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Gamification by Mind Map: Gamification
5.0 stars - 13 reviews range from 0 to 5


1. What is Gamification

1.1 Introduction

gamification is about learning from games, understanding what makes the game successful

Samsung Nation, leaderboards, badges, point systems, samsung wants you to spend time on their website so you buy more of their products,

1.2 Course Overview

what you'll get out of the course, what is gamification, why it might be valuable, how to do it effectively, some specific applications

1.3 Definition of Gamification

the use of game elements and game design technqiues in non-game contextx

game elements, toolbox, points, leaderboards, quests, resource collection, avatars, social graph, progression, levels, rewards, badges, challenges, teams and their peer pressure,

game design technqiues, also artistic, experiential

non-game context, some objective other than success in the game, you're playing because of business, school, social impact, personal improvement, what you're doing may be game-like, but the purpose has some validity independently of the experience of the game

1.4 Why Study Gamification

make everyday business tasks more engaging

1.5 History of Gamification

Serious Games Initiative,

1.6 Examples and Categories

External, Marketing, Sales, Customer engagement

Internal, HR, Productivity enhancement, Crowdsourcing

Behavior change, Health and wellness, Sustainability, Personal finance

2. Games

2.1 Gamification in Context

gamification is not making everything a game or an immersive 3D virtual world, you stay in your context, but improve the experience there through game elements and game design techniques

gamification is not any games in the workplace, like Windows Solitaire, rather find tasks that are boring and make them fun

gamification is not any use of games in business, like Monopoly at McDonald's

gamification is not simulations, although they may constitute serious games

gamification is not just for marketing or customer engagement, just about PBLs, points, badges, leaderboards

gamification is not game theory, set of algorithms, formulas, quantitative techniques for analysing strategic decision making, "Prisoner's dilemma", more about defining formal models

gamification IS, listening to what games can teach us, learning from game design (and psychology, management, marketing, economics), appreciating fun

Sebastian Deterding's classification, whold <=> partial, whole game / artifacts, partial games / artifacts / parts, play <=> game, play ... pure, exuberant fun, release of energy, games ... rules, structure, winning or losing, play & whole ==> toys, play & partial ==> playful design, game & whole ==> serious games, games & partial ==> gamification

2.2 What is a Game?

Wittgenstein: it is impossible to define what a game is

precise, comprehensive definition, winning <=> losing

Bernard Suits: Grasshoppers, Pre-lusory Goal, in any game there is some objective, in a 400m race, the "pre-lusory goal" is simply to get from A to B, Constituve Rules, a set of rules that make the activity to a game <=> just some work objective, Lusory Attitude, a game-like attitude, the players follow the rules voluntarily, no cheating, the game means something to the players, therefore they want to follow the rules, a game = voluntarily overcoming unnecessary obstacles

Huizinga: Homo Ludens, The Magic Circle, in a game there is a virtual boundary, divides the world of the game from the real world, the game is different, physical boundary, conceptual boundary, within the magic circle, the game rules matter, not the rules of the real world, if we think that the game matters, the challenge of gamification: put the player as much as possible into the magic circle, such that the player feels that the game matters, and therefore he likes to play it and stick to the rules

2.3 Games and Play

Roger Callois, Paidia, latin for "play", Friedrich Schiller: "Play is the aimless expenditure of exuberant energy", George Santayana: "Play is whatever is done spontaneously and for its own sake", Lev Yvgotskyy: "play creates a zone of proximal development of the child. In play a child always behaves beyond his average age.", Katie Salen & Eric Zimmerman: "Play is free movement within a more rigid structure", play is freedom, doing whatever you want - within some circle, Ludus, latin for "game", Tracy Fullerton, Chris Swain, Steven Hoffman: "A game is a closed, formal system that engages players in a structured conflict, and resolves in an unequal outcome", formal, structured, produce outcome, Sid Meier: "A game is a series of meaningful choices", Thomas Mallaby: "A game is a ... domain of contrived contingency that generates interpretable outcomes", randomness, chance, Jesse Schell: "A game is a problem-solving activity, approached with a playful attitude", fundamental difference, games: choices that lead to outcomes with the goal to get from a start and a finish, plays: within some boundaries, do whatever you want, things from work / school / social life / interaction with government or businesses, game-like, play-like

Voluntariness, choices are voluntary, "whoever must play, cannot play"

Learning (= play) or problem solving (= game)

balance of structure (= game) and exploration (= play)

2.4 Video Games

games industry has 66 billion USD worldwide

China is now the largest online gaming market

virtual goods: 7.3 billion globally (2 billion in the US)

44% if US/UK adults have played a mobile game in the last month

Angry Birds: 100 mio unique users per month, 12 billion minutes played per month

97% of kids 12-17 play videogames

the average game player is 30 years old, 37% are older than 35

47% of all game players are women

2.5 It's Just a Game?

analytics, A/B testing all the time, change based on gathered data to make it more effective



leveraging the social graph

loyalty programs

organizational behaviour

work design

marketing research

reality gets into games, first-person shooter from the US army is the most effective recruiting tool

Games get real, Julian Dibbell: "Play Money", how I quit my day job and struck it rich in virtual loot farming, 100-400,000 WoW players in China make their living

3. Game Thinking

3.1 Why Gamify

to achieve serious results in the real world

example, dodgeball, chicken-and-egg-situation, need a lot of users, need to get above critical mass, bought by Google, foursquare, original founder of dodgeball took same idea, and gamified, to bridge the "engagement gap", make the service feel more fun / gamelike, to bring more variety, more choices, when there is just one choice (either do something or don't), then people don't engage a lot, having choices could make the experience more popular, to bring progression, "checking in" at dodgeball didn't get you any further, checking in a hundred times didn't give you more benefit, to make the action a habit, so you don't have to think any more so much (whether or not to do it), games encourage an environment where you come back and do it again, dodgeball already was social - so no need to improve, concept of mayorship, if you checked in most often in a location, you become the mayor of that location, => you get a badge, to create a much more rich service, badges give a lot more options, you get another badge if you're a mayer of 10 locations, you become the super-mayor, social sharing, easy to share that you've become the mayor of a place to your friends, and who you've replaced as a mayor, friendly competition, you see that you've become mayor, other people see when you become mayor, leveling up, checking in to one airport <=> checking in to 10 different airports, collecting points across many categories, success, > 20 million users, 70 mio venture capital, 600 mio valuation

3.2 Thinking Like a Game Designer

viewing your business problem like a game designer, without having to be a game designer, sound, story telling, without having to be a gamer, who doesn't think too much about the structure of the game, => you need to think about which components you have to fit together to bring the experience

Jesse Schell: Book of Lenses, five words, I am a Game Designer, it's a state of mind, we all have designed games in our childhood

Your Participants (= users of gamified systems) as Players, customers, employees, community, target population, consumers just consume, costumers are slightly more active, guests are "just invited", players are the center of a game, the game evolves around the player, players feel a sense of autonomy / control, think about how to give them choices that are meaningful that lead to outcomes/results, their free will is exercised, players play, free-motion within a set of constraints

Goal:, 1. get your players playing, 2. keep them playing, not "how do I trick them", they need to engage for an extended period of time

3.3 Design Rules

The Player Journey, not just a random walk, have a beginning, a middle, and an end, in some sort of progression, Onboarding, as quickly, as easily as possible to get them into the game, Scaffolding, to make it easy for the player to make progress, overcome some of the complexity, the need to know what to do next, Pathways to Mastery, enable them so they can acquire some real skill, acomplish something, example: Plants vs. Zombies, level 1, think about onboarding, think about scaffolding, initially only 2 choices, try the full version, start adventure, description "your house", instructions "click on ...", guides, go, do this, do that, verbal guide, highlighting, visual highlighting, feedback, limited options, game is dumbed down, one kind of grass, one lane of grass, one kind of monsters, limited monsters, impossible to fail, you need the simplification initially, => you'll level up and get your positive feedback and want to continue, onboarding and scaffolding makes a quite complex story easy for everyone, balance, not too hard, not too easy, not too many choices, not too few choices, not too easy for one, too hard for others, game needs to be balanced at every stage, you need to play-test a lot, if you want to encourage people to do something, not too hard, not too easy, not favouring one group over the other, example: Monopoly, numbers / prices need to be properly ordered, inject just enough money at each round, example:, gamify the experience, you hear some music playing, you also see some DJs, you also see other avatars in the club, you can rate the music, => you're not just sitting and listening to music, but it makes it somehow an active experience

3.4 Tapping the Emotions

What makes games engaging?, => the emotional component of the experience, because they are fun, makes us want to start playing, makes us want to keep playing

Mary Poppins, "In every job that must be done, there is an element of fun. You find the fun and snap! The job's a game.", even in things that you have to do, not just in entertainment, not just in recreation, also in work, social behaviour change, etc.

