Muscles

mind map of all of the muscles we had to know for BMSP 2135

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Muscles by Mind Map: Muscles

1. Head and Neck

1.1. Facial Expression

1.1.1. Scalp/Brow: Occipitofrontalis

1.1.1.1. Occipitalis

1.1.1.1.1. Retract: Scalp

1.1.1.2. Frontalis

1.1.1.2.1. Elevates: Brow

1.1.1.2.2. Draw Forward: Scalp

1.1.2. Oral Region:

1.1.2.1. Orbicularis oris

1.1.2.1.1. Encircles: Mouth

1.1.2.1.2. Protrudes: Lips

1.1.2.1.3. Closes: Lips

1.1.2.2. Levator labii superioris

1.1.2.2.1. Elevates: UL

1.1.2.2.2. Everts: UL

1.1.2.3. Depressor labii inferioris

1.1.2.3.1. Draw Down: LL

1.1.2.3.2. Draw Lateral: LL

1.1.2.4. Risorius

1.1.2.4.1. Draw Up: < of Mouth

1.1.2.4.2. Draw Lateral: < of Mouth

1.1.2.5. Zygomaticus major

1.1.2.5.1. Draw Up: < of Mouth

1.1.2.5.2. Draw Lateral:< of Mouth

1.1.2.6. Zygomaticus minor

1.1.2.6.1. Elevates: UL

1.1.3. Orbital/Nasal Region:

1.1.3.1. Nasalis

1.1.3.1.1. Widens Nostrils

1.1.3.2. Orbicularis oculi:

1.1.3.2.1. Closes eyes

1.1.3.2.2. Tear flow across eye ~ Aid

1.1.3.2.3. Sphincter of the eyelids

1.1.4. Mental/Buccal Region:

1.1.4.1. Mentalis

1.1.4.1.1. Elevates:

1.1.4.1.2. Protrudes: LL

1.1.4.2. Buccinator

1.1.4.2.1. Compresses: Cheek against teeth/gums

1.1.4.2.2. Retracts: Cheek

1.1.4.3. Platysma

1.1.4.3.1. Draw Downward:

1.1.4.3.2. Opening mouth wide ~ Aid

1.2. Mandible Movement

1.2.1. Temporalis

1.2.1.1. Retracts: Man

1.2.1.2. Elevates: Man

1.2.1.3. Lateral Excursion: Man

1.2.1.4. Medial Excursion: Man

1.2.2. Masseter

1.2.2.1. Elevation: Man(1)

1.2.2.2. Protraction: Man

1.2.2.3. Retraction: Man

1.2.2.4. Lateral Excursion: Man

1.2.2.5. Medial Excursion: Man

1.3. Neck Muscles

1.3.1. Hyoid muscles

1.3.1.1. Suprahyoid

1.3.1.1.1. Digastric

1.3.1.2. Infrahyoid

1.3.1.2.1. Fix the hyoid from below-> allows suprahyoids to open the mouth

1.3.2. Pharyngeal constrictors

1.3.2.1. Drive food into esophagus

1.4. Head Movement

1.4.1. Neck Flexors

1.4.1.1. Sternocleidomastoid

1.4.1.1.1. Bilateral:

1.4.1.1.2. Unilateral:

1.4.1.2. Scalenes

1.4.1.2.1. Bilateral:

1.4.1.2.2. Unilateral:

1.4.2. Neck Extensors

1.4.2.1. Trapezius

1.4.2.1.1. Depress: Scapula (apex of shoulder)

1.4.2.1.2. Elevate: Scapula (apex of shoulder)

1.4.2.1.3. Retracts: Scapula

1.4.2.1.4. Lateral Rotation: Scapula

1.4.2.1.5. Fix: Scapula & Sholder

1.4.2.1.6. Extend: Neck

1.4.2.1.7. Lateral Flexion: Neck

1.4.2.2. Splenius capitis/cervicis

1.4.2.2.1. Uniateral:

1.4.2.2.2. Bilateral:

1.4.2.3. Semispinalis capitis/cervicis

1.4.2.3.1. Extend: Head

1.4.2.3.2. CR: Head

2. Trunk

2.1. Breathing

2.1.1. Diaphragm: INSPIRATION(1)

2.1.1.1. Contracts

