mind map of all of the muscles we had to know for BMSP 2135

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Muscles by Mind Map: Muscles

1. Head and Neck

1.1. Facial Expression

1.1.1. Scalp/Brow: Occipitofrontalis Occipitalis Retract: Scalp Frontalis Elevates: Brow Draw Forward: Scalp

1.1.2. Oral Region: Orbicularis oris Encircles: Mouth Protrudes: Lips Closes: Lips Levator labii superioris Elevates: UL Everts: UL Depressor labii inferioris Draw Down: LL Draw Lateral: LL Risorius Draw Up: < of Mouth Draw Lateral: < of Mouth Zygomaticus major Draw Up: < of Mouth Draw Lateral:< of Mouth Zygomaticus minor Elevates: UL

1.1.3. Orbital/Nasal Region: Nasalis Widens Nostrils Orbicularis oculi: Closes eyes Tear flow across eye ~ Aid Sphincter of the eyelids

1.1.4. Mental/Buccal Region: Mentalis Elevates: Protrudes: LL Buccinator Compresses: Cheek against teeth/gums Retracts: Cheek Platysma Draw Downward: Opening mouth wide ~ Aid

1.2. Mandible Movement

1.2.1. Temporalis Retracts: Man Elevates: Man Lateral Excursion: Man Medial Excursion: Man

1.2.2. Masseter Elevation: Man(1) Protraction: Man Retraction: Man Lateral Excursion: Man Medial Excursion: Man

1.3. Neck Muscles

1.3.1. Hyoid muscles Suprahyoid Digastric Infrahyoid Fix the hyoid from below-> allows suprahyoids to open the mouth

1.3.2. Pharyngeal constrictors Drive food into esophagus

1.4. Head Movement

1.4.1. Neck Flexors Sternocleidomastoid Bilateral: Unilateral: Scalenes Bilateral: Unilateral:

1.4.2. Neck Extensors Trapezius Depress: Scapula (apex of shoulder) Elevate: Scapula (apex of shoulder) Retracts: Scapula Lateral Rotation: Scapula Fix: Scapula & Sholder Extend: Neck Lateral Flexion: Neck Splenius capitis/cervicis Uniateral: Bilateral: Semispinalis capitis/cervicis Extend: Head CR: Head

2. Trunk

2.1. Breathing

2.1.1. Diaphragm: INSPIRATION(1) Contracts Compress: Abdominal Viscera Childbirth and waste expulsion ~ Aid

2.1.2. External intercostals SCALENES FIX RIB 1 Elevate: Rib 2-12 Protract: Rib 2-12

2.1.3. Internal intercostals Intercartilaginous Part: Inspiration Elevate: Ribs ~ Aid Expand: Thomactic Cav ~ Aid Interosseous Part: Expiration Compress: Thoractic Cavity via:

2.2. Abdominal Wall Muscles

2.2.1. Anterior Wall Oblique Bilateral: for external and internal Unilateral:for external Unilateral: for internal Transversus abdominis Compress: abdominal organs {allows:} Rectus abdominis Flex: Lumbar vertebral column region

2.3. Pectoral Girdle Muscles

2.3.1. Anterior Group Pectoralis minor With serratus anterior: With other musc Serratus anterior With pectoralis minor Protract: Scapula FIx: Scapula Elevate: Apex of shoulder (via rotating scapula) ~ Aid

2.3.2. Posterior Group Trapezius Depress: Scapula (apex of shoulder) Elevate: Scapula (apex of shoulder) Retracts: Scapula Lateral Rotation: Scapula Fix: Scapula & Sholder Extend: Neck Lateral Flexion: Neck Levator scapulae Elevate: Scapula (IF CERVIC. VERT FIXED) Lateral Flexion: Neck (IF SCAPULA FIXED) ~ ~ Rhomboid minor/major ~ Fix: Scapula

3. Shoulder and Upper Limb

3.1. Humerus Movement

3.1.1. Axial Muscles Pectoralis major Flex: Humerus Adducts:Humerus Medial Rotation: Humerus Deep Inspiration ~Aid Latissimus dorsi Adducts:Humerus Medial Rotation: Humerus Extends: Shoulder joint Misc Aids in extreme breathing functions *see note*

3.1.2. Scapular Muscles Deltoid Anterior Fibers: Lateral Fibers: Posterior Fibers: Teres major Extend: Humurus Medial Rotation: Humerus Coracobrachialis Flex: Arm Medial Rotation: Arm Fix: Resists arm deviation *see note*

3.1.3. Rotator Cuff Supraspinatus Abduction: Arm ~ Aids deltoid Fix: Resists humeral head slip *see note* Infraspinatus Lateral Rotation: Humerus Fix: humeral head slip "see note* Teres minor Lateral Rotation: Humerus Fix: humeral head slip "see note* Subscapularis Medial Rotation: Humerus Fix: humeral head slip "see note*

3.2. Forearm Movement

3.2.1. Bellies in Arm (Brachium) Brachialis Flex: Elbow(1) Biceps brachii Supinates: Forearm (rapid/forceful) Flex: Fix: Long Head Tendon stabilizes shoulder Triceps brachii Entend: Elbow Long Head:

3.2.2. Bellies in Forearm (Antebrachium) Brachioradialis Flex: Elbow Anconeus Extend: Elbow Fix: control ulnar movement Pronator Pronator teres Pronator quadratus(1) Supinator Supinates: Forearm

4. Hip and Lower Limb

4.1. Femur and Hip Movement

4.1.1. Anterior Hip Muscles: Iliopsoas Psoas major & Iliacus Flex: Thigh (@ hip) (TRUNK IS FIXED) Flex: Trunk (@ hip)(THIGH IS FIXED) Fix: Balances trunk while sitting

4.1.2. Lateral/Posterior Hip Muscles Tensor fasciae latae Extend: Knee Lateral Rotation: Tibia Abduction: Femur ~ Aid Medial Rotation: Femur ~ Aid Fix: Steadies leg while standing *see note* Gluteus Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius/Minimus

4.1.3. Inferior/Deep Hip muscles: Lateral rotators

4.1.4. Medial Thigh Compartment: Adductor Adductor Adductor longus Adductor magnus Pectineus Flex: Thigh Adduct: Thigh Gracilis Flex: Tibia (@ knee) Medial Rotation: Tibia (@ knee)

4.2. Femur, Tibia, and Fibula Movement

4.2.1. Anterior Thigh Compartment: Extensor Quadriceps femoris Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis/mediais Vastus intermedius Sartorius Flex: Abduct: Thigh Lateral Rotation: Thigh

4.2.2. Posterior Thigh Compartment: Flexor Hamstrings Biceps femoris Semitendinosus & Semimembranosus Gracillas (medial thigh) Medial Rotation: Tibia (@ knee) Flex: Tibia (@ knee)

4.3. Foot and Digit Movement

4.3.1. Anterior Leg Compartment: Extensor Tibialis anterior Dorsiflex: Foot Inversion: Foot Fix:

4.3.2. Posterior Leg Compartment: Flexor Gastrocnemius Plantar Flex: Foot Flex: Knee Soleus Plantar Flex: Foot Fix: Steadies leg on ankle during standing