PCC Science Assignment

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PCC Science Assignment by Mind Map: PCC Science Assignment

1. 1. Defining Creativity (100)

1.1. Creative teaching

1.1.1. DfES (2008)

1.1.1.1. the principles of learning and teaching (29)

1.1.1.1.1. Ensure every child succeeds:

1.1.1.1.2. Build on what learners already know:

1.1.1.1.3. Make learning vivid and real:

1.1.1.1.4. make learning an enjoyable and challenging experience

1.1.1.1.5. enrich the learning experience

1.1.1.1.6. Promote assessment for learning

1.1.2. (3) "Be creative and innovative in how they teach and run the school"

1.2. creative learning

1.2.1. 'Excellence and Enjoyment' DfES (2008)

1.2.1.1. refers to a QCA research project, saying

1.2.1.1.1. "by making only small changes to their existing planning and practice, teachers can promote pupils’ creativity through the National Curriculum and existing teaching frameworks of the Primary and Key Stage 3 Strategies" (31)

1.2.1.1.2. (31) creativity can...

1.3. Divergent thinking

1.3.1. (NAACE) (1999)

1.3.1.1. (102) aims of creative teaching:

1.3.1.1.1. "We define creative teaching in two ways: first, teaching creatively, and second, teaching for creativity. Many teachers see creative teaching in terms of the first (NFER 1998:31). Our terms of reference imply a primary concern with the second."

1.3.1.2. “Imaginative activity fashioned so as to produce outcomes that are both original and of value,” (30)

1.3.1.2.1. supportive of Robinson's ideas of divergent thinking

1.3.2. KEN ROBINSON

1.3.2.1. Divergent thinking (from Guilford, 1967)

1.3.2.1.1. the ability to see more than one outcome or process to a problem

2. Excellence and enjoyment (DfES) (2003)

3. Jones and Wyse (2004:62)

3.1. ‘Science is a creative subject; it provides many opportunities to stimulate children’s creative and critical thinking’.

4. 3. Theories on science and creativity (300)

4.1. NAACE 1999

4.1.1. On exploratory learning:

4.1.1.1. 101: "There is a further point to emphasise. There is much debate about methods of teaching in schools, and in particular about the effectiveness of ÔprogressiveÕ teaching methods. These include methods that encourage exploratory learning activities; group work and Ôlearning from experienceÕ. These methods are often associated with promoting creativity, freedom and self-expression. Some critics of progressive education see a link between these and a lack of rigour and authority in schools, and with low standards. They prefer more ÔtraditionalÕ methods of teaching: those associated with formal instruction of specific skills and content. In these terms, the debate on teaching and learning seems to some to involve a choice between creativity or rigour, freedom or authority.

4.1.1.1.1. "In our view, there is a balance in all good teaching between formal instruction of content and of skills, and giving young people the freedom to inquire, question, experiment and to express their own thoughts and ideas. In creative and cultural education, this balance is a matter of necessity."

4.2. Starko (2020)

4.2.1. intrinsic motivation

4.3. Imaginative approaches

4.3.1. Kind and Kind (2007)

4.3.1.1. Refers to NACCCE (1999:102) when defining creativity as "teachers using imaginative approaches to make learning more interesteing and effective".

4.3.1.2. THEORIES BEHIND CREATIVITY IN SCIENCE

4.3.1.2.1. looks at constructivist approaches, but not ones that involve social interaction, or interacitonism

4.4. DfES (2008)

4.4.1. Teachers found that when they actively planned for and responded to pupils’ creative ideas and actions, pupils became more curious to discover things for themselves, were open to new ideas and keen to explore those ideas with the teacher and others. Promoting creativity is a powerful way of engaging pupils with their learning.

4.4.1.1. DISCOVERY LEARING

4.4.1.2. empowers the child, becomes an active learner, CONSTRUCTIVISM#

5. 4. Practical approaches on science and creativity (700)

5.1. wow days and trips:

5.1.1. DFES/DCMS (2008) Research programme lookingn at using museums to support learning

5.1.1.1. Case Study: “Word Power” at the Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester

5.1.2. Hein's orientation

5.1.3. Learning in museums

5.1.4. teaching science creatively outside the classroom

5.1.5. NAACE

5.1.5.1. (104) General principles for teaching for creativity SHOULD BE USED AS FUNDAMENTAL THOUGHTS BEHIND THIS ASSIGNMENT!!!