What things are fun?, categories of emotions / experiences that you think of as fun, when children ask you something, how children behave, when something unexpected happens, when we chat / interact with each other, when something is out of the norm, when people act on purpose to highlight some stubbornness, winning, problem-solving, overcoming obstacles, exploring, just finding something new, chilling, lying on a beautiful beach, relaxing, teamwork, we enjoy achieving a goal as a team, recognition, like winning, but someone else tells you that you did a good job, triumphing, similar to winning, you win, someone else looses, this feeling may be stronger, collecting, put individual things into collections, assemble a bunch of things, surprise, some novelty, something that we didn't expect, => dopamine is released, imagination, daydreaming, thinking about ideas, sharing, being altruistic, giving money to charity, role playing, we love trying on roles, inhabiting another character, customization, to be able to make something individually, goofing off, just letting it all hang out, exploring the opportunity to just be silly

3.5 Anatomy of Fun - Understanding Fun

Nicole Lazzaro's 4 Keys, specialized on emotion in games, what in games actually produces fun, 4 keys, 4 different kinds of fun, general categories, 1. easy fun, just blowing out steam, does not have to be taxing (and often shouldn't be), 2. hard fun, challenges, problem-solving, mastery, completion, overcoming obstacles, fun represents accomplishments, 3. people fun, interacting with others, socializing, teamwork, comes from the social interaction, 4. serious fun, serious, real objectives, doing things that are meaningful, good for your family, for the community, collections, badges - is meaningful in some serious way at that time, for you, those categories are not mutually exclusive, a game can fall into more categories, => don't just make a game casual

Marc Leblanc's 8 Kinds of Fun, 1. sensation, 2. fantasy, 3. narrative, 4. challenge, 5. fellowship, 6. discovery, 7. expression, 8. submission, casual kind of fun, pastime,

Raph Koster: A Theory of Fun for Game Design

takeaways, fun can (and should) be designed, fun doesn't just happen, use less electricity, spend more time on website, => you need to design expressly for that, fun can be challenging!, not always easy, simple, purely positive, can be hard, serious, appeal to different kinds of fun, look to exploit as many kinds as possible, don't just focus on one

3.6 Finding the Fun

sometimes in unexpected places

speeding competition, if you speed, you'll have to pay a fine, if you aren't speeding you participate in a lottery where some part of that money is then given away again

example, Volkswagen's,, piano stairs, LinkedIn, fill out a profile, if the profile it's filled out completely, it's more valuable to LinkedIn, how to make it fun?, "profile completeness" bar, percentage, and an advice how to advance, it's not a game per se (no rules, etc.), but it's a little bit game-like, => profile completeness went up be 20% when they added that progress bar, feedback, now you know how far you are, and you know how far you'll get with the next action, progression, from "enter data" to "move from beginning to end of a process", a little psychological draw that wants you to progress to the end, completion, you know how far you are from the end, we like completion, completeness, seeing how close we are, draws us suddenly

4. Game Elements

4.1 Breaking Games Down

game elements, your toolbox, regular patterns, tools that we can extract from games, use in different way to make business practices more game like, examples, points, quests, resource collections, avatars, social graph, progression, levels, tic-tac-toe, what are the regular patterns, the pieces of the game?, my guess, my turn - your turn - alteration, bounded field - few choices, anxiousness building up as choices narrow, short duration, winning over the other player, crushing him/her, too easy, quickly learnt, no winning possible unless the opponent fails, his list, the gameboard, the tokens (x and o), two players, competitive, one person wins, one person looses, turns - one player, then the other, win and draw states, no progression or scoring, it doesn't get better when you keep playing it, diagram, experiences at the top, what you feel when playing the game, the "gestalt", the general impact, game in the middle, game is something different than the experiences, set of rules, aesthetics, all game elements, elements at the bottom, the pieceparts

4.2 The Pyramid of Gamification Elements

pyramid framework (for game elements), dynamics, the big-picture aspects, the "grammar", the most high-level, conceptuals elements, the hidden structure that makes the experience coherent and regular, not the rules (which are explicit), the dynamics are more implicit, a few, examples, 1. constraints, 2. emotions, from joy to sadness, in the business context that's typically more limited, you don't want to make people completely upset, 3. narrative, the structure that holds together the game, explicit: the storyline, or implicit, in gamification, narratives are less used, more through consistent graphical experiences, a sense of flow, a story idea may be in players heads, coherence and relationship to player's life are important, that's often achieved through a narrative, (or to lesser extent through consistent graphical experiences), 4. progression, levels, points, etc; move from start position to goal position, 5. relationships, people interacting with each other, friends, teammates, opponents, mechanics, the processes that drive action forward, the "verbs", more, examples, 1. challenges, objective to be reached, 2. chance, some luck involved, 3. competition, opposite of cooperation, 4. cooperation, opposite of competition, 5. feedback, see how you're doing - tend to draw you along, 6. resource acquisition, to get things to get the game forward, 7. rewards, benefits that you get for some achievements, 8. transactions, buying or exchanging, 9. turns, 10. win states, components, specific instantiations of mechanics and dynamics, the "nouns", specific ways to do what the higher level things that dynamics / mechanics represent, they implement one or more higher-level concepts, a lot, examples, 1. achievements, a reward for some action, 2. avatars, visual representation for the character, 3. badges, specific visual representation fo the achievements, 4. boss fights, at the end of the level / game, a really hard challenge - you have to overcome the boss in order to reach the next level, 5. collections, assemble some sorts of pieces, 6. combat, 7. content unlocking, do something to get access to new content, 8. gifting, altruism, giving things to other people, some people feel good about that, 9. leaderboards, lists of players with their scores, 10. levels, 11. points, 12. quests, similar to achievements, 13. social graph, seeing your friends who are also in the game, ability to interact with them, 14. teams, 15. virtual goods, things that are virtual but for which players are prepared to pay (virtual or real currency)

around that pyramid is the experience, the whole is greater than the sum of the parts, aesthetics, visual experience, sound

MDA framework (from LeBlanc), mechanics, dynamics, aesthetics, "fun" in the gamification lecture

4.3 The PBL Triad

some game elements are more influential, they serve more functions than others

PBL, points, to keep score, 100 < 5,000, relative position, to determine win states, to connect to rewards, you need 5,000 virtual points to get some reward, to provide feedback, you immediately who's doing better, in realtime, exact, to display progress, to provide data for the game designer, how fast points are earned, they are fungible, one point is as good as another, they can be used to represent anything, doing one sort of actions is somehow equivalent or comparable to some other kind of action, badges, are representations of achievement, some visual indication that you've achieved some level, etc., a button-like graphic that goes, on a profile page, or on some other place where others may see it, they are flexible, you can represent anything in a badge, when you do something for the first time, when you've done something 100 times, at random (surprise), => whatever outcome you want to motivate as a game designer, they have a (graphical) style, the pattern of those badges can communicate the "vibe" or overall aesthetic, they signal importance, this is something that we reward, they function as credentials, here's what I've done, they can support collections, collections are often seen as invitations to "fill it up", players want to have all badges, it becomes a mechanic that pushes people along, they show social status, they are status symbols, Mozilla Open Badge Framework,, for informal learning, issue badges to the learner, put badge into a learner's backpack, push badges out to social media, Untitled, leaderboards, they are about ranking, they provide feedback on competition, how you're doing compared to others, ubiquituous in video games, danger: if you have 555 and the leader has 127,000,000, you'll not feel good or competent about your score, you feel there's no way to get to the top, personalized leaderboard, your score is in the middle, above you are higher scores, below you are lower scores, but you don't see the scores way above you, friend-relative variant, you only see your friends (on your social graph), you compare not to strangers but to your friends which whom you want to compete, real danger: leaderboards have been shown to demotivate, you want to push people by showing them "you're just a little bit behind", in many cases, competition will make people less willing to engage, leaderboard forces them too much into the challenge that they think they can't win

example Samsung Nation

4.4 Limitations of Elements

game elements are a starting point for gamification

big problem with gamification, just throwing some game elements onto a business problem makes it fun and engaging, but there's more hard work

the elements are not the game, the game is the thing between the experience and the elements, the elements need to all be tied together to make them successful

not all rewards are fun, not all fun is rewarding, there's a tendency to over-emphasize rewards, rewards can actually de-motivate, cash prize can make them engage less

if you just put in PBL, it's going to look much like all other gamified apps, the cookie-cutter-approach doesn't work

bad example, Google News Badges, as you read news articles, depending on the subject areas, you get badges, the badges suddenly pop up, Google has to track what you're reading, Google can then show that to your friends, from the user's point of view, those badges are not compelling, the badges don't give a reward or achievement, the accomplishment is just having read a number of articles of some category, => users are not motivated to anything new (other than what they're already doing), those badges don't drive business value for Google

while the elements are useful and a good starting point, they are not the game itself, meaningful choices, decide 1 time <=> hundreds of times, what a video over here or do something else at another place, the more meaningful a choice is, the better, puzzles, challenges are not necessarily puzzles, clicking 1,000 times is more effort, but it's not challenging, no puzzle, no thought involved, => if it feels like a puzzle, it's more powerful, some challenge, a little creativity needed, mastery, if you can get a bunch of badges, when would you know that you're a master?, => if you can truly master a skill, you have stronger emotions, community, social interactions are tremendously powerful, just go and collect things is less powerful, different kinds of users, if there's just one kind of structure, it won't pull in people with different motivations or conceptions of fun

4.5 Bing Gordon

formerly chief creative officer of EA (electronic arts)

major advocat for gamification, "every CEO should understand gamification", people now see life as games, game design principles come from communication and motivation theory, for customers, for employees, so get more effective with customers and employees, positive effect of instant feedback, instant, tangible feedback (like in a game) is powerful, "+3 relationship points" is much more concrete than some moaning, there's no books on game principles, learn through playing great games, 1,000 hours on WoW, it's very hard to bring people to cooperate, in WoW you experience that it's very hard to cooperate with strangers, hundreds of achievements on xbox live, game makers tend to borrow breakthroughs from one another, two mistakes, premier motivation of games is winning competition, cooperation trumps competition 3 to 1, put efforts on high score listing/ranking, while highscores are demotivating for most, you only are motivated if you're among the top 10%, encrease engagement is more important, is Zynga just a fad?, play is a great accelerator of human culture, gamification is a fun way to apply communication theory, you have to have great fails, you have to have great villains, games are polarizing, some people react poorly ot extrinsic motivators, kids now grow up with numbers everywhere, on all surfaces of games and products, with PBL, which raises the pressure on the education system and on many other things, where's the room for competitive advantage, innovations grow a whole new market, the kids that have grown up digital think, the purpose in world is being the best version you could be, life is not hierarchical, if you can learn more effectively with gamification, they will want it

5. Psychology and Motivation (I)

5.1 Gamification as Motivational Design

understand gamification through psychology

motivation - you are moved to do something

people don't know / understand why they do something, reasons may not be understood, reasons may be counterintuitive

pick some task that you might want someone to do, think about 4 different ways to motivate a person to do the task, ask for help, offer help in return (barter), explain why it's important to me, explain why it may be important for the other, explain how it can beneficial for others

Mayor League Baseball, collect badges by watching baseball games

"we don't need no stinking badges"

when reflecting on a gamified system, what motivates, is it the right kind of motivation, is it enough

motivation is different, we are not all motivated by the same thing, we are not motivated by the same thing all time

how to sell more computers, Apple Store, people shall come in, hang around and browse, people shall get familiar with the computers, let's create a lounge experience, several people are there to help you

5.2 Behaviorism

behaviorism <=> cognitivism, look at behavior, looking externally what people do, mental states, what's internally going on in people's heads

behaviorism, emotions, feelings, thoughts in people's brains - are not scientifically testable, let's restrict ourselves to the black-box, whatever is inside cannot be inspected or tested, what goes in and what goes out can be inspected, stimulus, something gets done from the outside, something happens externally that creates a reaction in the subject, response, the behavior in response to the stimulus, classical conditioning - Pawlow's dog, instinctive association between stimulus and response, operand conditioning - Skinner, stimulus and response, with learning through feedback, subject sees the consequence of the action, box-experiment with a rat, when I consciously do something, I experience a consequence of my action, reward or punishment, severe limitations, behavioral economics, what people actually do rather than why they do, people make "mistakes" consistently, loss aversion, according to theory, loss and gain should have equal weight, but people are more afraid of loosing money than they are happy about winning money, power of defaults, according to theory, opt-in and opt-out should be the same, but people don't opt-out, confirmation bias, according to theory, people should observe objectively, but people tend to see what they are looking for, so the theory (behavioral economics) is not a model that really explains regular behaviors, learnings from behaviorism, observation, we should look at what people actually do, if people respond to a stimulus, we should learn from it rather than stick to a theory, feedback loops, when the person involved sees some feedback on their behavior which they can observe, it produces a response - circular process, action, feedback, response, reinforcement, when you see that an action produces a result, you learn, the more you do, the more of an effect


5.3 Behaviorism in Gamification

1. look at what people actually DO, don't try to understand their mental states, even more since people don't always behave as you think they should, empirical research helps us to understand which biases we actually have (even if we think that we have none), example: speed camera lottery, people slow down by 10% by just having speed signs, even without punishmend or reward

2. focus on feedback, example: profile completion on XING with progress bar, immediate reaction on what you're doing, without having to wait for the end of the process

3, consequences can create results because they condition people, people learn to associate certain results from what happens, example: crops wither if you don't water them, FarmVille created an appointment mechanic, people know that they have to come back at a certain time interval, that creates this "draw", I have to constantly check in, as a matter of habit

4. reinforcement through rewards, example: badges, people see that they get the badge after the action, at least some people come back for more and more, give some benefit (even if it's not tangible or worth any money), but in the pyramid of elements, rewards are just one game mechanic, achievements, badges, boss fights, collections, content unlocking, leaderboards, levels, points, quests, virtual goods, all those game elements tie in to rewards

The Dopamine System, example: Samsung Nation, dopamine is associated with pleasure, and it's important for learning, valuable, surprising things give you dopamine, e.g. if you get a badge by surprise

behaviorism in gamification is focused on creating rewards that maximize the engagement based on dopamine release and the addictive quality

5.4 Reward Structures

many different things can be rewarded, see FourSquare, first check in, 10 / 25 / 50 check ins, checking in every day, being part of a swarm, think, about what can be rewarded, what behavior shall be incentiviced, what options shall there be to make it more engaging

different categories of rewards, cognitive evaluation theory, typology of rewards, tangible <=> intangible, if what you get is a physical thing, then it's tangible, if it's something digital, then it's intangible, (virtual) badge is an intangible reward, something of sentimental value, something of status value, money is a tangible reward, expected <=> unexpected, our brains love surprises, contingency, what does the player have to do to get the reward, non-contingent, you don't have to do anything, you just get the reward, the reward is not contingent on a task, contingent upon the engagement, engagement = starting a task, you get a reward when you start painting a house, contingent upon the completion, only when you've finished the task will you get the reward, contingent upon performance, depending on how well a task is done, example: Samsung Nation, cruise badge for hanging out on the site, intangible, unexpected, engagement-contingent, from the user's perspective it's for having started to hang out, and not for having completed 10 minutes (since he didn't know about the required duration), Quest badge, intangible, expected, since you now know that it's about a quest, completion-contingent, example: WoW, title as a reward for fishing skills, catch 1000 fish, completion-contingent, master angler, competition based, hence performance-contingent

5.5 Reward Schedules

when a reward is offered, structure of reward schedule is important for psychological reaction

continuous reward, you get a reward each time, automatically, for every incident of an action, => least interesting to the user

fixed ratio reward, if the activity happens a certain number of times, every n number of times, you get a reward, => the brain picks up on the pattern => less psychological effect

fixed interval reward, based on time, not based on number of activities, => the brain picks up on the pattern => less psychological effect

variable, i.e. on no fixed schedule, => most interesting, since our brains love surprises, identify movement, take a closer look at something that is slightly different

example:, Samsung Nation quest badge as a reward, fixed interval, badge for number of visits, fixed ratio, since it happens every x times

variability, competitive <=> non-competitive, winning a contest, beating someone head to head in a virtual duel, certain <=> uncertain, depending on how certain the reward is, once the trigger happens, you're still not sure to get the reward, badges, only if something particular happens to the designated player in a game, will you get the reward, uncertainty turns fixed-schedule into more variable, which makes it more interesting

examples:, one-arm bandit / slot machine, variable reward schedule makes it addictive, it's important that the reward comes just often enough, => the person holds out that hope

beware: addiction may be harmful to people, since they cannot make good judgements any more

6. Psychology and Motivation (II)

6.1 Limits of Behaviorism

be systematic and scientific!

feedback loops can systematically modify people's behavior

behaviorism leaves out a lot, example: speeding camera lottery, why do people slow down when they see the speed sign?, even without a lottery, feedback makes them aware of their speed, maybe the driver thinks "is it just a sign or will I also get a ticket?", or is there a cop nearby, => so I slow down because I want to avoid the punishment, cause and effect => we want to avoid the punishment, what does the lottery change?, people love lotteries - even if the odds are terrible, but aren't there other reasons?, why do people love lotteries?, what's it about lotteries that's motivating people?, what do people think and feel? (inside / mental state)

modifying people's behavior through reward/punishment systems scares people, see socialism and fascism

if you take a purely behaviorism approach, you consider the person as a black box, not as a human being, as a player

