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1. Landforms

1.1. Volcanoes

1.1.1. Volcanoes are where the magma from the inside of the Earth bursts upwards onto the surface from little cracks or faults in the crust of the Earth.

1.1.2. Volcanoes affect this area of the world which is called the Pacific Ring of Fire. The Pacific Ring of Fire is given it's name because there are many active volcanoes in a circular pattern that surround the Pacific.

1.1.3. Volcanoes also affect another part of the world called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge where the volcanoes form in the middle of the ocean. These volcanoes affect Iceland.

1.2. Shield Regions

1.2.1. Shield Regions are made up of igneous rock. Then, heat and pressure changed the igneous into metamorphic rocks. Nowadays, they are are very worn and broken due to erosion, water, ice, and wind. Canadian Shield

1.3. Fold Mountains

1.3.1. Fold Mountains are huge crumpled ridges where tectonic plates collide. They have been built from very thick layers of sedimentary rocks. They layers of sedimentary rocks are push up in a parallel ridge. Himalayas Andes

1.4. Plains and Lowlands

1.4.1. Rivers and glaciers carried sediment, into oceans. In the ocean, it started to solidify into sedimentary rock. Plains and Lowlands have horizontal layers and layers of sedimentary rocks.

1.4.2. Plains are areas with flat land. They also have horizontal layers of sedimentary rocks. Great Plains

1.4.3. Lowlands are plains, but are located around the coastlines. Saint Lawrence Lowlands

2. Climate

2.1. Effects of Latitude

2.1.1. Usually, the coldest places on Earth are Antarctica and near the Arctic. Some of the hottest places are near the equator. This is because the suns ray affect the equator more directly then it does for the North and South poles. Polar Climate Polar climates are very cold during winters, and have cool summers.Polar climates are cold because when the sun's rays hit the North and South poles, they are spread all across because of the angle of Earth and where the two poles located. Tropical Climate Tropical climates are very hot and have lots of moisture throughout the year. Tropical climates are hot because the sun's rays directly hit Earth. Solar radiation all year create hot temperatures all year long. Temperate Climate Temperate climates are where the temperatures are moderate all year. Temperate climates are like this because the area is located between one pole and the equator. The sun's rays curve at a slight angle when it hits earth, but does not curve as much as a Polar climate or not as direct as a Tropical climate.

2.2. Effects of Moving Air

2.2.1. Warm air is light and rises, while cold air is heavy and sinks. Since the sun's ray are so direct at the equator, the heated air rises, cools into water, then forms into clouds. It soon comes back down as rain. Air pressures are different from the equator than other places. Warm air near the equator rises, therefore creating a low air pressure. Cold air near north and south sinks, which creates high air pressure Desert Climate Intense rainfall happens near the equator and then the air moves more northward and southward. The air cools overtime, so it starts descending. So where temperate climates are, the chance of rainfall is very rare because the descending air is very dry.

2.3. Effects of Water Bodies

2.3.1. Bodies of water make temperatures more comfortable. Places near large bodies of water have a maritime climate. While, places away from large bodies of water have continental climates. Maritime Climates Maritime climates have warm summers, and cool winters. They have a lot of precipitation all year long. Continental Climates Continental climates have very intense temperatures. Continental climates have hot summers and cold winters and they do not have a lot of precipitation.

2.4. Effects of Mountains

2.4.1. There is less oxygen to breathe and fewer molecules in the air to trap solar heat. Places with high altitudes are much cooler than places with lower altitudes. Mountain Climates Mountain climates change with the altitude and the sun's ray. The back on a mountain will be much cooler than the side with the sun's ray. Mountain climates often receive heavy rain when they are near coastlines.

2.5. Effects of Ocean Currents

2.5.1. Currents of warm water flow away from the equator and into coastlines. Currents of cold water flow away from polar oceans and into the equator.Warm and cold currents affect coastal temperatures.

3. Natural Disasters

3.1. Tsunami

3.1.1. Tsunami's are caused when an earthquakes shakes the bottom ocean floor and causes a disruption on the water above.

3.1.2. Tsunami's affect anywhere where there are large bodies of water. They can also travel long distances and affect countries more inland.

3.2. Earthquakes

3.2.1. Earthquakes are where 2 tectonic plates are shifted and when they hit eachother, it causes an earthquake. Energy is stored up when the 2 plates are stuck together. The energy is released and travels in waves. These are called seismic waves. These seismic waves shake through the Earth damaging almost everything that the waves can hit.

3.2.2. Earthquakes form where 2 tectonic plates of the earth get stuck to eachother. The most deadliest earthquakes that have happened in the past decade are from Asia. Earthquakes affect many places in the world where 2 plates get stuck together.

3.3. Tornadoes

3.3.1. Tornadoes occur when warm, humid air and cold,damp air mix with eachother. Tornadoes form over land.They drop down from the clouds.

3.3.2. Tornadoes usually affect places during the summer and spring. Tornadoes affect anywhere where there is warm and cold air mixing together. "Tornado Alley" is a known place where many tornadoes form every year. Tornado Alley affects Kansas and Oklahoma.

3.4. Tropical Storms

3.4.1. Tropical storms affect anywhere where there is warm,moist air heat by the sun that rises and hits with cooler air. Examples of places are, North America, Africa, and Europe.

3.4.2. Tropical Storms start from warm ocean waters. Tropical storms are heated by the sun. As warm air rises from the ocean, and cooler air hits the warm air, a tropical disturbance is set up. The tropical disturbance becomes larger and spins faster. It then becomes a tropical storm. Hurricanes Cyclones Typhoons Blizzards

4. Agriculture

4.1. Conditions for Agriculture

4.1.1. Effects of Soil Most soils have different levels from top to bottom. This is called a soil profile. They have horizontal bands of color, that usually become a light color when the profile levels descend more. Generally, the darker and thicker the soil is, the better the soil fertility. Permafrost where where the ground is permanently frozen. Permafrost limits the depth for the plant roots to reach.

4.1.2. Effects of Climate Climate is the main agent to create soil. A favorable climate is appropriate for plants and animals. Water, wind, and ice create the eroded sediments that form soil. Heavy rainfaill and streams start to wear down rocks.When water in rocks freezes, it acts as a wedge, causing the rock to split apart.

4.1.3. Effect of Natural Vegetation Natural vegetation is the grass, trees, and other plants found in an area. Most have been cleared for roads, buildings, and/or farms. Natural grasslands and forests drop organic material, which makes the area have fertile soil. Heavy rainfall causes most the nutrients to go deeper into the soil.

4.2. Types of Agriculture

4.2.1. Commercial Agriculture Commercial agriculture is big production of crops for sale such as wheat, tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana, cotton. The crops are then sold to stores and supermarkets.

4.2.2. Specialized Agriculture Specialized Agriculture is where you specifically focus on type of product such as mushrooms, and coffee.

4.2.3. Shifting Cultivators Shifting Cultivators are where they use the slash-and-burn method to clear forests and once the soil is fertile has no more nutrients, the farmers move to a different location

4.2.4. Small Landholders Small landholders have a small land for agriculture. The farmers highly depend on the small land since they do not have a lot of space.

4.2.5. Nomadic Herders Nomadic Herders use animals such as cattles, camels, and goats to help with the Agriculture.