Physical Patterns

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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns

1. The effect of soil

1.1. soils have different levels, called a soil profile

1.2. The darker and richer the soil, the more better the soil is

1.3. In polar climate, the soil id called permafrost, since it is frozen into the ground.

1.4. Tropical soils are poor, and are often only used for shifting cultiviation

1.5. Shifting Cultivation is a temporary farming.

2. The effect of natural vegetation

2.1. Is the trees, grasses and other plants in the area

2.2. The natural vegetation is formed by interaction of landforms, climate and soils.

2.3. Important for soil fertility

3. Natural Disasters

3.1. Earthquakes

3.1.1. They start when two or more plates start pushing at each other

3.1.2. The rocks pushing together causes them to break, and an earthquake to form

3.2. Tornados

3.2.1. Is measured using the Fujita Scale

3.2.2. Occurs when warm air and cold air meet

3.2.3. The warm air starts to spin around the cold air

3.2.4. Making a funnel of spinning warm air, that is very fast

3.3. Tropical Storms

3.3.1. Typhoons

3.3.1.1. Found mostly in Eastern Asia

3.3.1.2. Made when warm air rises and meets cooler air, then the new air will start spinning faster

3.3.2. Cyclones

3.3.2.1. When warm air rises and blow into an air mass, then the new warm air rises and starts to spin fast

3.3.2.2. Found in Southern Africa, Northern Australia, and India

3.3.3. Blizzards

3.3.3.1. Happen in Eastern Canada, Europe, and Eastern Russia

3.3.3.2. Usually happens when cold air meets warm tropical air, which causes strong winds to start blowing.

3.3.4. Hurricanes

3.3.4.1. Uses the Saffir-Simpson scale to be measured

3.3.4.2. Start is the coast of Africa and moves its way across the world

3.3.4.3. Starts when warm air is replaced by cold air, then the cold air blows inward, staring to spin

3.4. Volcanoes

3.4.1. Occur when molten lava breaks through the thin crust

3.4.2. Most of them are made with cinder, magma, or both

3.4.3. The pressure from below pushes the magma higher, making the volcano get bigger too

3.4.4. They are mostly found near the plates; The Pacific Ring of Fire

4. Landforms

4.1. Active Volcanoes

4.1.1. Found near the Pacific Ring of Fire, near the plate boundaries.

4.1.2. Pressure from below pushes magma upward causing the volcano to grow taller

4.1.3. Two types of volcanoes are composite cone: layers of cinder and magma, and shield cone: made completely out of magma.

4.2. Fold Mountains

4.2.1. Fold mountains are big crumpled ridges, where plates meet and collide.

4.2.2. Built from thick layers of sedimentary rock found in the bottom of the ocean.

4.2.3. When the plates get dragged together, the layers are brought up in parallel ridges.

4.2.4. The folds though do snap easily, so sedimentary layers have been left to stand on an end

4.2.5. Divide the flow of rivers, their elevation leads to easily seen climate regions, and form ecozones.

4.3. Ancient Shields

4.3.1. Created by a lot of volcanic activity that happened over billions of years ago

4.3.2. Mostly made of igneous rock, that is hardened into magma

4.3.3. Heat and pressure change some parts into metamorphic rock

4.3.4. The Pangaea then broke apart causing the shield regions to get scattered all over the world, as the core of the continents.

4.4. Plains and Lowlands

4.4.1. Rivers and glaciers carried sediment, into ancient seas.

4.4.2. Sediment was hardened into thick beds of sedimentary rock.

4.4.3. Plains and lowlands are brought up by horizontal layers of sedimentary rock

4.4.4. Plains are deep areas of level lands

4.4.5. Lowlands are plains that you can find near the coastlines

5. Causes of Different Climates

5.1. Effect of Ocean Currents

5.1.1. Surface winds circulate ocean waters

5.1.2. Warm water flows from the equator and along the coastlines

5.1.3. Cold water flows to the equator from the poles

5.2. Effect of Latitude

5.2.1. Sun's rays have a big impact on climate

5.2.2. It is hot near the equator and cold near the poles because of the concentration of the sun's rays

5.2.3. Polar Climate

5.2.3.1. Sun's rays are wildly scattered, since they strike the Earth in a sharp angle

5.2.3.2. Light reflecting upwards in the winter causes the Northern Lights.

5.2.4. Tropical Climate

5.2.4.1. Hot in every season and very moist

5.2.4.2. areas near the equator is hot in every season because of the concentrated solar radiation year around

5.2.4.3. The sun's rays hit the equator from overhead

5.2.5. Temperate Climate

5.2.5.1. Moderate temperature conditions year around

5.2.5.2. has mid-latitude location

5.2.5.3. sun's rays hit the Earth at a slight angle, so the sun's rays are less intense

5.2.5.4. Reversed seasons are caused by the seasonal migration of the sun

5.3. Effect of Moving Air

5.3.1. Heat of the sun creates air

5.3.2. Warm air is light and rises, while cold air is dense and sinks

5.3.3. The repeating pattern of climate is caused by wind and pressure

5.3.4. When air rises it cools, and the water droplets form clouds

5.3.5. There is different densities of air found near the equator

5.3.6. Light rising air at the equator makes a region of low pressure zones

5.3.7. Farther North and South descending air makes high pressure zones

5.3.8. Desert Climate

5.3.8.1. Dry weather conditions

5.3.8.2. when the air cools and reaches the Tropics, it sinks and returns to the equator

5.3.8.3. The descending air is very dry, so clouds and precipitation is very rare.

5.4. Effects of Bodies of Water

5.4.1. Bodies of water make temperature more comfortable.

5.4.2. Places near large water bodies have maritime climae

5.4.3. Maritime has warm summers and cool winters

5.4.4. They have plenty of precipitation

5.4.5. Places that does not have any bodies of water surrounding them have continental climate

5.4.6. The climate has hot summers, cold winters, and less rain

5.5. Effects of Mountains

5.5.1. Cooler that places with lower altitudes

5.5.2. If located near coastlines, there is a lot of rain

5.5.3. Less oxygen at the very top

5.5.4. Less molecules in the air to trap solar heat

5.5.5. Climate changes with altitude and exposure to the sun

6. Agriculture

6.1. The effect of Climate

6.1.1. Main agent in creating soil

6.1.2. Water, Ice, and Wind create the material that makes soil

6.1.3. Heavy rain and streams wear down rock

6.1.4. Wind mixes the broken rock with sand and grit

6.1.5. Causes the forces of erosion the make soil

7. Agriculture

7.1. The Effect of Climate

7.2. The Effect of Soil