5.1.5.1.1. Encouraging

5.1.5.1.2. Identifying

5.1.5.1.3. Fostering

5.1.5.2. (78) Kroto, H. in NAACE (1999): "Chemistry, the discipline central to our socio-economic environment, is suffering as much, if not more, than others, and is a perfect example of the need for urgent measures to develop in collaboration with schools and teachers, better interactive, balanced and personally tailored approaches to education. The wonderful new ÔexperienceÕ centres and science museums, which are blossoming across Europe, are providing an important component in the solution to these problems."

5.1.5.2.1. COLLABORATIOJ

5.1.5.2.2. TRIPS

5.2. Cheng (2010)

5.2.1. IDENTIFIES 3 DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO CREATIVE PRACTICE IN SCIENCE:

5.2.1.1. Science process approach

5.2.1.1.1. (3) "Open-inquiry is regarded as a most fundamental and widely used way to foster creativity in science education"

5.2.1.1.2. investigation, inquiry

5.2.1.2. science content approach

5.2.1.2.1. (4) "creative writing, which involves the use of analogies, is another useful strategy in nurturing creativity in science education (Drenkow, 1992). Everyday analogies lead an individual to new ideas, and personal analogies (in which students are asked to be the thing) help to foster imagination (Girod, Rau & Schepige, 2003)."

5.2.1.2.2. Kind and Kind (2007) and Starko (2010) commented that such process of imagination in specific situations results in students’ better understanding and new perspectives to science. (4)

5.2.1.3. science scenario approach

5.2.1.3.1. (4) "In the science scenario approach, creative problem solving (CPS) is another common way to foster creativity in science education. It aims to offer students an opportunity to “work with open-ended problems or tasks that require creative solution” (Park & Seung, 2008, p.48)."

5.2.1.3.2. CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING:

5.2.2. (44) "They need to address several problems, including the original content-curriculum, time constraints, student interests and abilities, and the discrepancies between student and teacher expectations."

5.3. Assessment for Learening

5.3.1. Effective questioning

5.4. Madden, Townsend and Green (2010)

5.4.1. "Book bag buddies"

5.5. Park and Seung (2008)

5.5.1. EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING STRATEGIES!!!

5.5.1.1. Looks into approaches to teach for creativity in HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE. however relevant for upper ks2 investigative work

5.5.1.1.1. the SCAMPER model

5.5.1.1.2. De Bono's thinking hats

5.5.1.1.3. Agreement, Disagreement, and Irrelevance

5.5.1.1.4. creative problem solving

5.6. i. OfSED (2010) Learning Creative Approaches that Raise Achievement.l London:Crown Copyright: www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/learning-creative-approaches-raise-standards [ACESSED 05 May 2012]

5.6.1. p7 "from the Early Years Foundation Stage onwards, ensure that pupils are actively encouraged to ask questions, hypothesise and share their ideas and that these skills extend into their writing".

5.7. Kind and Kind (2007)

5.7.1. Refers to many publications whihc define food creative teachind summarises:

5.7.1.1. student orientated (Mellar, 1993)

5.7.1.2. groups/team work (Marazzi, 1999)

5.7.1.3. cooperative learning (Anderson, 2001{)

5.7.1.4. exploratory tasks (Saxon et al, 2003)

5.7.1.5. open-ended problems (Schamel and Ayres, 1992)

5.7.1.6. open investigations (Sallam and Krockover, 1982)

5.7.1.7. hands on teaching (Shymansky and Penick, 1981)

5.7.1.8. outdoor activities (Boss, 2001)

5.7.1.9. project work (Mackin, 1996)

5.7.1.10. issue orientated (Penick and Yager, 1993)

5.7.1.11. teachers taking risks (Tamblyn,. 2000)

6. 5. Cross curricular approaches to science and creativity (200)

7. Science and Healthy eating workshop

7.1. Plan

7.2. Resources

7.2.1. Balanced plate

7.2.2. food worksheet

7.3. Powerpoint

7.4. Peer and tutor evaluations

7.5. Personal Evaluation

8. Science and ICT workshop

9. Assignment details

9.1. 1500 words

9.2. Key aspects

9.2.1. Analyse the cross curricular workshops

9.2.1.1. in relation to the creativity identified in the Primary Strategy

9.2.1.2. and of Jones and Wyse

9.2.2. EVALUATE how you aimed to provide excellence and enjoyment in primary science.

9.3. Consider..

9.3.1. how creativity makes science learning accessible

9.3.2. creative starting points for science learning

9.3.3. creative use of resources to support science learning

9.3.4. creative use of the learning environment including Learning Outside the Classroom

