Biology [discontinued]

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Biology [discontinued] by Mind Map: Biology [discontinued]

1. Digestive System

1.1. Nutirents

1.1.1. Carbohydrates Used for energy

1.1.2. Protein Building or repairing muscles

1.1.3. Lipid Keep the body warm

1.1.4. Vitamin A Increase strength of bones and used for improvement of vision

1.1.5. Vitamin C Resistance of infection and improves the body strength

1.1.6. Vitamin D Absorption of calcium and phosphate

1.1.7. Calcium Promote a stronger backbone

1.1.8. Iron Richer blood

1.2. Peristalsis

1.2.1. Throat A wave of muscular contraction that pushes the bolus ahead of it. The circular muscle behind the bolus constricts and pushes it downwards. Ahead of the bolus, the circular muscle relaxes. Movement of Peristalsis in the throat

1.2.2. Small Intestine Functions mix food with intestinal juices, bile and pancreatic juice, allowing these fluids to neutralize acid and digest nutrients more effectively. churn food and bring it into contact with the intestinal for further digestion and nutrient absorption move undigested material towards the large intestine. Fibre Fibre gives food more bulk and this helps to give the intestines more ‘grip on it’. The intestines can therefore move the food more efficiently by peristalsis if there is plenty of fibre present in the diet.

1.3. Enzymes

1.3.1. Mouth Enzyme Secreted Amylase Substrate Glucose

1.3.2. Stomach Enzyme Secreted Protease Substrate Amino Acid

1.3.3. Small Intestine Enzyme Secreted Amylase/Trypsin/Lipase Substrate Glucose/Amino Acids/Glycerol and fatty acids

1.4. Bile

1.4.1. Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It is a greenish yellow alkaline liquid. The function of bile is to neutralize the acidic contents, which come out of the stomach and enter the small intestine, it also breaks lipids into small droplets to increase the surface area for digestion by lipases

1.4.2. Bile not present Bile present

1.5. Villi

1.5.1. Feature Presence of microvilli Increase the surface area of absorption Blood capillaries Transport whatever minerals absorbed by the cells Lacteals absorbs some fats micro-villi being one cell thick Allows the minerals to pass through the cell faster to the bloodstream

2. Kidney

2.1. Ultrafiltration

2.1.1. Takes place in the Bowman's capsule

2.1.2. The substances are forced into the bowman's capsule in high pressure. The some substances move from the glomerulus(capillaries in the bowman's capsule that is connected to the Renal Artery) into the bowman's capsule.

2.2. Link to the structure of the kidney,nephron and the animation of ultrafiltration.

2.3. Where the substances flow to in the kidney

2.3.1. Urea Renal Artery Cortex Nephron Bowman's Capsule

2.3.2. Protein Renal Artery Cortex Nephron Bowman's Capsule

2.3.3. Glucose Renal Artery Cortex Nephron Bowman's Capsule

2.3.4. Water Renal Artery Cortex Nephron Bowman's Capsule

2.3.5. Sodium Renal Artery Cortex Nephron Bowman's Capsule

2.4. Dialysis

2.4.1. What is Dialysis Dialysis is primarily used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. Dialysis may be used for very sick patients who have suddenly but temporarily, lost their kidney function or for patients who have their kidney which has lost its ability to function

2.4.2. Procedure of hemodialysis Blood is drawn from the body and its circulated into the machine and passes along a specialized membrane called a dialyser which in essence functions as an artificial kidney.

2.4.3. Procedure of Dialysis lining of the abdomen has a membrane that can similarly function like a dialyser membrane. This lining is used as the artificial kidney in peritoneal dialysis

3. Heart

4. Lungs

4.1. Aerobic Respiration

4.1.1. The process which takes place in living cells in organisms and which releases energy from oxygen and glucose The body needs to use more oxygen at lower temperature because the respiration creates heating , in order to respire it needs more oxygen. The lower the temperature the more heat is needed.It needs more oxygen to create more heat for the body,therefore, the body uses more oxygen when in lower temperature

4.1.2. Water (water vapour) and Carbon dioxide is released

4.1.3. Glucose+Oxygen ➝ Carbon Dioxide + Water Aerobic respiration uses Glucose and Oxygen to produce a lot of energy. The two waste products are Carbon Dioxide and Water

4.1.4. *Lungs remove Carbon Dioxide from the body

4.1.5. The body does not make use of Nitrogen at ALL

4.1.6. Aerobic

4.1.7. Aerobic respiration Uses Oxygen Creates Energy Waste product is Carbon Dioxide and Water Produce large amounts of energy Require Glucose

4.2. Respiration

4.3. Anaerobic Respiration

4.3.1. Anaerobic Respiration Don't use Oxygen Creates Lactic Acid (for animals) Creates Ethanol (for plants) Produce very little energy Does not require glucose

4.3.2. Glucose ➝ Lactic Acid + (Energy)