Physical Patterns

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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns

1. Landform Patterns

1.1. Shield Regions

1.1.1. Shield Regions are formed when widespread volcanic activity happens, and when long periods of time pass. Shield regions are spread around the earth and they are the core of continients

1.1.1.1. Example of a Shield Region

1.1.1.1.1. The Canadian shield

1.2. Plains and Lowlands

1.2.1. Plains and lowland are created when rivers and glaciers hold sediment and when they are deposited into ancient seas. After that it turned into think layers that eventually made sedimentary rocks Then, new land forms around the ancients shields.

1.2.1.1. Example of a plain/lowland

1.2.1.1.1. The great plains of central America

1.3. Fold Mountains

1.3.1. Fold mountains are formed when plates under the earth's surface are forced together and make layers of sedimentary rock that pile over each other.

1.3.1.1. Folds can break in half and create earthquakes and faults.

1.3.1.2. Example of a Fold mountain

1.3.1.2.1. The Himalaya mountains

1.4. Volcanoes

1.4.1. Volcanoes form when are formed when magma underneath the earth's crust bursts through the earth's crust . This happens when pressure is applied too the magma and it pushes upwards, which happens something underneath the earth's crust is disturbed. Extreme volcanoes happen when the pipe in between the mantle and the surface is blocked by something, and the pressure can rip through the volcanoes top.

1.4.1.1. Volcanoes are found often near the Pacific Ring of Fire

1.4.1.2. Example of a Volcano

1.4.1.2.1. Mt Krakatoa

2. Natural Disasters

2.1. Tropical Stroms

2.1.1. Tropical storm season occurs in the summer and the autumn

2.1.2. Tropical storms form when warm air is released by the ocean surface and then when cool air meets with it. They form a tropical disturbance and as it gets bigger it starts to spin and it becomes a tropical storm.

2.1.2.1. Hurricanes

2.1.2.1.1. Start to form in The Atlantic Ocean

2.1.2.1.2. Affect The Carribean and Eastern North America

2.1.2.2. Cyclones

2.1.2.2.1. Start to form in The Indian Ocean

2.1.2.2.2. Affect Madagascar, Australia, India and parts of Asia

2.1.2.3. Typhoons

2.1.2.3.1. Start to form in The Pacific Ocean

2.1.2.3.2. Affect East Asia, and east Russia

2.2. Tsunamis

2.2.1. A tsunami forms when an earthquake moves the ocean's bottom, after this shock tremors go through the water in a circular motion.

2.2.1.1. A tsunami is usually confused as a tidal wave , but is different because it is not reliant on the moon's gravity on the oceans.

2.2.1.2. It is also often confused as a storm surge, which is a swift rise of sea level caused by fast winds that force the water to move to the coastlines

2.3. Earthquakes

2.3.1. Earthquakes start when the plates under the earths crust start to move and are ripped apart, pushed together or dragged over each other, and when they brake the energy is put into the epicetre and start earthquakes

2.3.1.1. The five most deadly earthquakes in the world have all been found in Asia

2.3.1.1.1. Sumatra, Indonesia earthquake happened on December 26th, 2004 and had 230000 deaths, magnitude: 9.2

2.3.1.1.2. Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake happened on October 8th, 2005 and had 82000 deaths, magnitude:7.6

2.3.1.1.3. Gujarat,India earthquake happened on January 26,2001 and had 20 085 deaths, magnitude:7.7

2.3.1.1.4. NW Turkey Earthquake happened on August 17,1999 and had 12000 deaths,magnitude: 7.4

2.3.1.1.5. Java, Indonesia earthquake happened on May 27,1006 and had 6234 deaths, magnitude:6.3

2.4. Tornadoes

2.4.1. Tornadoes

2.4.1.1. Tornado season occurs in The winter and Spring

2.4.1.2. Tornadoes form when warm, humid air and colder air are close together, when the humid air grows upward in the day, columns of cold air go to the ground to replace the missing humid air. Then, the warm air can start to spin around a column of cold air and the vortex is created

2.4.1.2.1. Tornadoes happen a lot in North America, especially the tornado alley in the U.S.A which has about 12 noticeable tornadoes per year

2.4.1.2.2. Global warming is a factor when creating noticeable tornadoes, because it makes more warm air, which is a part of the tornado's formation

3. Effect of climate

3.1. The Effect of Lattitude

3.1.1. The sun and latitude are one of the biggest parts of creating climate. This is because the sun's rays travel the least distance from itself to the equator, and farther from itself to the outer parts of the earth. The farther the rays travel, the less warm the area.

3.1.1.1. Polar Climate

3.1.1.1.1. Areas with severe winters and cool summers, and have high lattitudes

3.1.1.2. Tropical Climate

3.1.1.2.1. Areas with hot climate and a lot of precipitation all year

3.1.1.3. Temperate Climate

3.1.1.3.1. Average climate all year

3.2. The Effect of Moving Air

3.2.1. Warm air rises and cool air drops to the ground.

3.2.1.1. Rising air creates water droplets which form clouds, which cause increasing amounts of precipitation.

3.2.1.1.1. Desert Climate

3.3. The Effect of Water Bodies

3.3.1. Bodies of water make climate more suitable and bring onshore breezes.

3.3.1.1. Maritime Climate

3.3.1.1.1. Warm summers and cool winters. Often nearby a body of water and have a lot of precipitation when winds blow onshore

3.3.1.2. Continental climate

3.3.1.2.1. Hot summers and cold winters. Often not nearby a body of water and are fairly dry.

3.4. The Effect of Mountains

3.4.1. Mountains have less air molecules and oxygen to keep heat in.

3.4.1.1. Mountain Climate

3.4.1.1.1. Cooler than places located at lower altitudes, and can have a lot of precipitation. A side of a mountain that is being exposed to the sun will be warmer than the side that is not.

3.5. The Effect of Ocean Currents

3.5.1. Water currents that are warm flow away from the equator and water current that are cold flow towards the equator and come from polar oceans.

3.5.1.1. Water currents affect the climate of areas near the coastlines and change them from cold or hot

4. Types of Agriculture

4.1. Commercial Agriculture

4.1.1. Commercial Agriculture is farming that makes a large amount of a single product, if not a few

4.2. Specialized Agriculture

4.2.1. Specialized Agriculture is farming only a single product, for example coffee or corn fields

4.3. Shifting Cultivators

4.3.1. Shifting Cultivators are farmers who clear forests with machetes and fire to get land to plant root crops. Once the soil is no longer fertile they leave to find other land

4.4. Small Landholders

4.4.1. Small Landholders are people who have a small amount of land that they use to farm, and it is what they depend on for food

4.5. Nomadic Herders

4.5.1. Nomadic Herders hold cattle, goats, and camels, which supply the majority of their resources, and find grass and water to raise their animals

5. Conditions for Agriculture

5.1. The Effect of Climate

5.1.1. A suitable climate is essential for farming because it is needed for plants/animals to flourish. A favorable climate is sunny with a lot of precipitation.

5.2. The Effect of Soil

5.2.1. Soil effects agriculture because fertile soil gives the plants nutrients, which they need to grow. Usually, the darker and thicker the upper soil layers, the more fertile

5.3. The Effect of Natural Vegetation

5.3.1. Natural vegetation is the crops found before the area was cleared for agriculture. It is important to farming because the natural vegetation decomposes and creates organic material for the crops