are status symbols Mozilla Open Badge Framework leaderboards they are about ranking ubiquituous in video games danger: if you have 555 and the leader has 127,000,000, you'll not feel good or competent about your score personalized leaderboard real danger: leaderboards have been shown to demotivate

4.3.3. example Samsung Nation

4.4. 4.4 Limitations of Elements

4.4.1. game elements are a starting point for gamification

4.4.2. big problem with gamification just throwing some game elements onto a business problem makes it fun and engaging but there's more hard work

4.4.3. the elements are not the game the game is the thing between the experience and the elements the elements need to all be tied together to make them successful

4.4.4. not all rewards are fun, not all fun is rewarding there's a tendency to over-emphasize rewards rewards can actually de-motivate cash prize can make them engage less

4.4.5. if you just put in PBL, it's going to look much like all other gamified apps the cookie-cutter-approach doesn't work

4.4.6. bad example Google News Badges as you read news articles, depending on the subject areas, you get badges the badges suddenly pop up from the user's point of view those badges don't drive business value for Google

4.4.7. while the elements are useful and a good starting point, they are not the game itself meaningful choices decide 1 time <=> hundreds of times what a video over here or do something else at another place the more meaningful a choice is, the better puzzles challenges are not necessarily puzzles clicking 1,000 times is more effort, but it's not challenging, no puzzle, no thought involved => if it feels like a puzzle, it's more powerful mastery if you can get a bunch of badges, when would you know that you're a master? => if you can truly master a skill, you have stronger emotions community social interactions are tremendously powerful just go and collect things is less powerful different kinds of users if there's just one kind of structure, it won't pull in people with different motivations or conceptions of fun

4.5. 4.5 Bing Gordon

4.5.1. formerly chief creative officer of EA (electronic arts)

4.5.2. major advocat for gamification "every CEO should understand gamification" people now see life as games game design principles come from communication and motivation theory so get more effective with customers and employees positive effect of instant feedback instant, tangible feedback (like in a game) is powerful there's no books on game principles learn through playing great games 1,000 hours on WoW hundreds of achievements on xbox live game makers tend to borrow breakthroughs from one another two mistakes premier motivation of games is winning competition put efforts on high score listing/ranking encrease engagement is more important is Zynga just a fad? play is a great accelerator of human culture gamification is a fun way to apply communication theory you have to have great fails you have to have great villains games are polarizing kids now grow up with numbers everywhere, on all surfaces of games and products where's the room for competitive advantage innovations grow a whole new market the kids that have grown up digital think if you can learn more effectively with gamification, they will want it

5. 5. Psychology and Motivation (I)

5.1. 5.1 Gamification as Motivational Design

5.1.1. understand gamification through psychology

5.1.2. motivation - you are moved to do something

5.1.3. people don't know / understand why they do something reasons may not be understood reasons may be counterintuitive

5.1.4. pick some task that you might want someone to do think about 4 different ways to motivate a person to do the task ask for help offer help in return (barter) explain why it's important to me explain why it may be important for the other explain how it can beneficial for others

5.1.5. Mayor League Baseball collect badges by watching baseball games

5.1.6. "we don't need no stinking badges"

5.1.7. when reflecting on a gamified system what motivates is it the right kind of motivation is it enough

5.1.8. motivation is different we are not all motivated by the same thing we are not motivated by the same thing all time

5.1.9. how to sell more computers Apple Store people shall come in, hang around and browse people shall get familiar with the computers let's create a lounge experience several people are there to help you

5.2. 5.2 Behaviorism

5.2.1. behaviorism <=> cognitivism look at behavior, looking externally what people do mental states, what's internally going on in people's heads

5.2.2. behaviorism emotions, feelings, thoughts in people's brains - are not scientifically testable let's restrict ourselves to the black-box whatever is inside cannot be inspected or tested what goes in and what goes out can be inspected stimulus something gets done from the outside something happens externally that creates a reaction in the subject response the behavior in response to the stimulus classical conditioning - Pawlow's dog instinctive association between stimulus and response operand conditioning - Skinner stimulus and response with learning through feedback subject sees the consequence of the action box-experiment with a rat when I consciously do something, I experience a consequence of my action severe limitations behavioral economics learnings from behaviorism observation feedback loops reinforcement

5.2.3. cognitivism

5.3. 5.3 Behaviorism in Gamification

5.3.1. 1. look at what people actually DO don't try to understand their mental states even more since people don't always behave as you think they should empirical research helps us to understand which biases we actually have (even if we think that we have none) example: speed camera lottery people slow down by 10% by just having speed signs

5.3.2. 2. focus on feedback example: profile completion on XING with progress bar immediate reaction on what you're doing, without having to wait for the end of the process