2.1.1.1.1. Compress: Abdominal Viscera

2.1.1.1.2. Childbirth and waste expulsion ~ Aid

2.1.2. External intercostals

2.1.2.1. SCALENES FIX RIB 1

2.1.2.1.1. Elevate: Rib 2-12

2.1.2.1.2. Protract: Rib 2-12

2.1.3. Internal intercostals

2.1.3.1. Intercartilaginous Part: Inspiration

2.1.3.1.1. Elevate: Ribs ~ Aid

2.1.3.1.2. Expand: Thomactic Cav ~ Aid

2.1.3.2. Interosseous Part: Expiration

2.1.3.2.1. Compress: Thoractic Cavity via:

2.2. Abdominal Wall Muscles

2.2.1. Anterior Wall

2.2.1.1. Oblique

2.2.1.1.1. Bilateral: for external and internal

2.2.1.1.2. Unilateral:for external

2.2.1.1.3. Unilateral: for internal

2.2.1.2. Transversus abdominis

2.2.1.2.1. Compress: abdominal organs {allows:}

2.2.1.3. Rectus abdominis

2.2.1.3.1. Flex: Lumbar vertebral column region

2.3. Pectoral Girdle Muscles

2.3.1. Anterior Group

2.3.1.1. Pectoralis minor

2.3.1.1.1. With serratus anterior:

2.3.1.1.2. With other musc

2.3.1.2. Serratus anterior

2.3.1.2.1. With pectoralis minor

2.3.1.2.2. Protract: Scapula

2.3.1.2.3. FIx: Scapula

2.3.1.2.4. Elevate: Apex of shoulder (via rotating scapula) ~ Aid

2.3.2. Posterior Group

2.3.2.1. Trapezius

2.3.2.1.1. Depress: Scapula (apex of shoulder)

2.3.2.1.2. Elevate: Scapula (apex of shoulder)

2.3.2.1.3. Retracts: Scapula

2.3.2.1.4. Lateral Rotation: Scapula

2.3.2.1.5. Fix: Scapula & Sholder

2.3.2.1.6. Extend: Neck

2.3.2.1.7. Lateral Flexion: Neck

2.3.2.2. Levator scapulae

2.3.2.2.1. Elevate: Scapula (IF CERVIC. VERT FIXED)

2.3.2.2.2. Lateral Flexion: Neck (IF SCAPULA FIXED)

2.3.2.2.3. ~

2.3.2.2.4. ~

2.3.2.3. Rhomboid minor/major

2.3.2.3.1. ~

2.3.2.3.2. Fix: Scapula

3. Shoulder and Upper Limb

3.1. Humerus Movement

3.1.1. Axial Muscles

3.1.1.1. Pectoralis major

3.1.1.1.1. Flex: Humerus

3.1.1.1.2. Adducts:Humerus

3.1.1.1.3. Medial Rotation: Humerus

3.1.1.1.4. Deep Inspiration ~Aid

3.1.1.2. Latissimus dorsi

3.1.1.2.1. Adducts:Humerus

3.1.1.2.2. Medial Rotation: Humerus

3.1.1.2.3. Extends: Shoulder joint

3.1.1.2.4. Misc

3.1.1.2.5. Aids in extreme breathing functions *see note*

3.1.2. Scapular Muscles

3.1.2.1. Deltoid

3.1.2.1.1. Anterior Fibers:

3.1.2.1.2. Lateral Fibers:

3.1.2.1.3. Posterior Fibers:

3.1.2.2. Teres major

3.1.2.2.1. Extend: Humurus

3.1.2.2.2. Medial Rotation: Humerus

3.1.2.3. Coracobrachialis

3.1.2.3.1. Flex: Arm

3.1.2.3.2. Medial Rotation: Arm

3.1.2.3.3. Fix: Resists arm deviation *see note*

3.1.3. Rotator Cuff

3.1.3.1. Supraspinatus

3.1.3.1.1. Abduction: Arm ~ Aids deltoid

3.1.3.1.2. Fix: Resists humeral head slip *see note*

3.1.3.2. Infraspinatus

3.1.3.2.1. Lateral Rotation: Humerus

3.1.3.2.2. Fix: humeral head slip "see note*

3.1.3.3. Teres minor

3.1.3.3.1. Lateral Rotation: Humerus

