Chapter 12

Speech motor disorders

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Chapter 12 by Mind Map: Chapter 12

1. Speech Motor Control

1.1. Motor Unit (Muscle synergy): aspects of movement that remain constant over repeated productions in different contexts; seem to be planned and executed as a whole.

1.2. Motor Planning: the processes that define and sequence articulatory goals prior to their occurrence.

1.3. Motor programming: processes responsible for establishing and preparing the flow of motor information across muscles for speech production and specifying the timing and force required for the movements.

1.4. Motor execution: the processes responsible for activating relevant muscles during the movements used in speech production.

2. Disorders

2.1. Manifestation: A breakdown at the motor planning, programming, or execution level.

2.1.1. May be developmental or acquired and range from mild to severe in adults and children.

2.2. Motor Planning and programming disorders: caused by and inability to group and sequence the relevant muscles in order to plan or program a movement.

2.2.1. Apraxia of Speech: inability to transform a linguistic representation into the appropriate coordinated movements of the articulators.

2.2.1.1. Result of neurological damage

2.3. Motor execution disorders: caused by deficits or inefficiencies in basic physiological or movement characteristics of the musculature such as muscle tone, movement speed and movement range.

2.3.1. Dysarthria: a group of speech disorders caused by disturbances of neuromuscular control of the speech production systems.

2.3.1.1. Spastic: Increased muscle tone and sensitivity of reflexes.(Developmental)

2.3.1.2. Dyskinetic: impaired coordination of muscles and involuntary movements including chorea (sudden fast movements) and athetosis (slow movements). (Developmental)

2.3.1.3. Results from pre- peri- or postnatal damage to the nervous system.

2.4. Treatment varies by patient. After referral and screening, it is easier to determine what type of treatment the patient may need. Various strategies are also used.

2.4.1. Conditions of Practice: Practice schedule(order practiced), Practice amount(number of practice trials), Practice variability(different targets), and Practice distribution(time spaced between practice).

2.4.2. Conditions of feedback: Feedback frequency(how often the learner receives feedback), and Feedback timing(how soon after an attempt the learner receives feedback).

3. Articulatory System

3.1. Key Structure: Oral cavity

3.2. Jaw, lips, and tongue are used

3.2.1. The tongue is the most important manipulator

3.3. Manipulates airflow in specific ways, allowing sounds to become different phonemes.

3.4. Consonants: depend on the obstruction of airflow by the oral cavity. Vowels: continuous airflow is manipulated by movement of tongue.

4. Respiratory system

4.1. Key structure: Lungs

4.2. Respiratory and postural muscles are used

4.3. Airflow is required to produce sound

4.4. Pulmonary Mechanism: regulates the inhalation-exhalation cycle for passive breathing and for producing speech.

5. Phonatory System

5.1. Key structure: Larynx

5.2. Vocal Folds are used

5.3. Vibration of vocal folds(caused by airflow) creates sound

5.4. Phonatory system regulates the production of voice and the prosodic, or intonational, aspects of speech.

6. Resonatory System

6.1. Key Structure: Velopharyngeal port, pharynx

6.2. Velum and pharynx are used

6.3. Resonatory system: regulates the resonation or vibration of airflow as it moves from the pharynx into the oral or nasal cavities.

6.3.1. Nasality: quality of sound

6.4. Regulation of the velopharyngeal port is important for producing the difference between oral and nasal sounds, and for ensuring normal sound quality.