5.3.3. 3, consequences can create results because they condition people people learn to associate certain results from what happens example: crops wither if you don't water them FarmVille created an appointment mechanic people know that they have to come back at a certain time interval that creates this "draw"

5.3.4. 4. reinforcement through rewards example: badges people see that they get the badge after the action at least some people come back for more and more give some benefit (even if it's not tangible or worth any money) but in the pyramid of elements rewards are just one game mechanic achievements, badges, boss fights, collections, content unlocking, leaderboards, levels, points, quests, virtual goods all those game elements tie in to rewards

5.3.5. The Dopamine System example: Samsung Nation dopamine is associated with pleasure and it's important for learning valuable, surprising things give you dopamine e.g. if you get a badge by surprise

5.3.6. behaviorism in gamification is focused on creating rewards that maximize the engagement based on dopamine release and the addictive quality

5.4. 5.4 Reward Structures

5.4.1. many different things can be rewarded see FourSquare first check in 10 / 25 / 50 check ins checking in every day being part of a swarm think about what can be rewarded what behavior shall be incentiviced what options shall there be to make it more engaging

5.4.2. different categories of rewards cognitive evaluation theory typology of rewards example: Samsung Nation example: WoW

5.5. 5.5 Reward Schedules

5.5.1. when a reward is offered structure of reward schedule is important for psychological reaction

5.5.2. continuous reward you get a reward each time, automatically, for every incident of an action => least interesting to the user

5.5.3. fixed ratio reward if the activity happens a certain number of times, every n number of times, you get a reward => the brain picks up on the pattern => less psychological effect

5.5.4. fixed interval reward based on time, not based on number of activities => the brain picks up on the pattern => less psychological effect

5.5.5. variable i.e. on no fixed schedule => most interesting, since our brains love surprises identify movement take a closer look at something that is slightly different

5.5.6. example: Samsung Nation quest badge as a reward fixed interval badge for number of visits fixed ratio, since it happens every x times

5.5.7. variability competitive <=> non-competitive winning a contest beating someone head to head in a virtual duel certain <=> uncertain depending on how certain the reward is once the trigger happens, you're still not sure to get the reward

5.5.8. examples: one-arm bandit / slot machine variable reward schedule makes it addictive it's important that the reward comes just often enough => the person holds out that hope

5.5.9. beware: addiction may be harmful to people since they cannot make good judgements any more

6. 6. Psychology and Motivation (II)

6.1. 6.1 Limits of Behaviorism

6.1.1. be systematic and scientific!

6.1.2. feedback loops can systematically modify people's behavior

6.1.3. behaviorism leaves out a lot example: speeding camera lottery why do people slow down when they see the speed sign? what does the lottery change?

6.1.4. modifying people's behavior through reward/punishment systems scares people see socialism and fascism

6.1.5. if you take a purely behaviorism approach, you consider the person as a black box, not as a human being, as a player

6.2. 6.2 Dangers of Behaviorism

6.2.1. potential for abuse / manipulation systems that are designed to make people to do things (even if they don't want to do those things) => see the slot-machine and how addictive it is users shall not feel pushed pushing <=> delighting customers

6.2.2. hedonic treadmill hedonism = pleasure based on fun once you start focusing on giving rewards to people, people expect you to keep doing it people will only respond if the reward is there and you won't change people's behavior in general certain rewards may become boring => continuous burden on game designer monkey example monkey love the grape juice the monkey also learnt to hear some tone 2 seconds before the grape juice the monkeys got the dopamine when the tone went off, no longer when the got the grape juice brains are good at recognizing patterns the signal that tells you "the reward is coming", triggers the dopamine the brains are always trying to figure out the system one the pattern is clear, it's no longer fun, since it's then expected and no surprise any more

6.2.3. overemphasis on status status is powerful, even if it's not tangible example: mileage plus (or other frequent flyer or royalty programs) better seats board first special card special access to the lounge but people don't chase status all the time also social reasons also altruism reasons

6.3. 6.3 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

6.3.1. opening the black box - "what is going on in there?"

6.3.2. if we start to think in a cognitivist way, we start to distinguish different kinds of motivations and rewards

6.3.3. intrinsic motivation you do a thing for its own sake not for an external stimulus you find it fun, exciting, rewarding I want the thing, I'm not going for the consequences, the rewards

6.3.4. extrinsic motivation you do something for some reasons other than the thing itself money, fame and fortune, value you put in a person it's about the reward, not the thing itself

6.3.5. extrinsic rewards - SAPS (Zichermann) Status we'll get value and respect from other people leaderboards Access we'll get access to something other people don't have answering a lot of questions on a forum will give access to a room just for moderators also content unlocking in games Power we'll be enabled to do something that others can't do with a certain number of posts, you'll get the moderator right to edit posts in a forum Stuff tangible rewards => it's more advantageous to do higher-up rewards, since they are more powerful rather give status than tangible rewards => status is more powerful than others (but is it always that case?)

6.3.6. for any gamification elements ask yourself where do they fit? are they intrinsic or extrinsic?

6.4. 6.4 How Rewards Can De-Motivate

6.4.1. you don't want to give out rewards that leaves people less motivated than they were before

6.4.2. extrinsic motivators can crowd out the intrinsic motivation that was already there you focus more on chasing extrinsic rewards the reward substitutes for the intrinsic motivation "over-justification effect" studies confirm drawing day care picking blood donation teacher salaries Studies are generally limited to "interesting" tasks interest in a task is individual and contextual tasks that require creativity, thought, etc. - are considered interesting reward types do matter

6.5. 6.5 Self-Determination Theory

6.5.1. comrehensive study of human motivation

6.5.2. motivational spectrum A motiation you have no motivation you're indifferent to an activity extrinsic motivators from external regulation from introjection from identification from integration intrinsic motivation you simply love the activity you don't need something external to want to do it, you do it because it's fun the activitiy is worthwhile in and of itself

6.5.3. push more towards approaches that utilize intrinsic motivators => find the fun in the activity

6.5.4. what does it take for intrinsic motivation competence the person's sense of ability accomplishing something solving problems surmounting obstacles achieving something autonomy the person feels he's in control it's me doing it by my meaningful choice relatedness your activity is connected to something beyond yourself meaning and purpose "using less energy which is good for the planet" social interaction, doing something with friends

6.5.5. example: game elements can be one or the other (intrinsic or extrinsic) Fitocracy work out and get in shape PBL elements activity is achieving something / you're mastering something several choices strong social element

6.5.6. books Daniel Pink: Drive Rigby, Ryan: Glued to Games applying self-determination theory to video games how video games can activate the three motivators (competence, autonomy, relatedness)

6.6. 6.6 First Half Wrap-Up

6.6.1. first half frameworks and concepts what gamification is what games are game thinking (intersection of the two) psychology and motivation => as fundamental building blocks

6.6.2. second half applications how to put the concepts into practice design (frameworks and processes) application in specific domains risks and dangers evolution of gamification

7. 7. Gamification Design Framework

7.1. 7.1 Design Process Framework

7.1.1. design is a general approach to addressing challenges a process of attacking problems

7.1.2. design thinking see IDEO company purposive, i.e. it has a goal trying to achieve some objective human-centered it's designed around people everything is based upon the person you always have to think about the experience it's real people the experience of the player is not the experience of the designer balance of analytical and creative abductive reasoning: intference from best availalbe explanation not just numbers, analytical formulas but also creativity and innovation vaguer kinds of frameworks or just individual examples to find patterns iterative prototyping and playtesting we're not going to be right the first time trying, failing, learning, trying again doing the same thing mulsiple times, but improving from iteration to iteration you start with a rough version, a rough prototype imrprove based on real experience from real users Gamification Design Framework D6

7.2. 7.2 Define Business Objectives and Delineate Target Behaviors

7.2.1. 1. Business objectives what is it for? e.g. get people to accumulate points and badges but the badges are only valuable to the company if it gets the people to buy more products or to post positive feedback on the website => stepping stones to something else revenue behavior change e.g. goals of FourSquare goals social sharing influencer marketing how to catalog the goals? 1. list them (as specificly as possible) and rank possible objectives 2. eliminate the stepping stones (like collecting badges), the means to ends 3. justify the objectives (short explanation), start to see the relationships among the objectives

7.2.2. 2. Target behaviors the things you want the users to do advice be specific figure out the success metrics ("win states" in gamer terms) for achieving the goals of the gamified systems what are the analytics

7.3. 7.3 Describe Your Players

7.3.1. demographics age income level

7.3.2. psychographics what do you know about their behavior what do they like to buy what do they like to do

7.3.3. starting points is general things that you know about your players

7.3.4. more interesting: what motivates them

7.3.5. Bartle MMOG Player Type Model by Richard Bartle (University of Essex) MMOG ... massivly multiplayer online game two-by-two matrix players <=> world acting <=> interacting with those things Achievers want to act on the world reach some achievement overcome some obstacle get some recognition of their achievement Explorers want to interact with the world go, try and see push on the limits of the world just because it's there try out every piece figure out new things with the game Socializers want to interact with other players being on teams talking and chatting being part of a community social experience is more important than the achievements that come out of this social interaction Killers want to act on other players don't just go out and win the game, but stomp on other people vanquish and destroy them impose themselves on other people a small but important part most people are not killers all of the time they care a LOT about the game Caveat we are not always in the same quadrant we switch between them

