Chapter 12

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Chapter 12 by Mind Map: Chapter 12

1. Speech Motor Control- control over the muscular coordination involved with producing speech

1.1. Motor Speech Disorder- impairment of speech production caused by defects of hte neuromuscular system or the motor control system.

1.2. Motor Unit/Motor Program: relatively invariant movement pattern that can be scaled in size and time to meet the demands of the particular situation

1.2.1. Motor Planning: the pocess that define and sequence articulatory goals

1.2.2. Motor Programming: the processes responsible for establishing and preparing the flow of motor information across muscles for speech production and specifying the timing and force required for the movements

1.2.3. Motor Execution: the process responsible for activating relevant muscles during the movements used in speech production

1.2.4. Motor Learning: the way in which practice or experience leads to relatively permenant changes in the capability for movement

1.2.4.1. Schemas: memory representations of relationships between various sources of information

2. Respiratory System: regulates the inhalation-exhalation cycle for passive breathing and producing speech

3. Phonatory System: regulates the production of voice and the prosodic aspects of speech

4. Resonatory System:regulates the resonation of the airflow as it moves from the pharnyx into the oral or nasal cavities

4.1. velopharyngeal port: opening between the velum and the back of the pharynx wall

5. Articulatory System: regulates the control of the articulators within the oral cavity to manipulate the outgoing airflow in different ways

6. Apraxia of Speech: an impairment of motor programming and planning that unvoloves an inability to transform a linguistic representation into the appropriate coordinated movements of th articulators

7. Dysarthria: a group of speech disorders caused by disturbances of neuromuscular control of the speech production systems

7.1. Muscle Tone: refers to the resistance to passive movement and reflects sustained muscle activity that provides postural support for the active. The tone may be reduced, or become flaccid

7.2. Muscle Strength: refers to the ability of the muscles to a desired level. May become flaccid

7.3. Movement Steadiness: the ablitiy of muscles to generate steady movements and may be distrupted by involuntary movements. Tremor and Hyperkinesis

7.4. Movement Speed: important for speech production, involves many rapid articulator movements, may be reduced or increased

7.5. Movement Range: how far a structure (tongue or jaw) can move, may be reduced

7.6. Movement Coordination: the ability to precisely ime muscle contraction so that each articulator moves the intended distance and direction at exactly the right time

8. Generalization: application or transfer of a skill to related but untrained movement patterns

8.1. Treatment Strategies: improve impaired systems and teach compensatory strategies

9. Conditions of Practice

9.1. Practice Variablity: number of different targets

9.2. Practice Schedule; the order in which the targets are practiced

9.3. Practice Amount: number of practice trials

9.4. Practice Distribution: how close in time the practice sessions are spaced

10. Feedback Conditions

10.1. Feedback Frequency: how often the learner receives feedback

10.2. Feedback Timing: how soon after an attempt the learner receives feedback