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PCC Science Assignment by Mind Map: PCC Science Assignment
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PCC Science Assignment

  "A 1500 word, or equivalent assignment critically analysing a current issue and its implications for teaching and learning in relation to Science."  

1. Defining Creativity (100)

Creative teaching

DfES (2008), the principles of learning and teaching (29), Ensure every child succeeds:, provide an inclusive education within a culture of high expectations., Build on what learners already know:, structure and pace teaching so that students know what is to be learnt, how and why., Make learning vivid and real:, develop understanding through enquiry, creativity, e-learning and group problem solving., make learning an enjoyable and challenging experience, stimulate learning through matching teaching techniques and strategies to a range of learning styles., enrich the learning experience, build learning skills across the curriculum., Promote assessment for learning, make children partners in their learning.

(3) "Be creative and innovative in how they teach and run the school"

creative learning

'Excellence and Enjoyment' DfES (2008), refers to a QCA research project, saying, "by making only small changes to their existing planning and practice, teachers can promote pupils’ creativity through the National Curriculum and existing teaching frameworks of the Primary and Key Stage 3 Strategies" (31), (31) creativity can..., Improve pupils’ self-esteem, motivation and achievement.,  Develop skills for adult life.,  Develop the talent of the individual.

Divergent thinking

(NAACE) (1999), (102) aims of creative teaching:, "We define creative teaching in two ways: first, teaching creatively, and second, teaching for creativity. Many teachers see creative teaching in terms of the first (NFER 1998:31). Our terms of reference imply a primary concern with the second.", creative teaching to make creative individuals, “Imaginative activity fashioned so as to produce outcomes that are both original and of value,” (30), supportive of Robinson's ideas of divergent thinking

KEN ROBINSON, Divergent thinking (from Guilford, 1967), the ability to see more than one outcome or process to a problem

Excellence and enjoyment (DfES) (2003)

DFES (2003) Excellence and Enjoyment: A Strategy for Primary Schools. London: Crown Copyright.

Jones and Wyse (2004:62)

Jones, R. and Wyse, D. (2004) Creativity in the Primary Curriculum. London: David Fulton

‘Science is a creative subject; it provides many opportunities to stimulate children’s creative and critical thinking’.

3. Theories on science and creativity (300)

NAACE 1999

On exploratory learning:, 101: "There is a further point to emphasise. There is much debate about methods of teaching in schools, and in particular about the effectiveness of ÔprogressiveÕ teaching methods. These include methods that encourage exploratory learning activities; group work and Ôlearning from experienceÕ. These methods are often associated with promoting creativity, freedom and self-expression. Some critics of progressive education see a link between these and a lack of rigour and authority in schools, and with low standards. They prefer more ÔtraditionalÕ methods of teaching: those associated with formal instruction of specific skills and content. In these terms, the debate on teaching and learning seems to some to involve a choice between creativity or rigour, freedom or authority., "In our view, there is a balance in all good teaching between formal instruction of content and of skills, and giving young people the freedom to inquire, question, experiment and to express their own thoughts and ideas. In creative and cultural education, this balance is a matter of necessity."

Starko (2020)

intrinsic motivation

Imaginative approaches

Kind and Kind (2007), Refers to NACCCE (1999:102) when defining creativity as "teachers using imaginative approaches to make learning more interesteing and effective"., THEORIES BEHIND CREATIVITY IN SCIENCE, looks at constructivist approaches, but not ones that involve social interaction, or interacitonism, imagination, use of imagination in role-play and pretend play with others... "This makes imagination a general tool humans use to reflect on situations that are beyond their experience(see Block, 1981)." (20)

DfES (2008)

Teachers found that when they actively planned for and responded to pupils’ creative ideas and actions, pupils became more curious to discover things for themselves, were open to new ideas and keen to explore those ideas with the teacher and others. Promoting creativity is a powerful way of engaging pupils with their learning., DISCOVERY LEARING, empowers the child, becomes an active learner, CONSTRUCTIVISM#

4. Practical approaches on science and creativity (700)

wow days and trips:

DFES/DCMS (2008) Research programme lookingn at using museums to support learning, Case Study: “Word Power” at the Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester

Hein's orientation

Learning in museums

teaching science creatively outside the classroom

NAACE, (104) General principles for teaching for creativity SHOULD BE USED AS FUNDAMENTAL THOUGHTS BEHIND THIS ASSIGNMENT!!!, Encouraging, Identifying, discovering children's creative strengths, Fostering, utilising our basic skills to be creative, memory, curiosity, etc., (78) Kroto, H. in NAACE (1999): "Chemistry, the discipline central to our socio-economic environment, is suffering as much, if not more, than others, and is a perfect example of the need for urgent measures to develop in collaboration with schools and teachers, better interactive, balanced and personally tailored approaches to education. The wonderful new ÔexperienceÕ centres and science museums, which are blossoming across Europe, are providing an important component in the solution to these problems.", COLLABORATIOJ, TRIPS

Cheng (2010)

Cheng, V. (2010) 'Teaching creative thinking in regular science lessons: Potentials and obstacles of three different approaches in an Asian context'.Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching. 11(1) p1 Three teacher case studies were conducted to examine the potentials and obstacles of implementing these approaches in classroom of Hong Kong.

IDENTIFIES 3 DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO CREATIVE PRACTICE IN SCIENCE:, Science process approach, (3) "Open-inquiry is regarded as a most fundamental and widely used way to foster creativity in science education", investigation, inquiry, science content approach, (4) "creative writing, which involves the use of analogies, is another useful strategy in nurturing creativity in science education (Drenkow, 1992). Everyday analogies lead an individual to new ideas, and personal analogies (in which students are asked to be the thing) help to foster imagination (Girod, Rau & Schepige, 2003).", use concept cartoons, Kind and Kind (2007) and Starko (2010) commented that such process of imagination in specific situations results in students’ better understanding and new perspectives to science. (4), science scenario approach, (4) "In the science scenario approach, creative problem solving (CPS) is another common way to foster creativity in science education. It aims to offer students an opportunity to “work with open-ended problems or tasks that require creative solution” (Park & Seung, 2008, p.48).", CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING:, "CPS model consists of six stages: mess-finding, data-finding, problem-finding, idea-finding, solution-finding and acceptance-finding. In each stage, divergent thinking (finding many ideas) is followed by convergent thinking (analyzing ideas and making choice)."(4) ideas of CPS taken from Isaksen, Dorval and Treffinger (2000)

(44) "They need to address several problems, including the original content-curriculum, time constraints, student interests and abilities, and the discrepancies between student and teacher expectations."

Assessment for Learening

Effective questioning

Madden, Townsend and Green (2010)

Madden, J. A., Townsend, S. and Green, J. (2010) 'Book bag buddies: Third-grade authors publish and share science stories. Science and Children.49(3) p42-47

"Book bag buddies"

Park and Seung (2008)

EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING STRATEGIES!!!, Looks into approaches to teach for creativity in HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE. however relevant for upper ks2 investigative work, the SCAMPER model, the 6 questions:, substitute, what can we substitute?, combine, what factors or materials can we combine when..., adapt, what happens if we adapt or change the ..., modify, magnify or minify, what happens if we increase the... decrease the..., put to other use, where else could we do this kind of investigation?, eliminate, what if we take out the...?, Reverse or rearrange, what we if swapped some things around a little bit? Would this make the investigation more reliable or efficient?, "Using the SCAMPER model, the teacher can ask a set of questions to help students come up with new ways to address a given problem. The questions serve as stimuli to get students thinking about problems from multiple angles thst they might not have previously considered" (45), this links in with divergent thinking. effective questioning strategies from the teachers can lead to children thinking about different scenarios, outcomes and opportunities., SCAMPER is useful in looking into potential further work after an investigation, De Bono's thinking hats, Science and Technology in Society (STS) approach, "This strategy can be used in a science class that employs the Science, Technology and Society (STS) approach. For example, a teacher can provide students with a scenario about a town's reclamation project for wetlands in which various positions exist. After reading this scenario, the teacher divides the class into groups of 6... etc." (47), ROLE PLAY, MANTLE OF THE EXPERT, ACTIVE, REAL LIFE LEARNING, why is it creative?, (47) "This is particularly significant when they have to think in ways that are not compatible with their personalities or ideas and must come up with creative alternatives that they may not otherwise consider.", again, Divergent thinking at the core, Agreement, Disagreement, and Irrelevance, can be used to discuss open-ended problems or issues in science, involves debating, cross curricular links with literacy, example: "decide whether or not a nuclear power plant should be built in a given community" (48), thematic, can work over a unit of lessons, etc., creative problem solving, "aims to give children an opporunity to work with an open-ended problems or tasks that require creative solutions" (48), "...with this activity, students become self-directed learners, who are aware of their ownership of learning, which helps to advance students' scientific literacy", strong in constructivist theories:, child-centred, intrinsic motivation, discovery learning, examples of some tasks, "build the tallest and strongest tower you can with dry spaghetti noodles, marshmallows, and gelatin candies. At the end of the construction period, the tower will be tested for strength by balancing a tennis ball on it and the height will be measured with a ruler" (48), this is similar to group X's workshop, we were asked to create a tower for different pursposes using cocktail sticks and marshmallows., "Construct an egg-cather with straws and a roll of tape, the egg cather will be tested by dropping eggs from a requisite height".