9.3.5. creative methods for recording the children’s ideas

9.3.6. modelling thinking through the use of role play

9.3.7. How cross-curricular links provide creative contexts

9.3.7.1. Discuss aspects of creativity in relation to cross-curricular teaching.

9.3.7.2. How does cross-curricular teaching enhance creativity?

9.3.7.3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a cross-curricular approach?

9.3.7.4. Note: There is an opportunity here to discuss and analyse contrasting perspectives

9.3.7.5. Discuss aspects of creativity as demonstrated in your workshop and how you planned as a team with creativity in mind.

9.3.7.6. Draw on your thinking in relation to how your workshop demonstrated creative teaching; encouraged creative thinking and promoted creative learning.

9.3.7.7. Did the cross-curricular nature of your workshop enhance your teaching of science?

9.3.7.8. How did you maintain the science focus when using a cross-curricular approach?

10. References

10.1. NAACE(1999)

10.2. Park and Seung (2008)

10.2.1. EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING STRATEGIES!!!

10.2.1.1. Looks into approaches to teach for creativity in HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE. however relevant for upper ks2 investigative work

10.2.1.1.1. the SCAMPER model

10.2.1.1.2. De Bono's thinking hats

10.2.1.1.3. Agreement, Disagreement, and Irrelevance

10.2.1.1.4. creative problem solving

10.2.2. The main aim is to create a scientific literat person

10.2.2.1. "A scientifically literate person is one who is curious about the world, desires to ask questions and find answers, and is capable of making reasonable decisions about scientific issues. All of these processes require creative thinking" (48).

10.2.2.1.1. developing CURIOSITY fosters CREATIVITY

10.3. Lakin, Lipington and Pask (2004)

10.4. Kind and Kind (2007)

11. 2. how is science classed as creative? (200)

11.1. typically we associate science with more numeric, explicitly process-based subject such as mathematics. subjects of logical thinking, require academic functioning skills. there is a definite answer. wheras creative arts are more subjective in terms of the right answer. opinionated, outcomes are divergent, individual preference, postmodernist. liberal.

11.1.1. but if look at an inquiry-based approach to science, this may change our perceptions

11.1.2. and if we more clearly define creativity as a thing which inevitably involves some form of process, then science can fit into this category.

11.2. Kind and Kind (2007)

11.2.1. Science in itself is creative

11.2.1.1. Art and Science:

11.2.1.1.1. (6) "science and art are commonly regarded as contrasting areas: one represent rationality and logical reasoning while the other is seen as primarily aesthetic. Unsurprisingly, creativity for this reason is associated more with art than science."

11.2.1.1.2. stresses the 2 viewpoints on how art is integrated into pedagogical science

11.3. NAACE (1999)

11.3.1. (77) "We will need to do better than we have done in recent years to convey the excitement of science, to use it to help young people develop a sense of wonder about the world, and encourage them to see its relevance to their lives and how it involves moral issues on which they, as citizens in a democracy, ought to have views." - Nick Tate quotes this in NAACE (1999)

11.3.1.1. WONDER of the weorld

11.3.1.2. its relevance

11.3.1.3. involves moral issues in which...

11.3.1.3.1. the emphasis of discussion

11.3.2. Science has 4 roles in the cultural creative development of others (77)

11.3.2.1. First, to provide an essential grounding in gathering and respecting evidence and in intellectual skills of analysis

11.3.2.2. Second, to provide access to the rich store of existing scientific understanding of the processes of nature and the laws that govern them

11.3.2.3. Third, to provide essential opportunities for practical and theoretical inquiry by which received knowledge can be verified, challenged or extended.

11.3.2.4. Fourth, in each of these ways, science education can and must promote higher standards of scientific literacy.

11.3.3. looks at moral/emotional aspects of creativity:

11.3.3.1. "Creativity is possible in all areas of human activity, including the arts, sciences, at work at play and in all other areas of daily life. All people have creative abilities and we all have them differently. When individuals find their creative strengths, it can have an enormous impact on self-esteem and on overall achievement." (6)