Industrial Revolution: The period where Britain was transformed from an agricultural nation into...

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Industrial Revolution: The period where Britain was transformed from an agricultural nation into the manufacturing nation of the world. Scientific, technological and commercial inventions, a rising population, improved transportation provided quicker and cheaper production by Mind Map: Industrial Revolution:  The period where Britain was transformed from an agricultural nation into the manufacturing nation of the world. Scientific, technological and commercial inventions, a rising population, improved transportation provided quicker and cheaper production





5. Causes

5.1. The Cottage Industry

5.1.1. .

5.1.2. The cottage industry started to make the agriculture business more economic and made it a more open way of making money by staying at home

5.2. Growth of textile industry

5.2.1. The growth of the textile industry created a huge surge in commerce. Competition stimulated the development of sources of energy. The steam engine was one of these new energy sources. .

5.3. Transportation technology

5.3.1. The steam engine was used on ships, in factories and on trains. It increased the efficiency of production Increases in production created a need for raw materials. This stimulated the mining industry and trade in general.

5.3.2. .

5.4. Investment

5.4.1. New world brought riches (gold and silver) which doubled the money in Europe and let more money be spent on the investment of new ideas

5.5. Modern work attitudes (should get higher salaries, specialization)

5.6. Countries wanted to be like Britain (it hit Britain first)

5.6.1. Great Britain had a larger educated workforce to run the machines and create manuals.

5.6.2. The Enlightenment not only meant a larger educated population but also more modern views on work.

5.6.3. The population in Great Britain was ready to move out of the country and to the city to work.

5.7. Agrarian Revolution

5.7.1. This revolution was fueled by the use of new farming technology such as the seed drill and improved fertilizers. The result of this revolution was a increase in population due to the higher availability of food.

5.7.2. .

5.8. Enclosure Movement

5.8.1. Using new farming technology and systems of crop rotation, aristocrats forced the poor off the farms that now became "enclosed" as private property. These poor agrarians then moved to urban areas and were the workforce of the Industrial Revolution.

5.9. The Crusades

5.9.1. The Crusades opened up the riches of the East to Western Europe. America was discovered, new trade routes were opened, British East India Company were chartered by governments, larger ships were built, and cities were established

5.9.2. With the expansion of trade, more money was needed. Banks and credit systems were developed. By the end of the 17th century Europe had a large capital. Money had to be available before machinery and steam engines could come into wide use for they were costly to manufacture and install.

5.9.3. By 1750 large quantities of goods were being exchanged among the European nations, and there was a demand for more goods than were being produced. England was the leading commercial nation.

5.9.4. .

5.10. Coal and Iron

5.10.1. The iron industry benefited also from other early inventions of the 18th century. Iron was scarce and costly, and production was falling off because England's forests could not supply enough charcoal for the iron. The Darby family, succeeded with coal that had been transformed into coke. This created a new demand for coal and laid the foundation for the British coal industry. .

6. Websites

7. Positive Impacts/Negative Consequences

7.1. Positive Impacts

7.1.1. A new Middle Class developed Made of skilled workers, business people, and professionals .

7.1.2. Socialism Its ideals included eliminating private property (the base of capitalism) and pointing out social injustices suffered by workers By the second half of the 19th century the ideas of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels over the structure of society, class struggle and the disadvantaged workers had formed criticisms against the injustice.

7.1.3. Artistic Impacts Things like romanticism, realism and impressionism appeared with artists like Vincent Van Gogh .

7.1.4. Politics More people could now vote since 1832, before only about 6 percent of the male population could vote, which were the large land owners.

7.1.5. The World It increased the demand on products Gave a rise to colonization and imperialism by powerful countries Larger market and demand for goods Africa, China, India, South East Asia It made britain one of the greatest powers in terms of economics and agriculture. Mass migration Many people even moved to different countries which provided a transfer of labour .

7.1.6. Population Growth Larger workforce Caused by the agricultural revolution

7.1.7. Modernized Europe Increased economical activity Britain's economy greatly improved, and it set the pace for the industrial revolution before all European countries and America. People were forced from the countryside into the cities Allowed increased integration of people (especially in cities) Social mobility increased People not so much judged on background, but on talent.

7.1.8. Education growth Factory owners wanted educated workers so more schools increased and literacy increased as well .

7.1.9. Laissez-Faire Economics Economic philosophy by Adam Smith in his book, Wealth of Nations, which stated that business and the economy would run best with no interference from the government. This economic system dominated in the Industrial Revolution.

7.1.10. Revolution spreads to USA The United States had little capital to buy the machinery and put up the buildings required. Such capital was largely invested in shipping and commerce. Labor was scarce because men continued to push westward, clearing the forests and establishing themselves on the land.

7.1.11. Age of Electricity Thomas A. Edison introduced a system of electric lighting in New York City. Electricity was later applied to driving all kinds of machinery as well as powering locomotives and streetcars. Electric lighting quickly spread across the United States and was adopted in Europe. .

7.2. Modern work attitudes (should get higher salaries, specialization of one type of work)

7.3. Consequences

7.3.1. Investment Stimulates Growth Owners had enough money to buy more raw material, invest in machinery, promote inventions, pay salaries

7.3.2. Urbanization (growth of cities) London becomes Europe’s largest city with over 1 million people by 1800

7.3.3. Living Conditions There were no sanitary or building safety codes and cities lacked adequate housing and police protection. .

7.3.4. Working conditions Average worker spent 14 hours, 6 days/week at work Factories were dark and dirty There was no health or unemployment insurance and injuries were common

7.3.5. Job conditions Poor workers saw little improvement in their standard of living. They were often replaced by machines so they lost many jobs

7.3.6. Growing distinction between classes Gaps between the upper class and lower class increased significantly Gaps between men and women .

7.3.7. Dependence on Limited Resources It was the fossil fuel coal that fueled the Industrial Revolution. It came at high costs to our environment, and to the health of all living things. Later on in the future, American geophysicist M. King Hubbert predicted in 1949 that the fossil fuel era would be very short-lived and that other energy sources would need to be relied upon.

7.3.8. War Increased the chance of war. The Revolution allowed for the assembly line and mass production, providing guns, ammunitions tanks, war technology, foods and supplies for soldiers. .

7.3.9. Environment While the Industrial Revolution was the cause of positive change for the industrial world, it has wreaked the environment. The depletion of natural resources, the carbon emissions, pollution and human health problems today have resulted directly from the Industrial Revolution's accomplishments. .

7.3.10. Obesity (mass production of food) (more future) Mass production of food for the world population and chemically altered food contributed to worldwide obesity and health problems. Obesity is also linked to the lifestyle made possible by the use of factory-made home appliances, (i.e. washing machines, dishwashers) and recreational appliances (namely televisions).