7.4. 7.4 Devise Activity Loops

7.4.1. loop ... what is repeated forever repetitive, recursive structures but also branching off into different directions

7.4.2. engagement loops at the micro level individual user actions the constant process of motivators appear, the game gives the user to do something, to take an action, to overcome a challenge, to go and do something if the motivation is strong enough, it will lead to an action (otherwise the loop dies) if there's an action, the user gets clear, immediate feedback, seeing the level of performance which then again becomes a motivator each piece shall reinforce each other piece

7.4.3. progression loops at the macro level how the game moves forward broader structures of activity throughout the course of the game series of fairly small challenges part of a larger challenge specific steps lead to achievement of sub-challenges several sub-challenges lead to the overall goal of the game all immediate steps are balanced effectively player's evolution in the game from a novice to a master initially onboarding people get exhausted if it always gets up at some point in time "Boss Fights" making tremendous gain towards mastery

7.5. 7.5 Don't Forget the Fun and Apploy the Appropriate Tools

7.5.1. if it's "just a PBL system", it's easy to forget the fun

7.5.2. keep asking "why would you want to do this?" how to bring more engagement, more puzzles, more fight?

7.5.3. PBLs can be fun but you have to make sure that they actually unleash the different versions of fun e.g. Samsung Nation is it exciting just because Samsung writes so? do you have fun by looking around on their website? fun can be anywhere e.g. Fitocracy overall experience is more fun-like you feel awesome just by using the site e.g. LinkedIn progress bar getting feedback, knowing that you're already done knowing the next step to get ahead => there's just a lightweight bit of fun in it e.g. FoldIt proteine folding computing all possible folding (3d shapes) takes a lot of computing power but folding them manually can be fun => it has been made easy to participate => while having a good reason (help to fight AIDS)

7.5.4. The Right Tools pyramid of components, mechanics, dynamics game design techniques

7.5.5. then iterate and playtest and iterate again keep improving the system so that it works for the players

8. 8. Design Choices

8.1. 8.1 Taking Stock: Two approaches to gamification

8.1.1. what are some conceptual issues around gamificaiton

8.1.2. what are big deep questions about the future

8.1.3. two different kinds of gamification both are true examples to gamification with some overlaps

8.1.4. ask yourself "is it a game?" game-like / play-like attitude meaningful choices e.g. slot-machine just random gives you money or not, at random, not based on your skills => not really a game rather a game of chance, since there is some engagement

8.1.5. Untitled

8.1.6. Doing get inspiration from disciplines like marketing and economics incentives that pull someone to an activity satisfying needs game elements, building up from the bottom think more about status PBLs rewards making users do things that they want to do on their own player needs some motivational help to push him along the path

8.1.7. Feeling more "what you feel about something" than "what you do" get inspiration more from game design and cognitive psychology what's going on that makes someone interested in something experiences - something inside the player's head fun game thinking, starting with general principles and then go down to the specifics think more about meaning puzzles, learning, challenges at the center rather than the structural and visible elements of PBL progresison, mastery, competence, more about the journey than the rewards making players awesome figuring out in the first instance what it is to achieve one's full potential focusing more on the user's goal than on the company's goals => this approach is more "game-based"

8.2. 8.2 Is Gamification right for me?

8.2.1. Four Questions 1. Motivation where would you derive value from encouraging behavior? what are the situations where motivation is important 2. Meaningful Choices Are your target activities sufficiently interesting? competence and autonomy are there options for the user do they connect up with things that are meaningful for the user does the gamified system do things in a way that seem interesting e.g. Google News Badges 3. Structure can the desired behaviors be modeled through algorithms? so they need to be clear enough, not vague can we use rules / algorithms to implement a gamified system 4. Potential Conflicts can the game avoid tension with other motivational structures? what other motivation structures are there out there e.g. grades in schools

8.3. 8.3 Case Study: Designing for collective good

8.3.1. StackOverflow Co-Founder Jeff Atwood

8.3.2. Q & A site for programmers how do you encourage a group to do what's best for the world rather than their own, specific you ask questions other answer questions how do you get people to spend their own volunteer time? > 2 mio registered users > 5,000 new questions per day > 10,000 new answers per day think about the problem in the right way what is programming? => make people want to do it voluntarily implement a system that reflects the community know your players! meaning is socially constructive what is meaningful is specific to the community question answer another answer "StackOverflow makes helping your fellow programmers the most effective way to 'win'..." you have to work as a team to become productive to win the game you have to be effective as a teammate you don't win by being awesome on yourself, you win as a team points are called reputation you earn them when your fellow users vote up your questions and answers bounties you can give reputation to people for good answers or good questions => notion of exchange and gifting => reward not individual achievement but actions that serve the collective good rather than their own specific, selfish needs => groups tend to fall apart the game elements work against destructive forces reputation gives you certain powers abilities that make you a moderator badges in stackoverflow are different they are about "doing things" some are about "being good for others" especially the gold badges are geared towards social behavior

8.4. 8.4 Designing for happiness

8.4.1. how to apply gamification in a way that makes people happy and fulfilled

8.4.2. positive psychology psychology in general is about pathology (if something is wrong) positive psychology looks at what makes people happy and fulfilled what things it takes to make them feel better about themselves Martin Seligman book "Flourish" PERMA Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Flow

8.5. 8.5 Amy Jo Kim interview

8.5.1. game design professional expert on social architectures author and workshop organizer

8.5.2. gamification as a word will go away but the ideas and techniques will be integrated in many kinds of design now we see the awakening of a longer-lasting trend

8.5.3. player types according to Bartles (1996) players <=> world acting <=> interacting Killers Achievers Explorers Socializers Kim's Social Engagement Verbs (2010) content <=> players acting <=> interacting Express Compete Collaborate Explore Untitled map out the core actions of the game or gamified system against that chart and see where they lie Untitled does it match to who you're trying to reach?

8.5.4. types of games a game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflice defined by rules that results in a quantifiable outcome Zero-Sum games a game is a structured experience with rules and goals that's fun to play no quantifiable outcome, you just keep playing examples Non-Zero-Sum-Games

8.5.5. web and games from web design / social media into gamification people in the web world understand don't understand

9. 9. Enterprise Gamification

9.1. 9.1 Enterprise applications

9.1.1. internal gamification - in a large business organization

9.1.2. gamify a proces or a system

9.1.3. wide range of differend kinds of usage

9.1.4. major areas intranet or extranet engagement online collaboration for employees or extended network compare StackOverflow e.g. SAP productivity enhancement helping or encouraging employees to do their core job better sales person is different to accountant, than a customer-service agent gamification can profide information and feedback efficiency enhancement productivity is in someone's core job responsibility efficiency is about making them better by doing everything in work efficiently knowledge management e.g. Deloitte's WhoWhatWhere human resources hiring onboarding acculturation corporate training performance review employee recognition travel and entertainment reimbursement innovation Idea Street serious games Siemens PlantVille

9.2. 9.2 Workplace motivations

9.2.1. what motivates people at work rewards pay bonuses stock options verbal praise promotions responsibility => almost entirely extrinsic motivators skill development learning for part-timers and people in the homeoffice information employees don't always know how they are doing corporate citizenship Microsoft's language qualtiy game fun The Face Game to get to know their co-workers

9.3. 9.3 The game vs. the job

9.3.1. game <=> job the game is the thing that engages them the game may push in one way while the job may push in another way e.g. call center game rules incentivize short calls company may lose money by shorter calls

9.3.2. citizenship behaviors altruism be good to other people conscientousness take pride in what you do civic virtue care about doing your part for the community courtesy sportsmanship be fair to others

9.3.3. Ross Smith's Framework (Microsoft) in-role behavior according to your job description core skills unique skills future skills citizenship behaviors core skills unique skills future skills there are two big categories of gamification application in the workplace => get groups involved in collaboration => get individual people involved in other fields gamification does not have the same potential

9.4. 9.4 Playbor

9.4.1. is the game truly voluntary?

9.4.2. play + labor = playbor a game has to be voluntary you choose to play you choose to take the rules seriously forced to play a game a work forced to use a gamified system isn't it more about the company monetaring the people? it's not so much about fun for the employee are those mandatory systems ethical? the "electronic whip" Steve Lopez: Disneyland workers answer to 'electronic whip' Anaheim laundry workers monitored by giant big screens aim to keep productivity high as they worry about paying more for healthcare. In the basements of the Disneyland and Paradise Pier hotels in Anaheim, big flat-screen monitors hang from the walls in rooms where uniformed crews do laundry. The monitors are like scoreboards, with employees' work speeds compared to one another. Workers are listed by name, so their colleagues can see who is quickest at loading pillow cases, sheets and other items into a laundry machine. "I was nervous ... and felt that I was being controlled even more" how can gamified systems be designed to promote the beneficial aspects of gamificaton not to lead to competition that demoralizes the workforce and will lead to worse performance => system must be perceived as voluntary => system must be perceived as transparent is it just informational to help me do a better job or is it used to control me

9.5. 9.5 Daniel Debow interview

9.5.1. Rypple - acquired by SalesForce amplify behavior by goal setting coaching gathering feedback social performance management instead of quarterly or yearly

