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Brain & Action by Mind Map: Brain & Action
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Brain & Action

Brain Structure

Lobes

Parietal Lobe, Positioning, Knowing where the body is, In the middle "Part"

Frontal Lobe, Reasoning, Remembering, Executive decision maker, In the front

Occipital Lobe, Contains visual cortex, Sensory information, Occi = eyes, at the back

Temporal Lobe, Auditory Cortex, Language, Time underlies everything = bottom

Not functional units on their own

Levels

Brainstem, Live

Medial Level, Diencephalon, limbic system, Food, Fight, Fuck

Cerebral Cortex, The Lobes, Insular Cortex, Cerebellum, Structure, Fissures, Tertiary structure, Sculi, Valley, Gyri, Mountain, Cortex, Bark around ccerebrum / lobes

Brain Division

Forebrain, Telencephalon / Cerebrum, Largest division, Voluntary movement, Interpret sensory input, Mediates complex cognitive processes, Divisions, Longitudinal fissure, Connected by Corpus Calossum, Lateral sculus, Central fissure, Diencephalon, Thalamus, Receive signals from PNS, Send to right sensory cortex part, Hypothalamus, Controls pituitary, Motivation, connected behavior, Below hypothalamus + pitiutary, Optic chiasm, Mammillary bodies

Midbrain, Mesencephalon, Tectum, Inferrior colliculi, Auditory, Superior colliculi, Visual, Tegmentum, Tracts of passage, Red nucleus, Motor coordination, Substantia nigra, Reward, Addiction, Movement, It's black, Periaquiductal gray, Descending modulation of pain, Defensive behaviour

Hindbrain, Metencephalon, Pons, Tracts cerebrum > cerebellum and medulla, Tracts sensory signals > thalamus, Basic functions, Sleep, Respiration, Etc, Cerebellum, Sensorimotor control, Cognitive tasks, Myelencephalon, Reticuar formation, Arousal, Sleep, Attention, Movement, Transmit brain > body

Nervous System

CNS

PNS

Somatic (voluntary), Skeletal Muscle, Crude Body Awareness, Afferent nerves, Input, Skeletal Sensory > CNS, Efferent nerves = output, Output, CNS > Skeletal

Visceral / Autonomic, Internal state regulation, Afferent nerves, Input, Organs > CNS, Efferent nerves, Sympathetic, Arousal, Para-sympathetic, Relaxation

Brain Measurement

Anatomy

CT Scan, Computed Tomography - X ray

MRI, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, More detailed than CT, 3D image

Cortical somatotopy, Mapping of cortex to stimuli

Function

PET, Positron emission tomography, Radioactive Tracer Introduced, Glucose linked

EEG, Electroencephalography, Electrical activity over scalp

fMRI, Functional MRI, Track blood flow / oxygen

Single-Cell, Microelectrode

Links

Neuroanatomic tracing techniques, Anterograde, Trace path of axons downstream, Retrograde, Trace upstream

Structure

CNS Membranes

Menenges, Cerebrospinal fluid, Subarachnoid space, Between Arachnoid mater and pia mater, Protects against mechanical schock, Produced in Choroid plexuses, Dura mater (outer), Arachnoid mater (middle), Pia mater (inner)

Blood brain barrier, Only permeable to smaller molecules passively, For protection, Tightly packed membranes around vessels

Brain Navigation

Anterior / posterior, Nose (Rostral) / tail

Dorsal / Ventral, Superior / inferior, Top / bottom

Medial / lateral, Middle / sides

Planes, Horizontal, Frontal / coronal, Saggital

Neuron Classifications, Axon length, Golgi type I, Long axon, Projection neuron, Golgi type II, Short axon, Local circuit neuron, Nr of Neurites, Nr of Dendrites, Type of NT, Type of connections, Motor, Primary sensory, Interneurons

Important parts orientation

Cingulate gyrus

Thalamus

Corpus calossum

Pineal body

Fornix

Hypothalamus

Pons

Cerebellum

Medulla

Basal Ganglia, Caudate nucleus, Putamen, Globus pallidus, Somatic NS, Movement coordination

Spinal Cord

Cervical, C1-C7, Neck

Thoraic, T1-T12, Attached to ribs

Lumbar, L1-L5, Lower back

Sacral, S1-S?, Pelvic area

Systems

Limbic

Cingulate cortex

Hippocampus

Fornix

Anterior thalamus

Involved in motivation and emotion

Learning

Habituation, Less NT

Sensitization, More stimulus = amplification

Conditioning, Operant, Not connected to stimuli, Connected to experience of own behavior, Classical, 2 stimuli 2 responses, Habituation and sensitization

Like vs want, Want, Desire for stimulus, Dopamine linked, Like, Taste/distaste for stimulus

Hypothalamus

Function, Homeostasis, Humoral response, Hormone control, Visceromotor response, ANS control, Somatic motor response, Somatic motor behavioral control

Anatomy, Medial, Latteral, Perivertricular, Circadian rhythm, Direct connection to pituitary, Important for (para)sym NS

Pituitary

Function, Release hormones that trigget other glands

Structure, Anterior, Nose side, Hypothalamic control, Parocellular neurosecretory cells, Hypophysiotropic hormones, Posterior, Backside, Hypothalamic control, Oxytocin, Vasopressin

Endocrine system

Components, Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Glands in the body

Hormone types, Steroids, Peptides, Aminoacids, Tropic, Have other hormone glands as target

Sex, LH & FSH, Male, Production Sperm, Maturation Sperm, Female, Menstrual cycle, Egg cell enclosure

Eating

Hormones, Leptin, Released by fat cells, Insulin

Brain, Hypothalamus, POMC Circuit, Decrease hunger, a-MSH, CART, NPY Circuit, Increase hunger, NPY, AGRP

Short term regulation, Phases, Cephalic, ParaSym NS activated by senses, Gastric, Chewing and filling stomach, Substrate, Absorbtion, Substances, CCK, Fat in deodenum response, Insulin, Response to glucose, PYY, Calorie intake, Stronger response to fat

Motor control

Levels, High, Association area (goal), Basal ganglia (strategy), Medium, Cerebellum, Motor cortex, Smooth muscle movements, Low, Brain stem, Spinal cord, Actual muscle coordination

Pathways, Rubrospinal, Reflex movement, Ventromedial, Proximate joints, Bodyposition and balance, Lateral, Distal joints, Corticoreticolospinal tract, Against spinal

Areas, Cerebellum, Association cortex, Cerebellum, SMA, Basal Ganglia, Association cortex, Putamen, Globus pallidus, VLO, SMA, Motor tasks but also others, Somatosensory Cortex, Most in parietal lobe, Primary (S1) on postcentral gyrus, M1 is more sensitive to sensory input

Sleep

Regulation, By, Superchiasmic nucleus, Hypothalamus, Photoreceptors, Promoting factors, Adenosin, Melatonin, Muramyl, SCN

Phases, REM, High frequency, Low amplitude, N-REM

Brainwaves, Beta 14+, Alpha 8-13, Quiet waking, Theta 4-7, Some sleep states, Delta 4-, High amplitude deep sleep

Cellular

Nervous system cells

Neurons, Dendrite, Root like structure, Cell body, Golgi apparatus, Protein transport, Dendritic spinals, Octopus bits, Free ribosome, Protein translation, Rough ER, Protein synthesis, Uses ribosomes, Smooth ER, Cholesterol metabolism, Membrane synthesis, Detoxification, Carbohydrate metabolism, Lysosome, Break down unused stuff, Stomach of the cell, Axon hillock, Axon - soma connection, Microtubules, Structural support, Transport, Mitochondria, ATP synthesis, Myelin sheath, rolled up along axon, Nodes of Ranvier, Between myelin, Axon, the tail, Axon terminal, the end of the tail

Glial Cells, Nourishment and support, Astrocytes, Maintain extracellular state, Contain NT action, Myelinating Glia, Schwann cell, PNS, Myelinate 1 cell, Oligodendrogia, CNS, Myelinate several cells

Neuro transmitters

Synthesis, In Cell body, RER, Peptides, Transport to axon terminal, Axoplasmic transport, Axon terminal, GABA, Amines, Outside cell

Types, Aminoacids, Amines, Peptides

Action potential

Rising phase

Depolarisation

Na influx

Fall phase

Repolarisation

K efflux

Hyperpolarisation

Resting potential

Synaptic transmission

Influx of ca++ causes exocytosis

Vesicle restored in endocytosis

EPSP, Excitatory post synaptic potential

IPSP, Inhibiting post synaptic potential

Receptors, Types, G-protein coupled, Autoreceptors, Ion channel, Binders, Substance, Agonist, Works like substance, Antagonist, Binds but doesn't activate

Summation, Spatial, Signals from multiple neurons, Temporal, Higher frequency of excitement

Organs

Eye

Structure, General and cells, Cornea, Glass body over eye, Iris, Retina, Photoreceptors, Types, Rods, Cones, Structure, Outer segment, Inner segment, Cell body, Synaptic terminal, Bipolar cells, Ganglion cells, Output from retina, Last layer, Amacrine cells, Input from bipolar cells, Project neurites, Ganglion cells, Bipolar cells, Other amacrine cells, Horizontal cells, Input from photoreceptors, Projects neurites, Influence bipolar cells, Influence photoreceptors, Macro, Macula, Optic disc, Ciliary muscle, Lens bender, Fovea, Highest photoreceptor density, Optic nerve, Optic disk, Lens, Zolune fibres, Pulls lens straight when ciliary muscle relaxes, Sclera, White body of eye, Liquids, Aqeueous humor, Liquid between lens and cornea, Vitreous humor, Liquid between lens and retina, Layers, Ganglion layer, Inner plexiform, Inner nuclear, Cell bodies of bipolar, Outer plexiformm, Outer nuclear layer, Cell bodies photoreceptors, Photoreceptor outer segments, Light sensitive part, Pigmented epithelium

Processing, Done by, LGN, 6 Layers, Input mostly from primay visual cortex, V1, Primary visual cortex / stratiate cortex, Binocularity, Mixing input from both eyes, Orientation, Track light stimulus with certain orientation, Direction selection, Track light stimulus with certain direction, Hypothalamus, Midbrain, Visual hemifields

Auditory system

Structure, Inner ear, Oval window, Hole in bone covered by membrane, Cochlea, Jelly filled space, sound > electric, Organ of Corti, Excitatory hair cells, Basilar membrane, Separates cochlea into 2 tubes, Middle ear, Tympanic membrane, Eardrum, Ossicles, Small bones, Eardrum > oval window, Outer ear, Pinna, Ear funnel, Audatory canal, 2.5 cm

Processing, Depolarisation of hair cells in Organ or Corti, NT release, Spiral ganglia to midbrain, Areas like Thalamus (MGN), Auditory radiation, Auditory cortex, Delay between MGN and A1, Attenuation reflex, Mono/binaural neurons, Horizontal plane, Vertical plane

Pitch and strength, Phase locking, Tonotopy, Depth of cochlea penetration, Nr of activated hair cells, Innervation of hair cells, 95% of communication through inner hair cells, Outer hair cells amplify, Characteristic frequency