6.2 Dangers of Behaviorism

potential for abuse / manipulation, systems that are designed to make people to do things (even if they don't want to do those things), => see the slot-machine and how addictive it is, users shall not feel pushed, pushing <=> delighting customers

hedonic treadmill, hedonism = pleasure based on fun, once you start focusing on giving rewards to people, people expect you to keep doing it, people will only respond if the reward is there, and you won't change people's behavior in general, certain rewards may become boring => continuous burden on game designer, monkey example, monkey love the grape juice, variable reward (timing was random), the monkey also learnt to hear some tone 2 seconds before the grape juice, every time the tone went off, the grape juice would come, the monkeys got the dopamine when the tone went off, no longer when the got the grape juice, the tone signalled the reward, the tone was random, the reward then was fixed, brains are good at recognizing patterns, the signal that tells you "the reward is coming", triggers the dopamine, the brains are always trying to figure out the system, one the pattern is clear, it's no longer fun, since it's then expected and no surprise any more

overemphasis on status, status is powerful, even if it's not tangible, example: mileage plus (or other frequent flyer or royalty programs), better seats, board first, special card, special access to the lounge, but people don't chase status all the time, also social reasons, also altruism reasons

6.3 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

opening the black box - "what is going on in there?"

if we start to think in a cognitivist way, we start to distinguish different kinds of motivations and rewards

intrinsic motivation, you do a thing for its own sake, not for an external stimulus, you find it fun, exciting, rewarding, I want the thing, I'm not going for the consequences, the rewards

extrinsic motivation, you do something for some reasons other than the thing itself, money, fame and fortune, value you put in a person, it's about the reward, not the thing itself

extrinsic rewards - SAPS (Zichermann), Status, we'll get value and respect from other people, leaderboards, Access, we'll get access to something other people don't have, answering a lot of questions on a forum will give access to a room just for moderators, also content unlocking in games, Power, we'll be enabled to do something that others can't do, with a certain number of posts, you'll get the moderator right to edit posts in a forum, Stuff, tangible rewards, => it's more advantageous to do higher-up rewards, since they are more powerful, rather give status than tangible rewards, => status is more powerful than others (but is it always that case?)

for any gamification elements ask yourself, where do they fit?, are they intrinsic or extrinsic?

6.4 How Rewards Can De-Motivate

you don't want to give out rewards that leaves people less motivated than they were before

extrinsic motivators can crowd out the intrinsic motivation that was already there, you focus more on chasing extrinsic rewards, the reward substitutes for the intrinsic motivation, "over-justification effect", studies confirm, drawing, some kids learnt to draw for rewards, when the reward was not given any longer, the previously intrinsicly motivate kids didn't like to draw any longer, => has been proven for many creative tasks, day care picking, in Israel, parents were late to pick up their children from the day care center, punishment: charge parents 10 USD if they are 10 minutes late, => parents came even later, social pressure etc. made them be on time, then being late just cost 10 USD, the intrinsic motivators were replaced, blood donation, when people are incouraged based on money rather than on "civid duty, helping other people", fewer donate blood, teacher salaries, paying more for better teaching, => system is reverse-engineered, teachers work out how to get out the most money, Studies are generally limited to "interesting" tasks, interest in a task is individual and contextual, tasks that require creativity, thought, etc. - are considered interesting, rewards make them less interesting, reward types do matter, tangible rewards demotivate the most, since they will substitute for the intrinsic motivators, unexpected rewards don't crowd out intrinsic motivators so quickly, performance-contingent rewards (achievements) can go both ways, if the reward says "the goal is the endpoint", then it's a demotivator, if the reward is purely informational ("you did well"), then it's not a demotivator

6.5 Self-Determination Theory

comrehensive study of human motivation

motivational spectrum, A motiation, you have no motivation, you're indifferent to an activity, extrinsic motivators, from external regulation, you don't want to do something, but someone tells you to do so, Obligation ("you have to"), there is no sense of doing since you value it, from introjection, sometimes we take external motivators and internalize them, status: I don't want to do it, but others will find it cool and like me, I'm taking their view on status which then makes me do it, from identification, I've taken the external motivator and made it my own, I see some value in doing the activity, from integration, complete internal alignment between my goals and the thing, I really want to exercise - it's good for me, intrinsic motivation, you simply love the activity, you don't need something external to want to do it, you do it because it's fun, the activitiy is worthwhile in and of itself

push more towards approaches that utilize intrinsic motivators, => find the fun in the activity

what does it take for intrinsic motivation, competence, the person's sense of ability, accomplishing something, solving problems, surmounting obstacles, achieving something, autonomy, the person feels he's in control, it's me doing it by my meaningful choice, relatedness, your activity is connected to something beyond yourself, meaning and purpose, "using less energy which is good for the planet", social interaction, doing something with friends

example: game elements can be one or the other (intrinsic or extrinsic), Fitocracy, work out and get in shape, PBL elements, but in a consistent way for intrinsic motivation, points, levels and badges, "Congratulations! You Earned ...", "You're awesome", button "I'm Awesome", share "I'm awesome" with my friends, activity is achieving something / you're mastering something, several choices, more autonomy with more choices, "choose your interests", your decision customizes the site, then you get different potential quests based on your choices, => you then have to develop your strategy, what to do in order to get which points or achievements, strong social element, "Fitocracy is better with friends!", "meet other Fitocrats", groups you mgiht like

books, Daniel Pink: Drive, Rigby, Ryan: Glued to Games, applying self-determination theory to video games, how video games can activate the three motivators (competence, autonomy, relatedness)

6.6 First Half Wrap-Up

first half, frameworks and concepts, what gamification is, what games are, game thinking (intersection of the two), psychology and motivation, => as fundamental building blocks

second half, applications, how to put the concepts into practice, design (frameworks and processes), application in specific domains, enterprise, social good and behavior change, risks and dangers, evolution of gamification

7. Gamification Design Framework

7.1 Design Process Framework

design is, a general approach to addressing challenges, a process of attacking problems

design thinking, see IDEO company, purposive, i.e. it has a goal, trying to achieve some objective, human-centered, it's designed around people, everything is based upon the person, you always have to think about the experience, it's real people, the experience of the player is not the experience of the designer, balance of analytical and creative, abductive reasoning: intference from best availalbe explanation, start with the best explanation, and then make a leap from there, not just numbers, analytical formulas, but also creativity and innovation, vaguer kinds of frameworks, or just individual examples to find patterns, iterative, prototyping and playtesting, we're not going to be right the first time, trying, failing, learning, trying again, doing the same thing mulsiple times, but improving from iteration to iteration, you start with a rough version, a rough prototype, gives you the basic fundamental gameplay, you can just experience the dynamics and mechanics, so that people can see the rules in playtesting, imrprove based on real experience from real users, Gamification Design Framework, D6, 1. DEFINE business objectives, Why are you gamifying?, How do you hope to benefit your business, or achieve some other goal such as motivating people to change their behavior?,  The first written assignment focused on this step of the process, so you may wish to look back on your earlier submission and the peer assessments for guidance., As you state your objectives, emphasize the end goal or goals of your gamified design rather than detailing the means through which you'll achieve this goal., Basically, if your gamified system does what you intend, what specific positive results will it generate for your organization?, 2. DELINEATE target behaviors, how to encourage people, What do you want your players to do?, And what are the metrics that will allow you to measure them?, These behaviors should promote your business objectives, although the relationship may be indirect., For example, your business goal might be to increase sales, but your target behavior could be for visitors to spend more time on your website., As you describe the behaviors, be sure to explain how they will help your system achieve its objectives., The metrics should in some fashion provide feedback to the players, letting them know when they are successfully engaging in the intended behaviors., 3. DESCRIBE your players, who is going to use the system, what are they like, Who are the people who will be participating in your gamified activity?, What is their relationship to you?, For example, are they prospective customers, employees at your organization, or some other community? And what are they like?, You can describe your players using demographics (such as age and gender), psychographics (such as their values and personalities), Bartle’s player types, or some other framework., You should show that you understand what sorts of game elements and other structures are likely to be effective for this population., For example, you might discuss whether a more competitive or cooperative system would be better for this player community., 4. DEVISE activity loops, two kinds of loops move forward the action in a gamified system, engagement loops, progression loops, Explore in greater detail how you will motivate your players using engagement and progression loops., First, describe the kinds of feedback your system will offer the players to encourage further action, and explain how this feedback will work to motivate the players., (Remember: rewards are only one kind of feedback.), Second, how if at all will players progress in your system?, This includes how the system will get new players engaged, and how it will remain interesting for more experienced players., 5. DON'T forget the fun!, Although more abstract than some of the other elements, ensuring that your gamified system is fun remains as important as the other aspects., In order to fully explore this aspect of the design process, consider how your game would function without any extrinsic rewards., Would you say it was fun?, Identify which aspects of the game could continue to motivate players to participate even without rewards., 6. DEPLOY the appropriate tools, the right tools for the right job, By this point, you've probably identified several of the game elements and other specifics of your gamified system., If you haven’t already, you should explain in detail what your system would look like., What are some of the game elements involved and what will the experience be like for the players?, What specific choices would you make in deploying your system? For example, you might discuss whether the gamified system is to be experienced primarily on personal computers, mobile devices, or some other platform., You might also describe what feedback, rewards, and other reinforcements the players could receive., Finally, think about whether you’ve tied your decisions back to the other five steps in the process, especially the business objectives.