3.1.3.3.2. Fix: humeral head slip "see note*

3.1.3.4. Subscapularis

3.1.3.4.1. Medial Rotation: Humerus

3.1.3.4.2. Fix: humeral head slip "see note*

3.2. Forearm Movement

3.2.1. Bellies in Arm (Brachium)

3.2.1.1. Brachialis

3.2.1.1.1. Flex: Elbow(1)

3.2.1.2. Biceps brachii

3.2.1.2.1. Supinates: Forearm (rapid/forceful)

3.2.1.2.2. Flex:

3.2.1.2.3. Fix: Long Head Tendon stabilizes shoulder

3.2.1.3. Triceps brachii

3.2.1.3.1. Entend: Elbow

3.2.1.3.2. Long Head:

3.2.2. Bellies in Forearm (Antebrachium)

3.2.2.1. Brachioradialis

3.2.2.1.1. Flex: Elbow

3.2.2.2. Anconeus

3.2.2.2.1. Extend: Elbow

3.2.2.2.2. Fix: control ulnar movement

3.2.2.3. Pronator

3.2.2.3.1. Pronator teres

3.2.2.3.2. Pronator quadratus(1)

3.2.2.4. Supinator

3.2.2.4.1. Supinates: Forearm

4. Hip and Lower Limb

4.1. Femur and Hip Movement

4.1.1. Anterior Hip Muscles: Iliopsoas

4.1.1.1. Psoas major & Iliacus

4.1.1.1.1. Flex: Thigh (@ hip) (TRUNK IS FIXED)

4.1.1.1.2. Flex: Trunk (@ hip)(THIGH IS FIXED)

4.1.1.1.3. Fix: Balances trunk while sitting

4.1.2. Lateral/Posterior Hip Muscles

4.1.2.1. Tensor fasciae latae

4.1.2.1.1. Extend: Knee

4.1.2.1.2. Lateral Rotation: Tibia

4.1.2.1.3. Abduction: Femur ~ Aid

4.1.2.1.4. Medial Rotation: Femur ~ Aid

4.1.2.1.5. Fix: Steadies leg while standing *see note*

4.1.2.2. Gluteus

4.1.2.2.1. Gluteus Maximus

4.1.2.2.2. Gluteus Medius/Minimus

4.1.3. Inferior/Deep Hip muscles: Lateral rotators

4.1.4. Medial Thigh Compartment: Adductor

4.1.4.1. Adductor

4.1.4.1.1. Adductor longus

4.1.4.1.2. Adductor magnus

4.1.4.2. Pectineus

4.1.4.2.1. Flex: Thigh

4.1.4.2.2. Adduct: Thigh

4.1.4.3. Gracilis

4.1.4.3.1. Flex: Tibia (@ knee)

4.1.4.3.2. Medial Rotation: Tibia (@ knee)

4.2. Femur, Tibia, and Fibula Movement

4.2.1. Anterior Thigh Compartment: Extensor

4.2.1.1. Quadriceps femoris

4.2.1.1.1. Rectus femoris

4.2.1.1.2. Vastus lateralis/mediais

4.2.1.1.3. Vastus intermedius

4.2.1.2. Sartorius

4.2.1.2.1. Flex:

4.2.1.2.2. Abduct: Thigh

4.2.1.2.3. Lateral Rotation: Thigh

4.2.2. Posterior Thigh Compartment: Flexor

4.2.2.1. Hamstrings

4.2.2.1.1. Biceps femoris

4.2.2.1.2. Semitendinosus & Semimembranosus

4.2.2.2. Gracillas (medial thigh)

4.2.2.2.1. Medial Rotation: Tibia (@ knee)

4.2.2.2.2. Flex: Tibia (@ knee)

4.3. Foot and Digit Movement

4.3.1. Anterior Leg Compartment: Extensor

4.3.1.1. Tibialis anterior

4.3.1.1.1. Dorsiflex: Foot

4.3.1.1.2. Inversion: Foot

4.3.1.1.3. Fix:

4.3.2. Posterior Leg Compartment: Flexor

4.3.2.1. Gastrocnemius

4.3.2.1.1. Plantar Flex: Foot

4.3.2.1.2. Flex: Knee

4.3.2.2. Soleus

4.3.2.2.1. Plantar Flex: Foot

4.3.2.2.2. Fix: Steadies leg on ankle during standing