i. OfSED (2010) Learning Creative Approaches that Raise Achievement.l London:Crown Copyright: www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/learning-creative-approaches-raise-standards [ACESSED 05 May 2012]

i. OfSED (2010) Learning Creative Approaches that Raise Achievement.l London:Crown Copyright: www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/learning-creative-approaches-raise-standards [ACESSED 05 May 2012]

p7 "from the Early Years Foundation Stage onwards, ensure that pupils are actively encouraged to ask questions, hypothesise and share their ideas and that these skills extend into their writing".

Kind and Kind (2007)

Refers to many publications whihc define food creative teachind summarises:, student orientated (Mellar, 1993), groups/team work (Marazzi, 1999), cooperative learning (Anderson, 2001{), exploratory tasks (Saxon et al, 2003), open-ended problems (Schamel and Ayres, 1992), open investigations (Sallam and Krockover, 1982), hands on teaching (Shymansky and Penick, 1981), outdoor activities (Boss, 2001), project work (Mackin, 1996), issue orientated (Penick and Yager, 1993), teachers taking risks (Tamblyn,. 2000)

5. Cross curricular approaches to science and creativity (200)

Science and Healthy eating workshop

Plan

Resources

Balanced plate

food worksheet

Powerpoint

Peer and tutor evaluations

Personal Evaluation

Science and ICT workshop

Assignment details

1500 words

Key aspects

Analyse the cross curricular workshops, in relation to the creativity identified in the Primary Strategy, and of Jones and Wyse

EVALUATE how you aimed to provide excellence and enjoyment in primary science.

Consider..

how creativity makes science learning accessible

creative starting points for science learning

creative use of resources to support science learning

creative use of the learning environment including Learning Outside the Classroom

creative methods for recording the children’s ideas

modelling thinking through the use of role play

How cross-curricular links provide creative contexts, Discuss aspects of creativity in relation to cross-curricular teaching., How does cross-curricular teaching enhance creativity?, What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a cross-curricular approach?, Note: There is an opportunity here to discuss and analyse contrasting perspectives, Discuss aspects of creativity as demonstrated in your workshop and how you planned as a team with creativity in mind., Draw on your thinking in relation to how your workshop demonstrated creative teaching; encouraged creative thinking and promoted creative learning., Did the cross-curricular nature of your workshop enhance your teaching of science?, How did you maintain the science focus when using a cross-curricular approach?

References

NAACE(1999)

Park and Seung (2008)

Park, S. and Seung, E. (2008) 'Creativity in the science classroom'. The Science Teacher. 75(6) 45-48

EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING STRATEGIES!!!, Looks into approaches to teach for creativity in HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE. however relevant for upper ks2 investigative work, the SCAMPER model, the 6 questions:, substitute, what can we substitute?, combine, what factors or materials can we combine when..., adapt, what happens if we adapt or change the ..., modify, magnify or minify, what happens if we increase the... decrease the..., put to other use, where else could we do this kind of investigation?, eliminate, what if we take out the...?, Reverse or rearrange, what we if swapped some things around a little bit? Would this make the investigation more reliable or efficient?, "Using the SCAMPER model, the teacher can ask a set of questions to help students come up with new ways to address a given problem. The questions serve as stimuli to get students thinking about problems from multiple angles thst they might not have previously considered" (45), this links in with divergent thinking. effective questioning strategies from the teachers can lead to children thinking about different scenarios, outcomes and opportunities., SCAMPER is useful in looking into potential further work after an investigation, De Bono's thinking hats, Science and Technology in Society (STS) approach, "This strategy can be used in a science class that employs the Science, Technology and Society (STS) approach. For example, a teacher can provide students with a scenario about a town's reclamation project for wetlands in which various positions exist. After reading this scenario, the teacher divides the class into groups of 6... etc." (47), ROLE PLAY, MANTLE OF THE EXPERT, ACTIVE, REAL LIFE LEARNING, why is it creative?, (47) "This is particularly significant when they have to think in ways that are not compatible with their personalities or ideas and must come up with creative alternatives that they may not otherwise consider.", again, Divergent thinking at the core, Agreement, Disagreement, and Irrelevance, can be used to discuss open-ended problems or issues in science, involves debating, cross curricular links with literacy, example: "decide whether or not a nuclear power plant should be built in a given community" (48), thematic, can work over a unit of lessons, etc., creative problem solving, "aims to give children an opporunity to work with an open-ended problems or tasks that require creative solutions" (48), "...with this activity, students become self-directed learners, who are aware of their ownership of learning, which helps to advance students' scientific literacy", strong in constructivist theories:, child-centred, intrinsic motivation, discovery learning, examples of some tasks, "build the tallest and strongest tower you can with dry spaghetti noodles, marshmallows, and gelatin candies. At the end of the construction period, the tower will be tested for strength by balancing a tennis ball on it and the height will be measured with a ruler" (48), this is similar to group X's workshop, we were asked to create a tower for different pursposes using cocktail sticks and marshmallows., "Construct an egg-cather with straws and a roll of tape, the egg cather will be tested by dropping eggs from a requisite height".

The main aim is to create a scientific literat person, "A scientifically literate person is one who is curious about the world, desires to ask questions and find answers, and is capable of making reasonable decisions about scientific issues. All of these processes require creative thinking" (48)., developing CURIOSITY fosters CREATIVITY, links to NAACE principles of teaching for creativity: Fostering creativity

Lakin, Lipington and Pask (2004)

Lakin, L., Lipington, L. and Pask, H. (2004) 'How can science be creative?' Primary Science Review. 81(1) pp 81

Kind and Kind (2007)

Kind, P. M. and Kind, V. (2007) 'Creativity in science education: perspectives and challenges for developing school science. Studies in Science Education. 43(1) pp1-37

2. how is science classed as creative? (200)

typically we associate science with more numeric, explicitly process-based subject such as mathematics. subjects of logical thinking, require academic functioning skills. there is a definite answer. wheras creative arts are more subjective in terms of the right answer. opinionated, outcomes are divergent, individual preference, postmodernist. liberal.

but if look at an inquiry-based approach to science, this may change our perceptions

and if we more clearly define creativity as a thing which inevitably involves some form of process, then science can fit into this category.

Kind and Kind (2007)

Science in itself is creative, Art and Science:, (6) "science and art are commonly regarded as contrasting areas: one represent rationality and logical reasoning while the other is seen as primarily aesthetic. Unsurprisingly, creativity for this reason is associated more with art than science.", stresses the 2 viewpoints on how art is integrated into pedagogical science, the "art as a tool"... the "common sense view"(6), Art is used to represent creativity, to be the creative element used within the science lesson to make it creativity, See, Watts (2001), who illustratres this approach by looking at poetry in science:, Watts: students can "... play with words and toy with language" (201), emphasis on science in itself being an aesthetic and creative activity, "...both in knowledge development and the nature of the knowledge itself"(6), SCIENCE ITSELF CREATIVE; IT SHOULD NOT HAVE TO BE ROBED IN OTHER CREATIVE SUBJECTS.

NAACE (1999)

(77) "We will need to do better than we have done in recent years to convey the excitement of science, to use it to help young people develop a sense of wonder about the world, and encourage them to see its relevance to their lives and how it involves moral issues on which they, as citizens in a democracy, ought to have views." - Nick Tate quotes this in NAACE (1999), WONDER of the weorld, its relevance, involves moral issues in which..., the emphasis of discussion

Science has 4 roles in the cultural creative development of others (77), First, to provide an essential grounding in gathering and respecting evidence and in intellectual skills of analysis, Second, to provide access to the rich store of existing scientific understanding of the processes of nature and the laws that govern them, Third, to provide essential opportunities for practical and theoretical inquiry by which received knowledge can be verified, challenged or extended., Fourth, in each of these ways, science education can and must promote higher standards of scientific literacy.

looks at moral/emotional aspects of creativity:, "Creativity is possible in all areas of human activity, including the arts, sciences, at work at play and in all other areas of daily life. All people have creative abilities and we all have them differently. When individuals find their creative strengths, it can have an enormous impact on self-esteem and on overall achievement." (6)