7.2 Define Business Objectives and Delineate Target Behaviors

1. Business objectives, what is it for?, e.g. get people to accumulate points and badges, but the badges are only valuable to the company if it gets the people to buy more products or to post positive feedback on the website, => stepping stones to something else, revenue, behavior change, e.g. goals of FourSquare, goals, => get check-ins, => get information about the check-ins and the locations, social sharing, chicken-egg-problem to get enough people to "check in" to make the service valuable to others, see who the mayor of the location is, who your friends are, which tips your friends have, influencer marketing, if you're the mayer you get coupons (since you're the visiting the place most often), others will highly rate your opinion, the mayor's recommendation is more objective and valuable than offical information from the location's owner, how to catalog the goals?, 1. list them (as specificly as possible) and rank possible objectives, 2. eliminate the stepping stones (like collecting badges), the means to ends, 3. justify the objectives (short explanation), start to see the relationships among the objectives

2. Target behaviors, the things you want the users to do, advice, be specific, figure out the success metrics ("win states" in gamer terms) for achieving the goals of the gamified systems, what will let you decide that you've achieved the goals?, what are the analytics, the way of measuring the path towards the win states?, DAU / MAU, "daily average users" over "monthly average users", number of daily users per day, how often do people come back?, total visits, unique visitors, e.g. 2. mio daily average users over 10 million monthly average users, 20%, 100% ... every user comes back every day, => very sticky, low value => not engaging, people only come sporadically, Virality, one person tells how many other people about it, how fast does the community grow, Volume of activity, how many badges per month, etc., overall number of interactions with the system

7.3 Describe Your Players

demographics, age, income level

psychographics, what do you know about their behavior, what do they like to buy, what do they like to do

starting points is general things that you know about your players

more interesting: what motivates them

Bartle MMOG Player Type Model, by Richard Bartle (University of Essex), MMOG ... massivly multiplayer online game, two-by-two matrix, players <=> world, acting <=> interacting with those things, Achievers, want to act on the world, reach some achievement, overcome some obstacle, get some recognition of their achievement, Explorers, want to interact with the world, go, try and see, push on the limits of the world just because it's there, try out every piece, figure out new things with the game, Socializers, want to interact with other players, being on teams, talking and chatting, being part of a community, social experience is more important than the achievements that come out of this social interaction, Killers, want to act on other players, don't just go out and win the game, but stomp on other people, vanquish and destroy them, impose themselves on other people, also by healing, a small but important part, 1% of the population, most people are not killers all of the time, they care a LOT about the game, Caveat, we are not always in the same quadrant, we switch between them

7.4 Devise Activity Loops

loop ... what is repeated forever, repetitive, recursive structures, but also branching off into different directions

engagement loops, at the micro level, individual user actions, the constant process of, motivators appear, the game gives the user to do something, to take an action, to overcome a challenge, to go and do something, if the motivation is strong enough, it will lead to an action (otherwise the loop dies), if there's an action, the user gets clear, immediate feedback, seeing the level of performance, which then again becomes a motivator, each piece shall reinforce each other piece

progression loops, at the macro level, how the game moves forward, broader structures of activity throughout the course of the game, series of fairly small challenges, part of a larger challenge, specific steps lead to achievement of sub-challenges, several sub-challenges lead to the overall goal of the game, all immediate steps are balanced effectively, easy enough, player's evolution in the game from a novice to a master, initially onboarding, getting players to the point where the know the basics of how to play the game on their own, people get exhausted if it always gets up, rising and falling action, ever climbing and resting, climbing and resting, at some point in time "Boss Fights", the game says: "now you have a really hard challenge to conquer if you want to get into the next level", a demarcation point to get to the next level or segment of the game, making tremendous gain towards mastery, progress through the integrated set of challenges, makes the process feel more interesting to the people

7.5 Don't Forget the Fun and Apploy the Appropriate Tools

if it's "just a PBL system", it's easy to forget the fun

keep asking "why would you want to do this?", how to bring more engagement, more puzzles, more fight?

PBLs can be fun, but you have to make sure that they actually unleash the different versions of fun, e.g. Samsung Nation, is it exciting just because Samsung writes so?, do you have fun by looking around on their website?, fun can be anywhere, e.g. Fitocracy, overall experience is more fun-like, you feel awesome just by using the site, e.g. LinkedIn progress bar, getting feedback, knowing that you're already done, knowing the next step to get ahead, => there's just a lightweight bit of fun in it, e.g. FoldIt, proteine folding, computing all possible folding (3d shapes) takes a lot of computing power, but folding them manually can be fun, => it has been made easy to participate, => while having a good reason (help to fight AIDS)

The Right Tools, pyramid of components, mechanics, dynamics, game design techniques

then, iterate and playtest and iterate again, keep improving the system so that it works for the players

8. Design Choices

8.1 Taking Stock: Two approaches to gamification

what are some conceptual issues around gamificaiton

what are big deep questions about the future

two different kinds of gamification, both are true examples to gamification, with some overlaps

ask yourself "is it a game?", game-like / play-like attitude, meaningful choices, e.g. slot-machine, just random, gives you money or not, at random, not based on your skills, => not really a game, rather a game of chance, since there is some engagement


Doing, get inspiration from disciplines like marketing and economics, incentives that pull someone to an activity, satisfying needs, game elements, building up from the bottom, think more about status, PBLs, rewards, making users do things, that they want to do on their own, player needs some motivational help to push him along the path

Feeling, more "what you feel about something" than "what you do", get inspiration more from game design and cognitive psychology, what's going on that makes someone interested in something, experiences - something inside the player's head, fun, game thinking, starting with general principles and then go down to the specifics, think more about meaning, puzzles, learning, challenges, at the center rather than the structural and visible elements of PBL, progresison, mastery, competence, more about the journey than the rewards, making players awesome, figuring out in the first instance what it is to achieve one's full potential, focusing more on the user's goal than on the company's goals, => this approach is more "game-based"

8.2 Is Gamification right for me?

Four Questions, 1. Motivation, where would you derive value from encouraging behavior?, what are the situations where motivation is important, something complex and deep, situations that involve real, deep creativity, connections, teamwork, desire for more productivity, desire for lasting engagement, to make boring tasks interesting, a challenge that motivates intrinsicically, book "REAMDE" from Neal Stephhenson, first 200 pages, CEO of a company similar to WoW, company applies gamification for dull tasks of their clients, 3D motion capture instead of just watching people at the airports, 2. Meaningful Choices, Are your target activities sufficiently interesting?, competence and autonomy, are there options for the user, do they connect up with things that are meaningful for the user, does the gamified system do things in a way that seem interesting, where the user has to make choices, e.g. Google News Badges, badges for keep reading more stories does not involve a meaningful choice, 3. Structure, can the desired behaviors be modeled through algorithms?, so they need to be clear enough, not vague, can we use rules / algorithms to implement a gamified system, e.g. Samsung Nation, what does it take to get the points?, what is worth more?, sharing on Twitter, 100 points, registering your product, 500 points, points let you make those choices and tradeoffs, points are just guides (little motivators), the people then make the choice / tradeoff what to do / what path to follow, 4. Potential Conflicts, can the game avoid tension with other motivational structures?, what other motivation structures are there out there, salary, desire not to get fired, should I be doing this for the salary or for the fun, what's the tradeoff between the two?, e.g. grades in schools, gamified leaderboard / experience points system, by Lee Sheldon, giving experience points instead a letter grade (A+, A, B, C, D, E, F), you start good and fall back, get ever worse grades, games work up (instead of down), you earn experience points and keep growing, until you reach the final level (which is your grade)

