Migration: Chapter 3

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Migration: Chapter 3 by Mind Map: Migration: Chapter 3


1.1. Legal Restrictions

1.1.1. immigration laws designed by the constitiution to prevent immigration of chinese people to caloifornia.

1.1.2. efforts to restrict migrationan are nothing new, amd they are typically legal not physical.

1.2. Waves of Migration in the U.S.

1.2.1. during the 1800's two major waves of Europeans entered the U.S. starting with N&W to E&S Europe.

1.2.2. Quotas Immigration quotas were made so that emigration of the U.S. from European countries would only be 3% of u.s. nationals living. Lowered to 2% in 1924.

1.2.3. Selective immigration Individuals with certain backgrounds are banned from entering the country. Ex. South Africa long demanded "pure" European descent.

1.3. Post-September 11

1.3.1. Since this tragerdy government security has become more intense especially in search of asylum-seekers, legal and illegal imigrants.

1.3.2. MIgration concern will continue to shape security policies in the U.S., Europe and more.

2. Field Note:

2.1. Risking Lives for Remittances

2.1.1. Hundreds of thousands immigrants flee from there homes by boat for jobs in the major countries. some welcomed others turned away some die before they even arrive. immigration into the U.S.

2.1.2. government greatly impact migrations flows. An estimated 10 million illegal immigrants live in the U.S. about 1/3 of the total Ex. The U.S. are building nonclimable but communicatable fences along the mexican border.

2.1.3. Remittances The money migrants send home to family.


3.1. Movement of people changes the places they are from and their destination.

3.1.1. Mobility ranges from local-global.

3.2. Types of movement:

3.2.1. Cyclic movement shorter periods away from home

3.2.2. periodic movement involves longer periods away from home

3.2.3. Migration involves a degree of permanance (may never return home).

3.3. Cyclic Movement

3.3.1. Movement throughout our activity spaces. Are expanded through advances in transportation technoloogy.

3.3.2. communiting, a journey which starts and ends at home and goes to one location inbetween. Ex. start at home go to work and come back home right after.

3.3.3. Nomadism dwindling across the world

3.4. Periodic Movement

3.4.1. Migrant Labor workers move across the border to work in a farm field and return home or become an immigrant.

3.4.2. transhumance a system of pastorialfarming in which ranchers move livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures. Ex. in switzerland cattle are driven up mountains to high fresh pastures during the summer.

3.4.3. Ex. Attending college far away, or going to summer school.

3.4.4. Military Service Going to work with the military for several months or years before returning home.

3.5. Migration

3.5.1. Permanent relocation across significant distances.

3.5.2. International Migration movement across country borders. You are an emigrant once you leave the country and an immigrant once you enter a new country.

3.5.3. Internal Migration Migration which occurs within a countrys borders. Ex. In the U.S. internal migration is carrying people to the Sunbelt and Far west, because of the aging population. It varies according to the mobility and economics of the population.


4.1. Migration can be a result of a voluntary act, or an involuntary act, a forced migratiom. Not always a fine line inbetween these two.

4.1.1. Forced Migration (no option) forced by authority or power and cannot be understood based on theories of choice.

4.1.2. Voluntary Migration (option) occur once a migrant has thought through it and chosen to make the movement.

4.2. Studies of migration show men are more mobile than women most likely because men have better employment options and generally earn more.

4.2.1. MIgration flow between men and women is hard to describe it is diffierent on different scales.

4.3. Forced Migration

4.3.1. Ex. Atlantic Slave Trade carried tens of millions of africans from their homes to south America, the Caribbean, and North Americ whith huge loss of life. Slaves were used as workers on plantations.It still has an impact on today with the amount of africans in the population in these areas.

4.3.2. Ex. Tens of thousands of British convicts shipped to Australia beginning in 1788.

4.3.3. Ex. In 1800's Native Americans were forced off their land by the government.

4.3.4. Ex. In 1930's the Nazis forced migration of jews in Germany.

4.4. Push and Pull Factors in Voluntary Migration

4.4.1. Gravity model Predictions of interactions caused by a places population size and distance between them. Small distance = Strong Interaction Large Distance = slight Interaction

4.4.2. Result in the decision to migrate and where to migrate. Pull Factors Draw migrants to a certain place- cause decision of where to go. More vague and may depend on perception of place. Distance decay Step migration Distance decay Push Factors Help migrants decide to leave a place. They are perceived more accurately. Intervening Opportunity An opportunity you run into along the way causing your destination to be delayed or changed completely.

4.4.3. Laws of migration Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration The majority of migrants move a short distance. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants or rural areas. Families are less likely to make International moves than young adults.

4.5. Types of Push and Pull Factors

4.5.1. Usually a combination of factors result in decision to move and decision where to go. Economic Conditions A condition such as poverty pushes people to move to a place like America or Europe for better living. Political Circumstances Politics cause people to escape and expulusion from the politic situation Armed Conflict and Civil War Wars and conflicts cause people to flee there homes too save their health and lives. Environmental Conditions Causes may be earthquakes, hurricanes and volcanic eruptions. Ex. When the Potato crop was destroyed in 1840's causing a famine and migration of hundreds of thousands. Culture and Traditions People migrate to stray strong in there religion and safe from threat of others. Technological Advances Migration has become easier and cheaper because of advances in technology. Kinship Links Chain Migration Immigration Waves


5.1. Global Migration Flows

5.1.1. global-scale Long -distance migration Explorers Cartographers, surveyors mapped the world. Colonization

5.2. Regional Migration Flows

5.2.1. Regional Scale migration to neiboring countries for short term oppotunities.

5.2.2. Economic Oppotunities Isalnds of Development often coastal cities, were established on acess to trade during European conialism. Help us understand how places fit with in the global and regional interaction picture.

5.2.3. Reconnection of Cultural Groups regional migration flows also center on reconnecting cultural groups across borders.

5.2.4. Conflict and war Wars cause people to migrate either forced or voluntary as a result of the outcome of the war. Ex. in 1960's Cubans fleed to the U.S. to leave the communist government.

5.3. National Migration Flows

5.3.1. international migration flows, Ex. 1950 the U.S. population moved westward. Ex. Russias population migrated west to east durint the czarist and communist periods. Ex. Mexicans migrated to the south of the U.S. about half the population migrated.

5.4. Guest Workers

5.4.1. labor migrants, often needed after wars and return to home country when no longer needed. legal immigrants with usually short term Visas.

5.4.2. often work as agricultural laborers or in service industries(hotels,restraunrs, tourist attractions.)

5.5. Refugees

5.5.1. They flee the crisis in their home countries and walk miles out of the borders to freedom.

5.5.2. In 2000 there was estimated 24 million refugees around the world.

5.5.3. A person who has well founded fear of being persecuted fits reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion. - UNHCR

5.5.4. Internal Refugees People displaced within their country And they do not cross international borders.

5.5.5. International refugees They cross one or more international borders as they migrate.

5.5.6. Refuges can be Identified by 3 characteristics. Most refugees only move with what they can transport or carry with them. They make there first step on foot, by bicycle, wagon or open boat. They migrate without official documents, international refugees carry a few or no identifying papers.

5.5.7. Regions of Dislocation Subsaharan Africa holds majority of the worlds refugeesand and is impacted by the migration flow because of this. North Africa and Southwest Asia Alot of there refugge problems center on the conflicts between Iraq, afiganistan. and south asia country Pakastan. South Asia Pakastan's role in accomadation for Afaganastan and a civil was in sri Lanka leads South asia to number three of refugee numbers. Sotheast Asia Its refugee problems change qickly and take place in Vietnam, Cambodia, Indochina , Thailand and Myanmur. Europe The collapse of Yugoslavia has been the largest refugee crisis in Europe total of 6,056,600 refugees as a result. Other Regions The number of refugees in other regions is alot lees.

5.6. \

6. Summary

6.1. Migration can occur as a result of a concious decision (voluntary) or under duress (Forced.

6.2. Migration has left a indeliable mark on the wold and its culutural landscape.

6.3. MIgration will expand and further complicate the global cultural pattern.