Chapter 1 Europe's Early Middle Ages

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Chapter 1 Europe's Early Middle Ages by Mind Map: Chapter 1 Europe's Early Middle Ages

1. The Mediterranean World

1.1. The history of western European civilization started in the Mediterranean. This is also where the legacy of western civilization started.

1.1.1. legacy: knowledge and culture passed down from one generation or civilization to another

1.2. The Mediterranean environment had everything that is necessary for people to live in.It can sustain many people,fertile soil, rainfall, sunshine, and good climate.Which means it's a good place for farming.

1.3. The Mediterranean Sea was also a good form of transportation.It encouraged people to travel and trade with other places, because of travel different countries' culture spread quickly from MIddle East, Asia, Africa, and Europe. Civilizations grew from this.

1.4. The 2 most influential civilizations were from Greece and Rome.

1.4.1. Greeks were the first ones to rule the Mediterranean.They studied philosophy, so they sought out new ideas. They also improved art, architecture, drama,literature, science, and medicine.The Greek empire fell to the Romans in 150 B.C.E.

1.4.1.1. philosophy: the search of new ideas, wisdom, knowledge

1.4.1.2. B.C.E.: before the common era

1.4.2. The Romans borrowed some culture from the Greeks, which made them a lot stronger than the Greeks with their own culture. Their military defense was also strong because of the Roman Legions.

1.4.2.1. Roman Legions: Roman armed forces

2. The Romans

2.1. As the Greek empire fell and the Mediterranean weakened, and at this time the great city of Rome became the ruler of it. They took some of the Greeks culture and added them to their own. They copied,and developed Greek art, and architecture.

2.1.1. architecture: the art and science of designing buildings

2.2. The Romans built arenas where gladiators fight and people watched for entertainment.

2.2.1. gladiator: a fighter who battled in public shows, most were slaves

2.3. Latin was the common language for the whole empire.

2.3.1. Latin: the language of the Romans.During Middle Ages, Latin served as a common language for educated people throughout Europe.

2.4. The Pax Romana encouraged trade and exchange of ideas from other places.

2.4.1. Pax Romana: it's also called Roman peace

2.5. The Romans made a code of laws which protected people who is in the borders of the empire from war and violence.

2.5.1. Not all people benefited with the laws. Women, slaves, and non-Romans are denied of Roman rights.

2.6. In year 410 C.E. the Mediterranean was shocked that the city of Rome fell, the centre of European civilization had been conquered by the Goths, or also called Germanic people. The great Roman empire had collapsed.

2.6.1. Rome fell mostly because it weakened the empire by repeated attacks by the Germanic people.

2.6.1.1. Germanic people:one of the European peoples that spoke Germanic language

2.6.2. C.E.: of the common era

3. The Franks

3.1. The Franks were one of the Germanic people who moved into western Europe. They conquered much of the Roman province Gaul (now France) in the late fourth and early fifth centuries.

3.2. The Franks were farmers but they loved making war. Most free men was mostly armed by a franchisca.

3.2.1. franchisca: a special kind of throwing axe

3.3. The name "Frank" meant free."Franchise" the English word which means right to vote, comes from the Frankish word.

3.4. The Merovingian royal family were the rulers of the Franks for almost three hundred years. The most successful ruler in the family was Clovis I.

3.5. The Franks had their own legal code which was later on called the Salic Code, after the Salian Franks. If property was stolen or a person injured or killed a fine called wergild had to be paid to the owner of the property or the victim's family. If someone died the victim's family could take revenge and demand the guilty person's death.

3.5.1. Some other crimes are arson whose fine is slavery, banishment, or death and breaking a bethrodal which costs 65 gold solidi.

3.5.1.1. arson: intentionally setting fire to property

3.5.1.2. bethrodal: a promise to marry

3.5.2. wergild: man-money,that is, a person's value in money

3.6. The Franks had social classes, some people were very rich and some people were very poor. Most people were serfs, or peasants.

3.6.1. serfs or peasants: people who worked the land on their lord's manor

3.6.2. social class: the group that one belongs to in society.Class can be determined by money, role in society, or one's parentage.

4. Charlemagne

4.1. Charlemagne was also called Charles the Great.

4.2. Charlemagne became the ruler of the Franks in 768 C.E.

4.3. He was very interested in rebuilding their civilization,and he had the intelligence and power to do so.He also had a lot of military success so he expanded the Merovingian Empire in many directions.

4.4. At the height of his power, on Christmas day in 800, he was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III.

4.5. The Carolingian Empire gave much of western Europe a brief rest from the wars that had torn it apart since the fall of Rome.

4.5.1. Carolingian Empire: Charlemagne's empire from 770 to 814

4.6. Charlemagne allowed local government much freedom. He also sent out agents, called missi dominci, to make sure that the people were treated properly.

4.7. He was also merciless and hardhearted.When the Saxons refused to change religion to Christianity Charlemagne ordered his soldiers to kill 4000 Saxons in a single day.

4.8. Historians today say that his time was the Carolingian Renaissance.

4.8.1. Renaissance: a rebirth or revival, especially of the hearts

5. The Anglo-Saxon and The Celts

5.1. The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes moved to now today Germany, driving out the native Celtic peoples.

5.1.1. Celtic peoples: a western European culture.The Scottish, Irish,Weish, Cornish, and Bretons are all Celts.

5.2. The Celts were pushed as far across the sea of Ireland.

5.3. Celtic language and culture disappeared.

5.4. The Anglo-Saxons were also farmers like the Franks.

5.5. The Saxons were also great storytellers who created wonderful epics, such as Beowulf.

5.5.1. epic: a long poem telling about heroic deeds and events

5.6. Alfred the Great was an early ruler of Anglo-Saxon England.He lost many battles to the vikings before he figured out to beat them.He also left western and southern England united and prosperous.

5.6.1. prosperous: thriving

6. The Vikings

6.1. At 855 C.E. the viking started their attacks at Paris.

6.2. The Vikings from the north looking for plunder and glory.

6.3. They also travelled in swift longships that allowed them to strike without warning and disappear quickly before local rulers could raise a force to oppose them.

6.4. They were mercilessly destructive that they killed or enslaved every man, woman, and child they found.

6.5. The Vikings took payments called Danegald from people who were terrified of them.

6.6. The Vikings also were farmers so they went where they could find fertile land. So they lived near fjords.

6.6.1. fjords:a long narrow, saltwater bay with high cliffs along its sides

6.7. Viking landowners almost always have slaves, called thralls.

6.7.1. thralls: they were slaves who worked on the landowner's farms

6.8. The keepers of Viking history and legend were called skalds.

6.8.1. skalds: a Scandinavian poet who recited poems at formal gatherings

6.9. The Vikings were also great lawmakers and they mad laws that protected people and their property. People called Law Speakers memorized the law and recited as it is needed. They met at parliament called Thing.

6.9.1. Thing: a kind of parliament where they made decisions about their laws and government

6.10. The Viking age ended in the eleventh century. English monarchs gave half of England ,the Danelaw, to Viking lords who then protected their new lands from other Vikings. So the Vikings opposed each other and their settlements started to get destroyed and then disappear. By the middle of the eleventh century.the Viking age was over forever.