8.3 Case Study: Designing for collective good

StackOverflow, Co-Founder Jeff Atwood,

Q & A site for programmers, how do you encourage a group to do what's best for the world rather than their own, specific, you ask questions, other answer questions, how do you get people to spend their own volunteer time?, > 2 mio registered users, > 5,000 new questions per day, > 10,000 new answers per day, think about the problem in the right way, what is programming?, "the field of programming is almost by definition one of constant learning", "programming is supposed to be fun", => make people want to do it voluntarily, implement a system that reflects the community, know your players!, meaning is socially constructive, what is meaningful is specific to the community, FourSquare badges are very colorful, graphical, with inside jokes, Stackoverflow badges look different => numbers and information, not visual clutter, question, answer, with picture from user, with his points and badges, another answer, with more points etc., where the original answer is improved, "StackOverflow makes helping your fellow programmers the most effective way to 'win'...", you have to work as a team to become productive, to win the game you have to be effective as a teammate, you don't win by being awesome on yourself, you win as a team, points, are called reputation, you earn them when your fellow users vote up your questions and answers, and not for your action, but when other people say "you did a good job", bounties, you can give reputation to people for good answers or good questions, => notion of exchange and gifting, => reward not individual achievement but actions that serve the collective good, rather than their own specific, selfish needs, => groups tend to fall apart, since the individuals have their own goals, they lack the hierarchy and structure, the game elements work against destructive forces, "they are there in service of a higher purpose", reputation gives you certain powers, abilities that make you a moderator, badges in stackoverflow are different, they are about "doing things", some are about "being good for others", especially the gold badges are geared towards social behavior

8.4 Designing for happiness

how to apply gamification in a way that makes people happy and fulfilled

positive psychology, psychology in general is about pathology (if something is wrong), positive psychology looks at what makes people happy and fulfilled, what things it takes to make them feel better about themselves, Martin Seligman, book "Flourish", PERMA, Positive emotions, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, Achievement, => the five core aspects of being a flourishing, fulfilled individual, => if gamification is done right, then it should address them, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Flow, a state that we sometimes get into, we are very engaged in what we're doing, time loses its meaning, wonderful state, in work activities as well as in play activities, what does it take to get into the flow state?, characteristics of an activity to allow flow to occur, difficulty level over time, if the activitiy is too difficult, it creates anxiety (we can't succeed, it scares us off), if the activity is too easy, we get bored, in the middle between Anxiety and Boredom is the "flow channel", activity has to be constantly not too easy and not too hard, movement shall be variable, so that "autopilot" does not work, the system needs to be adapting (so that we never go too hard or too easy), => keep tuning the system, => make it adaptive, clear goals, balance between perceived challenges and perceived skills, perceived ... the game feels like it's just hard enough, that's just a feeling, it does not have to be objective, clear and immediate feedback, feedback shall allow you to become totally immersed in the activity

8.5 Amy Jo Kim interview

game design professional, expert on social architectures, author and workshop organizer

gamification as a word will go away, but the ideas and techniques will be integrated in many kinds of design, now we see the awakening of a longer-lasting trend

player types, according to Bartles (1996), players <=> world, acting <=> interacting, Killers, acting on players, Achievers, PBL appeal mostly to that group, acting on the world, Explorers, interacting with the world, Socializers, interacting with players, Kim's Social Engagement Verbs (2010), content <=> players, acting <=> interacting, Express, self-expression, Compete, like achievers, Collaborate, Explore, Untitled, map out the core actions of the game or gamified system against that chart and see where they lie, Untitled, does it match to who you're trying to reach?, are they going to engage in that way?, males => compete, females => collaborate

types of games, a game is a system in which, players engage in an artificial conflice, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome, Zero-Sum games, if I win, you lose, we are opponents, examples, head-to-head battles, war simulations, rank-ordered competitions, gambling, a game is a, structured experience with rules and goals that's fun to play, no quantifiable outcome, you just keep playing, examples, The Sims, The Sims Online, Ultimate Online, Rock Band, Non-Zero-Sum-Games, we are not opponents, but partners, win-win or possibly lose-lose, examples, playground games, party games, pictionary, Draw Something, martial arts, charity walk

web and games, from web design / social media into gamification, people in the web world, understand, funnels, engagement loops, loyalty, don't understand, a gaming experience changes over time, there are key stages in a player's life, the player's Journey, newbie, regular, expert, the most dedicated 2-5% of your players, who can do what everybody else can't do, => you need to respond to the increasing commitment and skill, if you just through a bunch of points at people, you will get a short-term lift, but it's not sustainable, the experience has to evolve over time to make it sustainable

9. Enterprise Gamification

9.1 Enterprise applications

internal gamification - in a large business organization

gamify a proces or a system

wide range of differend kinds of usage

major areas, intranet or extranet engagement, online collaboration for employees or extended network, compare StackOverflow, e.g. SAP, productivity enhancement, helping or encouraging employees to do their core job better, sales person is different to accountant, than a customer-service agent, gamification can profide information and feedback, efficiency enhancement, productivity is in someone's core job responsibility, efficiency is about making them better by doing everything in work efficiently, e.g. email, time, progress bar, points, virtual costs for sending and receiving an email, knowledge management, e.g. Deloitte's WhoWhatWhere, to find out more information about each other (among Consultants), human resources, hiring, onboarding, acculturation, corporate training, performance review, employee recognition, travel and entertainment reimbursement, originally just recover money, or bank it, or give it to charity, or cash out at a discount, innovation, Idea Street,, marketplace for ideas, serious games, Siemens PlantVille

9.2 Workplace motivations

what motivates people at work, rewards, pay, bonuses, stock options, verbal praise, promotions, responsibility, => almost entirely extrinsic motivators, as compensation, something that compensates you for something that you don't really want to do, skill development,, learning for part-timers and people in the homeoffice, information, employees don't always know how they are doing, corporate citizenship, Microsoft's language qualtiy game, fun,, The Face Game, to get to know their co-workers

9.3 The game vs. the job

game <=> job, the game is the thing that engages them, the game may push in one way while the job may push in another way, e.g. call center, game rules incentivize short calls, company may lose money by shorter calls

citizenship behaviors, altruism, be good to other people, conscientousness, take pride in what you do, civic virtue, care about doing your part for the community, courtesy, sportsmanship, be fair to others

Ross Smith's Framework (Microsoft), in-role behavior, according to your job description, core skills, unique skills, future skills, things that you want to learn for the future, citizenship behaviors, core skills, language quality game, everybody speaks his own language, so no training required, do because it's part of being a good corporate citizen, unique skills, future skills, there are two big categories of gamification application in the workplace, => get groups involved in collaboration, citizenship & core skills, => get individual people involved, in-role & future skills, in other fields gamification does not have the same potential

9.4 Playbor

is the game truly voluntary?

play + labor = playbor, a game has to be voluntary, you choose to play, you choose to take the rules seriously, forced to play a game a work, forced to use a gamified system,, isn't it more about the company monetaring the people?, external, extrinsic reward or punishment, it's not so much about fun for the employee, are those mandatory systems ethical?,, the "electronic whip", Steve Lopez: Disneyland workers answer to 'electronic whip' Anaheim laundry workers monitored by giant big screens aim to keep productivity high as they worry about paying more for healthcare. In the basements of the Disneyland and Paradise Pier hotels in Anaheim, big flat-screen monitors hang from the walls in rooms where uniformed crews do laundry. The monitors are like scoreboards, with employees' work speeds compared to one another. Workers are listed by name, so their colleagues can see who is quickest at loading pillow cases, sheets and other items into a laundry machine., "I was nervous ... and felt that I was being controlled even more", how can gamified systems be designed, to promote the beneficial aspects of gamificaton, not to lead to competition that demoralizes the workforce and will lead to worse performance, => system must be perceived as voluntary, => system must be perceived as transparent, is it just informational to help me do a better job, or is it used to control me

9.5 Daniel Debow interview

Rypple - acquired by SalesForce,, amplify behavior by, goal setting, coaching, gathering feedback, social performance management instead of quarterly or yearly

use of gamification and game designers was not intended, they just wanted to design a great experience, most games fail - so it's not just throwing game mechanics onto something to make it successful, use gamification only for things that were already good, because they are already intrinsically rewarding, => look at the data, how people respond, if people like to do something, make it the core of the solution, => look at behavior, what they actually do, e.g. send emails, have physical objects, the meaning that people attach to something, makes it intrinsically rewarding, if you tell a story about the meaning of a badge, then it means much more to the people, where do people show the behavior in real life

approach with Rypple, ask for feedback, give feedback, add little symbolism, look at the data, make the most intrinsically rewarding thing the core, experiment

internal systems, be aware of the social construct that the people exist in, incentivized social sharing like Dropbox, bring your friends, they get 10$, and you get 10$, within a company that may lead to people inviting less friends, they feld bad about doing it for money, it has to be good in and of itself, participating in (possibly) frivolous behavior is dictated by the culture of the organization, people moderate their behavior because they know they are at work and are controlled to some extent

will gamification work for tradiaitonal companies as well, people play games at work already, badges, status symbols, job titles, corner office, language in literature, "blame game", "career game", etc.

