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Brain & Action by Mind Map: Brain & Action

1. Nervous System

1.1. CNS

1.2. PNS

1.2.1. Somatic (voluntary) Skeletal Muscle Crude Body Awareness Afferent nerves Input Skeletal Sensory > CNS Efferent nerves = output Output CNS > Skeletal

1.2.2. Visceral / Autonomic Internal state regulation Afferent nerves Input Organs > CNS Efferent nerves Sympathetic Para-sympathetic

2. Brain Measurement

2.1. Anatomy

2.1.1. CT Scan Computed Tomography - X ray

2.1.2. MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging More detailed than CT 3D image

2.1.3. Cortical somatotopy Mapping of cortex to stimuli

2.2. Function

2.2.1. PET Positron emission tomography Radioactive Tracer Introduced Glucose linked

2.2.2. EEG Electroencephalography Electrical activity over scalp

2.2.3. fMRI Functional MRI Track blood flow / oxygen

2.2.4. Single-Cell Microelectrode

2.3. Links

2.3.1. Neuroanatomic tracing techniques Anterograde Trace path of axons downstream Retrograde Trace upstream

3. Systems

3.1. Limbic

3.1.1. Cingulate cortex

3.1.2. Hippocampus

3.1.3. Fornix

3.1.4. Anterior thalamus

3.1.5. Involved in motivation and emotion

3.2. Learning

3.2.1. Habituation Less NT

3.2.2. Sensitization More stimulus = amplification

3.2.3. Conditioning Operant Not connected to stimuli Connected to experience of own behavior Classical 2 stimuli 2 responses Habituation and sensitization

3.2.4. Like vs want Want Desire for stimulus Dopamine linked Like Taste/distaste for stimulus

3.3. Hypothalamus

3.3.1. Function Homeostasis Humoral response Visceromotor response Somatic motor response

3.3.2. Anatomy Medial Latteral Perivertricular Circadian rhythm Direct connection to pituitary

3.4. Pituitary

3.4.1. Function Release hormones that trigget other glands

3.4.2. Structure Anterior Nose side Hypothalamic control Posterior Backside Hypothalamic control

3.5. Endocrine system

3.5.1. Components Hypothalamus Pituitary Glands in the body

3.5.2. Hormone types Steroids Peptides Aminoacids Tropic Have other hormone glands as target

3.5.3. Sex LH & FSH Male Female

3.6. Eating

3.6.1. Hormones Leptin Released by fat cells Insulin

3.6.2. Brain Hypothalamus POMC Circuit NPY Circuit

3.6.3. Short term regulation Phases Cephalic Gastric Substrate Substances CCK Insulin PYY

3.7. Motor control

3.7.1. Levels High Association area (goal) Basal ganglia (strategy) Medium Cerebellum Motor cortex Smooth muscle movements Low Brain stem Spinal cord Actual muscle coordination

3.7.2. Pathways Rubrospinal Reflex movement Ventromedial Proximate joints Bodyposition and balance Lateral Distal joints Corticoreticolospinal tract

3.7.3. Areas Cerebellum Association cortex Cerebellum SMA Basal Ganglia Association cortex Putamen Globus pallidus VLO SMA Motor tasks but also others Somatosensory Cortex Most in parietal lobe Primary (S1) on postcentral gyrus M1 is more sensitive to sensory input

3.8. Sleep

3.8.1. Regulation By Superchiasmic nucleus Hypothalamus Photoreceptors Promoting factors Adenosin Melatonin Muramyl SCN

3.8.2. Phases REM High frequency Low amplitude N-REM

3.8.3. Brainwaves Beta 14+ Alpha 8-13 Quiet waking Theta 4-7 Some sleep states Delta 4- High amplitude deep sleep

4. Organs

4.1. Eye

4.1.1. Structure General and cells Cornea Iris Retina Ciliary muscle Fovea Optic nerve Lens Zolune fibres Sclera Liquids Layers Ganglion layer Inner plexiform Inner nuclear Outer plexiformm Outer nuclear layer Photoreceptor outer segments Pigmented epithelium

4.1.2. Processing Done by LGN V1 Hypothalamus Midbrain Visual hemifields

4.2. Auditory system

4.2.1. Structure Inner ear Oval window Cochlea Organ of Corti Basilar membrane Middle ear Tympanic membrane Ossicles Outer ear Pinna Audatory canal