9.5.2. use of gamification and game designers was not intended they just wanted to design a great experience most games fail - so it's not just throwing game mechanics onto something to make it successful use gamification only for things that were already good because they are already intrinsically rewarding => look at the data => look at behavior

9.5.3. approach with Rypple ask for feedback give feedback add little symbolism look at the data make the most intrinsically rewarding thing the core experiment

9.5.4. internal systems be aware of the social construct that the people exist in incentivized social sharing like Dropbox bring your friends within a company that may lead to people inviting less friends they feld bad about doing it for money it has to be good in and of itself participating in (possibly) frivolous behavior is dictated by the culture of the organization people moderate their behavior because they know they are at work and are controlled to some extent

9.5.5. will gamification work for tradiaitonal companies as well people play games at work already badges, status symbols, job titles corner office language in literature, "blame game", "career game", etc.

9.5.6. how do you avoid that game mechanics make it just more competitive or cut-throat => look at the data how people behave => get people involved who have actually designed games what does the literature say about it => think about them as amplification tools what do you want to have more of

10. 10. Social Good and Behavior Change

10.1. 10.1 Gamification for good?

10.1.1. things that have some societal benefit

10.1.2. things that involve helping the person become better, happier, more fulfilled, healthier

10.1.3. games bring positive emotions being involved socialability engagement

10.1.4. what's different about gamification in a context with a focus on social or personal impact inherent relatedness see self-determination theory interacting with friends or when the activity has some greater meaning or purpose => it's not always simple to unlock that power of relatedness => gamification is about activating that sense of relatedness, making it meaningful and real so that people act on their latent desire to engage in that activities but: should there be rewards for doing good? behavior change - getting people over the hump

10.2. 10.2 Social good applications

10.2.1. four categories health and wellness Zamzee Kia System Fitocracy Superbetter (by Jane McGonigal's company) energy and environment Opower Recycle Bank education the challenge is to make the system better and not worse Quest to Learn (led by Katie Salen) Lee Sheldon - experience points instead of standard grades credentialing function government to promote its policies

10.3. 10.3 Social good techniques

10.3.1. CAPRI (Congestion and Parking Relief Incentives) by prof. BAlaji Prabahkar feedback & rewards monitoring automatically done no need for manual input communal pressure see what friends are doing (regarding their parking behavior) social norms - you don't want to be too much out of norm

10.3.2. Competition Kukui Cup do better than your peers if there's no existing system that could be lessened, then competition is probably good

10.3.3. Chance dollars or credits as a reward credits can be used for games depending on your status level, you get a better chance to win a prize

10.4. 10.4 Behavior change

10.4.1. what's the secret to sustainable behavior change?

10.4.2. habit formation if you know objectively that something is good for you, you will not automatically do it => you need help to get from conscious mode to the automatic mode of thinking

10.4.3. Fogg Behavior Model Untitled B ... Behavior B = m.a.t motivation ability trigger => all three need to be present at the same moment, then we take action the more motivated you are, the more likely you're going to do them the easier it is, the more likely you're going to do it triggers only work above the activation threshold if both motivation and ability are high, a trigger is more likely to work Motivation and ability can trade off against each other Trigger timing => if the person is prepared to take action, it works better => not too many triggers, otherwise people are overwhelmed Trigger types Spark Facilitator Signal Magic Potion of Game Dynamics engagement loops progression loops good games trigger effectively

10.5. 10.5 Susan Hunt Stevens interview

10.5.1. Susan Hunt Stevens, founder of Practically Green

10.5.2. Using Gamification for Social Good bringing transparency to social norms we can see what the other is doing (among friends or colleagues) => then either compete, collaborate, learn, share,... get behavior on a scale => level system so people know where they are get people to act => point system how to give recognition of an accomplishment => bring in FUN through gamification

10.5.3. what does it take to get people engaged in long term change? most games have a short shelf-life you have to design differently for long-term play keep people motivated and inspired need to provide contents => most important it's the community

10.5.4. trusted groups <=> groups of strangers existing communities as a jump start playing with colleagues you're more engaged then playing with family members than with neighbors then with people you don't know

10.5.5. loops feedback, badge or award next step how to provide reinforcement and rewards to people status access power more information more capability how to get the feedback loop going that gets them doing the next thing that provides them the positive feedback how to get them to provide positive feedback to others to become a contributor and finally a loyalist

10.5.6. how to avoid being too focused on the awards => don't have redeemable points the more tangible the reward is and the more valuable it is, the more incentive there is to cheat the system => really think what creates the intrinsic rewards e.g. really positive feedback from someone else => stuff leads to cheating => you cheat a lot among people that you don't know, much less among colleagues => there are too much social downsides in trusted groups to be dishonest

10.5.7. will gamification become a norm for behavior change yes, but offline and online are both important

