Taxonomical Categories

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Taxonomical Categories by Mind Map: Taxonomical Categories

1. Phylum The next higher category is called a phylum. These are based on a few common features such as presence of dorsal hollow neural system.

2. Kingdom All animals belonging to different phyla are placed in Kingdom Animalia, plants in Kingdom Plantae etc etc.

2.1. Kingdom Monera Bacteria are the sole members of kingdom Monera. A) Vibrio- comma shaped B) Coccus- spherical C) Bacillus- Rod shaped D) Spirillum- spiral shaped

2.1.1. Archaebacteria Special bacteria living in harsh environments Halophiles Live in extremely salty regions Thermoacidophiles Extreme temperatures Methanogens Present in the gut of several ruminant animals and marshy areas

2.1.2. Eubacteria Characterised by a rigid cell wall, and a flagellum if motile Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic autotrphs, aka blue green algae Nitrogen fixing bacteria such as Nosdoc and Anabena Chemosynthetic Autotrophs oxidise inorganic substances such as nitrites and ammonia and use the released energy to make ATP. They recycle nutrients such as N, P, Fe and S Heterotrophic bacteria Important decomposers

2.2. Kingdom Protista All single celled eukaryotes come under Kingdom Protista

2.2.1. Chrysophytes Diatoms Cell walls of diatoms overlap like in a soap box, their cell walls are embedded with silica that makes them virtually indestructible. Remains of the cell walls of these diatoms form gritty diatomeceous earth Golden Algae Found in both fresh and salty water. They are microscopic and float passively in water currents.

2.2.2. Dinoflagellates Mostly marine and photosynthetic. Cell walls have stiff cellulose plates on the outer surface. They contain 2 flagella. Rapid multiplication of dinoflagellates cause red tides that kill marine life

2.2.3. Euglenoids Found in fresh stagnant water. They do not possess cell wall, but have a protein wall called pellicle which provides flexibility. Photosynthetic in sunlight, heterotrophic otherwise. Pigments of euglenoids similar to those in higher plants

2.2.4. Slime moulds Saphrophytic protists, the body moves along plants engulfing them . They grow an aggregation called plasmodium that can grow several feet. Form fruiting bodies when conditions unfavourable. Spores dispersed by air currents.

2.2.5. Protozoans All of them are heterotrophs. May be predatory or parasitic Amoeboid live in fresh/salt water and soil. Move and capture prey by pseudopodia. Ex- Entameoba Flagellated Freeliving or parasitic. Locomotion through flagella, they cause diseases. Eg- Trypanosoma Ciliated Contain cilia for locomotion. Contain a gullet that fills with food laden water due to movement. Ex- Paramecium Sporozoans Have an infection spore like stage in their life. Plasmodium

2.3. Kingdom Fungi They are heterotrophic organisms Can be saphrophytic, parasitic or symbiontic. Their bodies are made up of long thread like structures called hyphae, a network of hyphae is known as mycelium.

2.3.1. Reproduction in Fungi Vegetative means Fragmentation Fission Budding Asexual means Conidia Sporangiospores Zoospores Sexual means Oospores Ascospores Basidiospores

2.3.2. Types of Fungi Phycomycetes Found in aquatic habitat, moist and damp places. Mycelium coenocytic and aseptate Asexual reproduction- zoospores or aplanospores Eg- rhizopus, albugo Ascomycetes known as sac fungi, mostly multicellular. Mycelium branched and septate. Conidia on germination produce mycelium. They can be saphrophytic, decomposers, parastitic and cophrophilous. asexual reproduction-budding or conidia sexual reproduction- hologamy, gamentangial contact, spermatisation and somatogamy. Sexual spores are called ascospores in asci and form fruiting body called ascocarps. Aspergillus, truffles, neurospora Basidiomycetes Mushrooms, bracket fungi and puffballs. They grow in soil, tree stumps and in living plant bodies as parasites. Branched and septate mycelium. Fragmentation is common. Reproduce asexually by basidium Each basidium in an enlarged, club shaped hyphal cell that develops basidiospores. Form basidiocarps. Sexual reproduction through plasmogamy and karyogamy. Agaricus, mushrooms, Ustilago and Puccinia. Deuteromycetes Only perform asexual reproduction by conidia. