Macromolecules

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Macromolecules by Mind Map: Macromolecules

1. Proteins

1.1. polypeptides

1.1.1. chain of amino acids

1.1.1.1. sequence determined by gene

1.2. peptide bonds

1.2.1. form between carboxy and amino side groups

1.3. formed during translation of mRNA

1.4. Functions: enzymes, structural, cell signalling, cell adhesion, receptors

1.5. N-terminus, C-terminus

1.6. folds: primary/secondary, tertiary , and quaternary structure

1.7. have binding sites for biochemical reactions

1.8. Ex. actin, collagen, sodium potassium pump, flagella

2. Nucleic Acids

2.1. Ex. DNA, RNA

2.1.1. DIffer by lack of hydroxyl group in DNA

2.1.1.1. hence "deoxy"

2.2. Composed of nucleotides

2.2.1. Contains pentose sugar, phosphate, & a nitrogenous base

2.3. Have phosphodiester bonds

2.3.1. link sugar with phosphate groups in chain

2.4. 5' and 3' ends

2.4.1. Gives directionality

2.5. Make up chromosomes/genetica material

3. Lipids

3.1. Functions: store energy, structural component of cell membrane, cell signalling

3.2. hydrophobic or amphipathic

3.3. ex. cholesterol

3.4. Groupings: fatty acids, triglycerides

3.5. saturated/unsaturated

4. Carbohydrates

4.1. Contains C, H, and O

4.1.1. hence "carbo" "hydrate" (H2O)

4.2. Ex, glucose, lactose, starch, cellulose, chitin

4.3. aka "saccharides"

4.3.1. "mono", "di", "oligo" and "poly" -saccharides

4.3.1.1. mono and disaccharides=sugar

4.4. Functions: store energy, sturctural, backbone of genetic material, forms part of enzymes

4.5. glycosidic linkage

4.6. Foods: fruits, sweets, soft drinks, pasta, bread