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Hypersensitivity by Mind Map: Hypersensitivity
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Hypersensitivity

Type IV (delayed type)

dendritic cells activate Th1 cells which release INF gamma and TNF

these cytokines activates macrophages to form granuloma and causes tissue distraction and necrosis

examples

Multiple sclerosis

Tuberculosis

Insuline dependant DM

contact dermatitis

Type III (toxic complexes)

angry neutrophils disease

Mechanism

large amount of antigen/antibody complexes form and precipitate on tissues (bone and blood vessels

Neutrophils and macrophages cannot phagocyte the complexes so they get hyper-activated "angry" and cause inflammation

Tissue damage occur

Can be localized (joint) or systemic (serum sickness)

diagnosis

demonstration of immune complexes in tissue biopsy

Type II (cytotoxic)

Most autoimmune diseases

the antibodies get attached to normal cells and they get killed CD8 doesn't play a role because it doesn't have Fc receptor or MHC-II

Mechanism

mediated by natural response of IgG and IgM

Only the location of those antigens is wrong (on normal cells)

genetic role

The allergen can be exogenous (like penicillin) or endogenous (like haemolytic disease of the new born)

Symptoms

depend on the target cells (RBC leads to haemolytic anaemia)

Diagnosis

clinical diagnosis

demonstration of systemic IgG and IgM antibodies to the specific allergen

Type I (immediate or anaphylactic)

Mechanism

Genetics, genetic predisposition to type I allergy is termed "atopy", associated with genetic morphisms in, IL-4, IL-4R, high affinity IgE receptor, and MHC-II

Th1 cells produces IL-13 and 4, makes the plasma cells produce IgE antibody (instead of IgM and IgG, class switching), binds to mast cells, histamine, prostaglandine

Symptoms

respiratory: sneezing, rhinitis, and asthma

digestive: vomiting

skin: rash and itching

systemic: vasodilatation, bronchiole constriction, and shock

Tests and diagnosis

Plasma level of IgE and eosinophils during the episode

Detection of specific antibodies to specific allergens

Skin test

Definitions

Undesirable immune response to specific antigen

They require pre-sensitization

Genetics play a role