how do you avoid that game mechanics make it just more competitive or cut-throat, => look at the data how people behave, => get people involved who have actually designed games, what does the literature say about it, => think about them as amplification tools, what do you want to have more of

10. Social Good and Behavior Change

10.1 Gamification for good?

things that have some societal benefit

things that involve helping the person become better, happier, more fulfilled, healthier

games bring, positive emotions, being involved, socialability, engagement

what's different about gamification in a context with a focus on social or personal impact, inherent relatedness, see self-determination theory, intrinsic, internal, self-directed inherent motivation, being related to something bigger, interacting with friends, or when the activity has some greater meaning or purpose, => it's not always simple to unlock that power of relatedness, => gamification is about activating that sense of relatedness, making it meaningful and real so that people act on their latent desire to engage in that activities, but: should there be rewards for doing good?, behavior change - getting people over the hump

10.2 Social good applications

four categories, health and wellness, Zamzee, from HopeLabs (they also develop serious games for cancer recovery), similar to Nike Plus system, or Fit Bit system, but it targets low-income teenagers, => 30% increase, Kia System, Fitocracy, Superbetter (by Jane McGonigal's company), to overcome illnesses and health challenges, energy and environment, Opower, reports on how much energy you use in your house and what the patterns are, shows relational data (compares to neighbors and friends), => peer pressure is really powerful => 2-4% improvement in energy savings, Recycle Bank, recycle to get points which you can redeem and you get rewards, education, the challenge is to make the system better and not worse, students shall not optimize towards the rewards system, the intrinsic motivation shall prevail, Quest to Learn (led by Katie Salen), Lee Sheldon - experience points instead of standard grades, credentialing function, traditionally diplomas or standardized tests, OpenBadge framework of the Mozilla foundation, showcase and confirm certain skills, government, to promote its policies

10.3 Social good techniques

CAPRI (Congestion and Parking Relief Incentives),, by prof. BAlaji Prabahkar, feedback & rewards, monitoring, automatically done, raises privacy and confidentiality issues, no need for manual input, => since it's typically hard to get people to report, communal pressure, see what friends are doing (regarding their parking behavior), social norms - you don't want to be too much out of norm

Competition, Kukui Cup, do better than your peers, if there's no existing system that could be lessened, then competition is probably good

Chance, dollars or credits as a reward, credits can be used for games, where you have a chance for a bigger reward, lottery-type of system, depending on your status level, you get a better chance to win a prize

10.4 Behavior change

what's the secret to sustainable behavior change?

habit formation, if you know objectively that something is good for you, you will not automatically do it, => you need help to get from conscious mode to the automatic mode of thinking

Fogg Behavior Model, Untitled, B ... Behavior, B = m.a.t, motivation, ability, "perceived" ability, what the person thinks he/she can do, trigger, => all three need to be present at the same moment, then we take action, the more motivated you are, the more likely you're going to do them, the easier it is, the more likely you're going to do it, triggers only work above the activation threshold, if both motivation and ability are high, a trigger is more likely to work, Motivation and ability can trade off against each other, Trigger timing, => if the person is prepared to take action, it works better, => not too many triggers, otherwise people are overwhelmed, Trigger types, Spark, => increase motivation, Facilitator, => increase your perceived ability, Signal, just signals, an alarm clock, a reminder, => you're already motivated and able enough, Magic Potion of Game Dynamics,, engagement loops, => Motivation, feedback makes you more motivated to do something, from motivation to an action to feedback, "the addiction loop" that creates the pull that you want to do something, progression loops, => Perceived Ability, from onboarding over growing to mastery, => people feel comfortable with ever more difficult tasks, good games trigger effectively, put something in front of you at the right moment, => you need to understand people's behavior

10.5 Susan Hunt Stevens interview

Susan Hunt Stevens, founder of Practically Green

Using Gamification for Social Good, bringing transparency to social norms, we can see what the other is doing (among friends or colleagues), => then either compete, collaborate, learn, share,..., get behavior on a scale, => level system, so people know where they are, get people to act, => point system, how to give recognition of an accomplishment, => bring in FUN through gamification

what does it take to get people engaged in long term change?, most games have a short shelf-life, you have to design differently for long-term play, keep people motivated and inspired, need to provide contents, => most important it's the community, 80% of the people are participating for the social benefit, the people you're playing with is what keeps you there, => let people interact with each other, motivate, inspire each other

trusted groups <=> groups of strangers, existing communities as a jump start, playing with colleagues you're more engaged, then playing with family members, than with neighbors, then with people you don't know

loops, feedback, badge or award, next step, how to provide reinforcement and rewards to people, status, access, power, more information, more capability, how to get the feedback loop going, that gets them doing the next thing, that provides them the positive feedback, how to get them to provide positive feedback to others, to become a contributor, and finally a loyalist

how to avoid being too focused on the awards, => don't have redeemable points, the more tangible the reward is and the more valuable it is, the more incentive there is to cheat the system, => really think what creates the intrinsic rewards, e.g. really positive feedback from someone else, => stuff leads to cheating, => you cheat a lot among people that you don't know, much less among colleagues, => there are too much social downsides in trusted groups to be dishonest

will gamification become a norm for behavior change, yes, but offline and online are both important

11. Critiques and Risks

11.1 Pointsification

term coined by Margaret Robertson, > 2010 > 10 > 06 > Cant-play-wont-play,, "taking the thing that is least essential to games and representing it as the core of the experience", "Points and badges have no closer a relationship to games than they do to websites and fitness apps and loyalty cards", => just the surface aspects (the game mechanics), which won't lead to true engagement, => the powerful motivational aspects are [often] not at the core of gamification, if you stay on the behavioral side (as Robertson criticizes), you may not get the value of gamification

Does gamification actually work?, to get to sustained, important, deep engagement?, => empirical research on effectiveness is still lacking, e.g. Ethan Mollick (at Wharton School),, if gamification is reduced to pointsification, engagement may decay over time, after initial boost from surprise, engagement loops, crowding out - extrinsic rewards crowd out intrinsic motivation, Kathy Sierra: "gamification is the high fructose corn syrup of engagement",, => don't rely too much on simplistic, external reward systems, => goal must be: true intrinsic motivation, love of the activity, love of the task, love of the process

e.g. FourSquare, applying PBL on social location sytsem, redesign in early 2012, deemphasize game elements, only on third, detail screen you see the game elements, not any more on home screen or on the map, => gamification seemingly didn't work - on a sustained basis, => or game elements were more important in the growth phase, with the critical mass reached, it's more about monetization and building out off of the large number of users to real rich informational and social value

=> keep questioning whether the techniques is still worthwile and working / driving business results

implications, names are powerful, the word "gamification" seems to focus on games, bad gamification is bad, behaviorist gamification is subject to the limits / dangers of rewards, there's more to games than gamification, there's more to gamification than games

11.2 Exploitationware

exploitationware = gamification is potentially too effective, => can be used to get people to do things that aren't necessarily in their interest

e.g. "electronic whip" for Disneyland workers, leaderboard for housekeeping staff, => play board or coerced play, => exploitative <=> supportive

Ian Bogost: Exploitationware,,, gamification is a way to make people think that their job doesn't suck although it actually does, => make them ignore the real conditions of their workplace, it fundamentally undermines the nature of economic and social exchange between workers and their employers, "gamification proposes to replace real incentives with fictional ones", => if we can motivate people with shiny badges and virtual points, than why use money or better working conditions or more job responsibility, "Real incentives come at a cost but provide value for both parties based on a relationship of trust", "By contrast, pretend incentives reduce or eliminate costs, but in so doing they strip away both value and trust"

monitor the employees ever more closely <=> encourage to learn and feel more meaning, => it's how you use the tools, not the tools that are bad / dangerous

Cow Clicker,, virtual goods and virtual currency and appointment dynamcis, => there was no point other than clicking on a cow, but there are different kinds of cows, => the game is designed to show the fundamental emptiness of these kinds of systems that rely purely on these engagement loops, more than 50k people played the game, people with 100k clicks on the leaderboard

first thing, focus on the business objectives

second thing, who are the players, don't just treat them as automata

11.3 Gaming the game

don't forget about the player, you may be able to anticipate how they behave, but you can never be sure what they are going to do, => players may game the system, do something that you never intended, Gamification Can Kill (by Nicole Lazarro),, => people may react differently, => people may react stronger

cheating, e.g. a flaw allows them to accumulate points, => the players have to accept the rules of the game voluntarily, if people just interact with computer-based systems, it's easy for the people to feel it's okay to bend the rules, games with social elements tend to see this effect less