11. 11. Critiques and Risks

11.1. 11.1 Pointsification

11.1.1. term coined by Margaret Robertson > 2010 > 10 > 06 > Cant-play-wont-play "taking the thing that is least essential to games and representing it as the core of the experience" "Points and badges have no closer a relationship to games than they do to websites and fitness apps and loyalty cards" => just the surface aspects (the game mechanics) which won't lead to true engagement => the powerful motivational aspects are [often] not at the core of gamification if you stay on the behavioral side (as Robertson criticizes), you may not get the value of gamification

11.1.2. Does gamification actually work? to get to sustained, important, deep engagement? => empirical research on effectiveness is still lacking e.g. Ethan Mollick (at Wharton School) if gamification is reduced to pointsification, engagement may decay over time after initial boost from surprise, engagement loops crowding out - extrinsic rewards crowd out intrinsic motivation Kathy Sierra: "gamification is the high fructose corn syrup of engagement" => don't rely too much on simplistic, external reward systems => goal must be: true intrinsic motivation, love of the activity, love of the task, love of the process

11.1.3. e.g. FourSquare applying PBL on social location sytsem redesign in early 2012 deemphasize game elements only on third, detail screen you see the game elements, not any more on home screen or on the map => gamification seemingly didn't work - on a sustained basis => or game elements were more important in the growth phase

11.1.4. => keep questioning whether the techniques is still worthwile and working / driving business results

11.1.5. implications names are powerful the word "gamification" seems to focus on games bad gamification is bad behaviorist gamification is subject to the limits / dangers of rewards there's more to games than gamification there's more to gamification than games

11.2. 11.2 Exploitationware

11.2.1. exploitationware = gamification is potentially too effective => can be used to get people to do things that aren't necessarily in their interest

11.2.2. e.g. "electronic whip" for Disneyland workers leaderboard for housekeeping staff => play board or coerced play => exploitative <=> supportive

11.2.3. Ian Bogost: Exploitationware gamification is a way to make people think that their job doesn't suck although it actually does => make them ignore the real conditions of their workplace it fundamentally undermines the nature of economic and social exchange between workers and their employers "gamification proposes to replace real incentives with fictional ones" "Real incentives come at a cost but provide value for both parties based on a relationship of trust" "By contrast, pretend incentives reduce or eliminate costs, but in so doing they strip away both value and trust"

11.2.4. monitor the employees ever more closely <=> encourage to learn and feel more meaning => it's how you use the tools, not the tools that are bad / dangerous

11.2.5. Cow Clicker virtual goods and virtual currency and appointment dynamcis => there was no point other than clicking on a cow but there are different kinds of cows => the game is designed to show the fundamental emptiness of these kinds of systems that rely purely on these engagement loops more than 50k people played the game people with 100k clicks on the leaderboard

11.2.6. first thing focus on the business objectives

11.2.7. second thing who are the players, don't just treat them as automata

11.3. 11.3 Gaming the game

11.3.1. don't forget about the player you may be able to anticipate how they behave but you can never be sure what they are going to do => players may game the system do something that you never intended Gamification Can Kill (by Nicole Lazarro) => people may react differently => people may react stronger

11.3.2. cheating e.g. a flaw allows them to accumulate points => the players have to accept the rules of the game voluntarily if people just interact with computer-based systems, it's easy for the people to feel it's okay to bend the rules games with social elements tend to see this effect less

11.3.3. => iteration and play-testing is criticial to find out what people actually do

11.3.4. beneficial cheating James Gardner, an innovation designer maker of Spigot gamified prediction market system to develop innovations by creating contests innovation market at Lloyd's bank people could sell their innovations => people found out that they could find out good ideas

11.3.5. => recognize that people will react in unpredictable ways to the signals that the system produces take care that the player's behavior doesn't destroy the game doesn't create imbalances doesn't make the game unplayable for many players but let the players exercise autonomy to feel more intrinsically motivated

11.4. 11.4 Legal issues

11.4.1. five issues privacy lots of information about your players profile what they are doing => necessary for optimizing the experience => but players may not like that employment or labor law may be infringed see "electronic whip" if game elements effect people's work performance => is that properly disclosed => is it consistent with the law requirements deceptive marketing stealth marketing intellectual property structure of badges badges => don't just copy, but respect the holders of the intellectual properties virtual property rights what happens if a user spends a lot of time and money to get something virtual => can there be legal claims from the players towards the game operators => so far it's more a license than an ownership "CARD Act" regulates gift cards (and what happens after expiration)

11.5. 11.5 Regulatory issues

11.5.1. paid endorsements when you market or endorse a product for money e.g. bloggers who receive money or free products Federal Trade Commission requires disclosure you have to disclose the fact that you received money or free products examples unlock badges by liking a post on facebook earn something by tweeting => some virtual value may be earned => disclosure might become necessary