4.2.2. Processing Depolarisation of hair cells in Organ or Corti NT release Spiral ganglia to midbrain Areas like Thalamus (MGN) Auditory radiation Auditory cortex Delay between MGN and A1 Attenuation reflex Mono/binaural neurons Horizontal plane Vertical plane

4.2.3. Pitch and strength Phase locking Tonotopy Depth of cochlea penetration Nr of activated hair cells Innervation of hair cells 95% of communication through inner hair cells Outer hair cells amplify Characteristic frequency

5. Brain Structure

5.1. Lobes

5.1.1. Parietal Lobe Positioning Knowing where the body is In the middle "Part"

5.1.2. Frontal Lobe Reasoning Remembering Executive decision maker In the front

5.1.3. Occipital Lobe Contains visual cortex Sensory information Occi = eyes, at the back

5.1.4. Temporal Lobe Auditory Cortex Language Time underlies everything = bottom

5.1.5. Not functional units on their own

5.2. Levels

5.2.1. Brainstem Live

5.2.2. Medial Level Diencephalon limbic system Food, Fight, Fuck

5.2.3. Cerebral Cortex The Lobes Insular Cortex Cerebellum Structure Fissures Sculi Gyri Cortex

5.3. Brain Division

5.3.1. Forebrain Telencephalon / Cerebrum Largest division Voluntary movement Interpret sensory input Mediates complex cognitive processes Divisions Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus

5.3.2. Midbrain Mesencephalon Tectum Tegmentum

5.3.3. Hindbrain Metencephalon Pons Cerebellum Myelencephalon Reticuar formation

6. Structure

6.1. CNS Membranes

6.1.1. Menenges Cerebrospinal fluid Subarachnoid space Protects against mechanical schock Produced in Choroid plexuses Dura mater (outer) Arachnoid mater (middle) Pia mater (inner)

6.1.2. Blood brain barrier Only permeable to smaller molecules passively For protection Tightly packed membranes around vessels

6.2. Brain Navigation

6.2.1. Anterior / posterior Nose (Rostral) / tail

6.2.2. Dorsal / Ventral, Superior / inferior Top / bottom

6.2.3. Medial / lateral Middle / sides

6.2.4. Planes Horizontal Frontal / coronal Saggital

6.2.5. Neuron Classifications Axon length Golgi type I Golgi type II Nr of Neurites Nr of Dendrites Type of NT Type of connections Motor Primary sensory Interneurons

6.3. Important parts orientation

6.3.1. Cingulate gyrus

6.3.2. Thalamus

6.3.3. Corpus calossum

6.3.4. Pineal body

6.3.5. Fornix

6.3.6. Hypothalamus

6.3.7. Pons

6.3.8. Cerebellum

6.3.9. Medulla

6.3.10. Basal Ganglia Caudate nucleus Putamen Globus pallidus Somatic NS Movement coordination

6.4. Spinal Cord

6.4.1. Cervical C1-C7 Neck

6.4.2. Thoraic T1-T12 Attached to ribs

6.4.3. Lumbar L1-L5 Lower back

6.4.4. Sacral S1-S? Pelvic area

7. Cellular

7.1. Nervous system cells

7.1.1. Neurons Dendrite Root like structure Cell body Golgi apparatus Dendritic spinals Free ribosome Rough ER Smooth ER Lysosome Axon hillock Microtubules Mitochondria Myelin sheath rolled up along axon Nodes of Ranvier Between myelin Axon the tail Axon terminal the end of the tail

7.1.2. Glial Cells Nourishment and support Astrocytes Maintain extracellular state Contain NT action Myelinating Glia Schwann cell Oligodendrogia

7.2. Neuro transmitters

7.2.1. Synthesis In Cell body RER Transport to axon terminal Axoplasmic transport Axon terminal GABA Amines Outside cell

7.2.2. Types Aminoacids Amines Peptides

7.3. Action potential

7.3.1. Rising phase

7.3.2. Depolarisation

7.3.3. Na influx

7.3.4. Fall phase

7.3.5. Repolarisation

7.3.6. K efflux

7.3.7. Hyperpolarisation

7.3.8. Resting potential

7.4. Synaptic transmission

7.4.1. Influx of ca++ causes exocytosis

7.4.2. Vesicle restored in endocytosis

7.4.3. EPSP Excitatory post synaptic potential

7.4.4. IPSP Inhibiting post synaptic potential

7.4.5. Receptors Types G-protein coupled Autoreceptors Ion channel Binders Substance Agonist Antagonist

7.4.6. Summation Spatial Signals from multiple neurons Temporal Higher frequency of excitement