=> iteration and play-testing is criticial to find out what people actually do

beneficial cheating, James Gardner, an innovation designer, maker of Spigot, gamified prediction market system, to develop innovations by creating contests, innovation market at Lloyd's bank, people could sell their innovations, => people found out that they could find out good ideas, fraud by virtual insider trading

=> recognize that people will react in unpredictable ways to the signals that the system produces, take care that the player's behavior, doesn't destroy the game, doesn't create imbalances, doesn't make the game unplayable for many players, but let the players exercise autonomy to feel more intrinsically motivated

11.4 Legal issues

five issues, privacy, lots of information about your players, profile, who they are, what they are doing, => necessary for optimizing the experience, => but players may not like that, in the US companies can do a lot with that data, in Europe private information is handled much stricter, personally identifiable information is potentially dangerous, employment or labor law may be infringed, see "electronic whip", if game elements effect people's work performance, => is that properly disclosed, => is it consistent with the law requirements, deceptive marketing, stealth marketing, if the gamified system is not clearly advertized as marketing, people might not realize, they might play the game, and play it more and more, => people must be clear that they are involved in a marketing technique, if they feel playing the game is rewarding, but if they don't feel to be immersed into a marketing campaign, they are deceived, intellectual property, structure of badges, badges, => don't just copy, but respect the holders of the intellectual properties, virtual property rights, what happens if a user spends a lot of time and money to get something virtual, => can there be legal claims from the players towards the game operators, if the virtual property is gone, if the game designers change the rules of game, => so far it's more a license than an ownership, "CARD Act" regulates gift cards (and what happens after expiration), that may also apply to virtual currency

11.5 Regulatory issues

paid endorsements, when you market or endorse a product for money, e.g. bloggers who receive money or free products, Federal Trade Commission requires disclosure, you have to disclose the fact that you received money or free products, examples, unlock badges by liking a post on facebook, earn something by tweeting, => some virtual value may be earned, => disclosure might become necessary

banking regulation, record-keeping, reserve requirements, currency manipulation, anti-fraud, money laundering, consumer protection, taxation and accounting, => if a virtual currency is freely tradable back and forth (real money <=> virtual money), then all those banking regulation applies to the gamified system, => and possibly one may not even engage in operating such a gamified system, => beware if there is real money involved, => if there is some tradable structure

sweepstakes and gambling, in the US there is a state regulation of sweepstakes, => regulations different in different states, if the gamified system has some kind of random drawing, in the US there is a national regulation of gambling, games of skill vs. chance, gambling is "by chance", not "by skill", if you win a prize for doing something effectively, then it's not gambling (most likely), interstate gambling is prohibited, gambling is only allowed in restricted areas, access to children may be regulated / prohibited, if the gamified system has some kind of gambling, it may be subject to gambling rules and prohibition

12. Beyond the Basics

12.1 Going beyond the basics

learning goals at the beginning, 1. what is gamification, vs. serious games, vs. play, 2. why it might be valuable, to achieve real business value, to achieve real legitimate goals, vs. regulations and limitations, 3. how to do it effectively, with the proper structure, with the 6-steps game design framework, 4. specific applications

12.2 Inducement prizes

inducement prizes are a motivational technique, competitive - the winner is the one who does best, to encourage people to do something, an inducement prize is a contest to motivate a result, it is an alternative to direct funding, internal R&D, outsourcing and grants, benefits, efficiency, typically the total investment (from all people involved) is much higher, creativity and flexibility, see Exxon Valdez disaster, use a technique from pouring concrete, just specify the end will allow different paths towards the goal

prizes and gamification, a contest to MOTIVATE a result, it's an extrinsic reward, but can it also be fun?, the factors of self-determination theory, competence, => you need to show mastery, autonomy, => you do it on your own, without much help from others, relatedness, => prize goes out to a lot of people, => often collaboration and coordination are necessary, => often it's about a larger societal goal, like building autonomous cars, => all are present in a well-designed inducement prize, so, yes, they can be fun as well, initiatives, private sector, X Prize Foundation, 10 Mio USD for a space craft that gets into lower orbit, > 100 Mio USD investment by all teams, Innocentive, Kaggle, TopCoder, Governmental (US), DARPA Grand Challenges, America Competes Act, OSTP Initiative (Office of Science and Technology),,, more than 200 challenges, more than 45 agencies that have established challenges, attributes of effective prize competitions, multiple individuals / teams capable of competing, if only one group / company has the necessary skills and resources, you should just hire them to do it, costs sufficiently small, the prize only goes to the winner, everybody else loses the investment, so it must not be big, balance scale vs. incentives (Karim Lakhani),, get the prize as big as possible, => more competitors, => more creativity, => the more competitors, the less the motivation, since your odds get smaller, 1 : 10, 1 : 1,000, opportunities to leverage results, advancing the state of the art, and then build a company around it, examples, Innocentive's Challenge Products,, TopCoder's Enterprise Open Innovation,

12.3 Virtual economies

economic pressures and techniques

dynamism and benefits from real economies in games

persistent virtual rewards, like badges, if they are persistent, i.e. they remain if the player goes and comes ba, they may function as a virtual good, if they are scarce, those virtual goods may appear to have value to players

tradable / redeemable points, may act as virtual currency, redeem virtual points for a coupon or money in the real world, the point then just becomes an accounting mechanism that is tradable against real money

in-game transactions / markets, may become a functioning virtual economy

examples, virtual goods are widespread in social games, FarmVille, people had to pay for those virtual goods, or people had to work really hard for those virtual goods, worldwide virtual asset market, $7 billion in 2010, nearly $13 billion in 2016 expected, loyalty programs as virtual currency, Nescafe Australia - cup of rewards, you get points for going to the site, you accumulte those points, you can exchange them to coupons

=> often those systems are not built with a focus on fun, there are serious limitations of tangible, extrinsic rewards, => so you'd rather focus on fun rather than the extrinsic rewards

how to design a successful, virtual economy, balance is key, not too hard, too easy, too slow, economic dynamics are driven more by scarcity than money, scarcity <=> value, make sure that there is not too much money, not too little, faucets and drains, make sure there is enough "inflow" of money, make sure there is enough "outflow" of money, incentives to use the money, like "passing Go" in Monopoly, in WoW, hard to get the skills to make dragons, expensive then to use that skill

dangers, real money costs real money, and obligations come with them, like with all other tangible, extrinsic rewards, hedonic treadmill effect, reward becomes less and less desirable, crowding-out effect, no more intrinsic motivation because of the extrinsic reward, intrinsic value comes from rarity and surprise, something feels cool because it's difficult to achieve, because it's really interesting

12.4 Collective action

collaborative - collective action, crowd sourcing, to get people to work together on problems even if not part of the same organization

Stackoverflow, pro-social and collaborative behavior is incentivized, but there's no specific objective

if you want to solve some specific task, with the energy and enthusiasm of a large number of people

families of work, competitive (against each other) <=> collaborative (together), top down <=> bottom up, competitive top-down, grants, competitive bottom-up, inducement prizes, collaborative top-down, employees, collaborative bottom-up, crowd sourcing, microwork, Untitled

Microwork Exchanges, Amazon's mechanical turk,, for tasks that require human intelligence, 200k tasks available

money motivates

but what else motivates?, if you use gamification like,,, people are really good at figuring out how a protein might fold, you get real-world proteins and can fold it, => make something fun or puzzle-like, Microtask in Finland,, human powered document processing, e.g. gamification for proof-reading, ESP Game, you see a picture and shall type in what you see, if two people type in the same word, then it's assumed to be correct, => to improve "image search", for meta-tagging

what kinds of tasks can easily be done by collective action?, nature of the task, can it be split up easily?, each working on a segment, are humans better than computers?, not too hard for people, not too easy for computers, how to motivate, for money, for love, something people care about, e.g. preserve Finnish literature, for fun, => gamification can work here especially well, or for all three

12.5 The future of gamification

what if gamification really becomes pervasive in society, what would it be like, short film "Sight", by Eran May-raz and Daniel Lazo,, as their graduation project from Bezaleal Academy of Arts, physical excercise, lenses, fridge - look and see what's where, chopping cucumbers - get points for cutting them right, egg in the pan - points for right place, eat something and see a game "snail zombie", wall filled with screen, buttons on shelf, badges on the wall, date reminder, star constellation rehearsal game, date, posting suggested tweets, interactive menu, voice analysis, pay by eye motion, both see walls decorated

12.6 Course review and wrap-up

questions / choices, gamification to empower <=> or to manipulate, shallow <=> thoughtful

secret message was, FOR THE WIN, once in every unit, there would be one or two playing cards in the middle left shelf, letters were coded