11.5.2. banking regulation record-keeping reserve requirements currency manipulation anti-fraud money laundering consumer protection taxation and accounting => if a virtual currency is freely tradable back and forth (real money <=> virtual money) then all those banking regulation applies to the gamified system => and possibly one may not even engage in operating such a gamified system => beware if there is real money involved => if there is some tradable structure

11.5.3. sweepstakes and gambling in the US there is a state regulation of sweepstakes => regulations different in different states if the gamified system has some kind of random drawing in the US there is a national regulation of gambling games of skill vs. chance interstate gambling is prohibited gambling is only allowed in restricted areas access to children may be regulated / prohibited if the gamified system has some kind of gambling, it may be subject to gambling rules and prohibition

12. 12. Beyond the Basics

12.1. 12.1 Going beyond the basics

12.1.1. learning goals at the beginning 1. what is gamification vs. serious games vs. play 2. why it might be valuable to achieve real business value to achieve real legitimate goals vs. regulations and limitations 3. how to do it effectively with the proper structure with the 6-steps game design framework 4. specific applications

12.2. 12.2 Inducement prizes

12.2.1. inducement prizes are a motivational technique competitive - the winner is the one who does best to encourage people to do something an inducement prize is a contest to motivate a result it is an alternative to direct funding internal R&D outsourcing and grants benefits efficiency creativity and flexibility

12.2.2. prizes and gamification a contest to MOTIVATE a result it's an extrinsic reward but can it also be fun? the factors of self-determination theory => all are present in a well-designed inducement prize initiatives private sector Governmental (US) attributes of effective prize competitions multiple individuals / teams capable of competing costs sufficiently small balance scale vs. incentives (Karim Lakhani) opportunities to leverage results examples

12.3. 12.3 Virtual economies

12.3.1. economic pressures and techniques

12.3.2. dynamism and benefits from real economies in games

12.3.3. persistent virtual rewards like badges if they are persistent i.e. they remain if the player goes and comes ba they may function as a virtual good if they are scarce those virtual goods may appear to have value to players

12.3.4. tradable / redeemable points may act as virtual currency redeem virtual points for a coupon or money in the real world the point then just becomes an accounting mechanism that is tradable against real money

12.3.5. in-game transactions / markets may become a functioning virtual economy

12.3.6. examples virtual goods are widespread in social games FarmVille worldwide virtual asset market loyalty programs as virtual currency

12.3.7. => often those systems are not built with a focus on fun there are serious limitations of tangible, extrinsic rewards => so you'd rather focus on fun rather than the extrinsic rewards

12.3.8. how to design a successful, virtual economy balance is key not too hard, too easy, too slow economic dynamics are driven more by scarcity than money faucets and drains

12.3.9. dangers real money costs real money and obligations come with them like with all other tangible, extrinsic rewards hedonic treadmill effect crowding-out effect intrinsic value comes from rarity and surprise something feels cool because it's difficult to achieve because it's really interesting

12.4. 12.4 Collective action

12.4.1. collaborative - collective action, crowd sourcing, to get people to work together on problems even if not part of the same organization

12.4.2. Stackoverflow pro-social and collaborative behavior is incentivized but there's no specific objective

12.4.3. if you want to solve some specific task with the energy and enthusiasm of a large number of people

12.4.4. families of work competitive (against each other) <=> collaborative (together) top down <=> bottom up competitive top-down grants competitive bottom-up inducement prizes collaborative top-down employees collaborative bottom-up crowd sourcing microwork Untitled

12.4.5. Microwork Exchanges Amazon's mechanical turk for tasks that require human intelligence 200k tasks available

12.4.6. money motivates

12.4.7. but what else motivates? if you use gamification like Microtask in Finland ESP Game

12.4.8. what kinds of tasks can easily be done by collective action? nature of the task can it be split up easily? are humans better than computers? how to motivate for money for love for fun or for all three

12.5. 12.5 The future of gamification

12.5.1. what if gamification really becomes pervasive in society what would it be like short film "Sight" by Eran May-raz and Daniel Lazo as their graduation project from Bezaleal Academy of Arts physical excercise lenses fridge - look and see what's where chopping cucumbers - get points for cutting them right egg in the pan - points for right place eat something and see a game "snail zombie" wall filled with screen buttons on shelf badges on the wall date reminder star constellation rehearsal game date both see walls decorated

12.6. 12.6 Course review and wrap-up

12.6.1. questions / choices gamification to empower <=> or to manipulate shallow <=> thoughtful

12.6.2. secret message was FOR THE WIN once in every unit, there would be one or two playing cards in the middle left shelf letters were coded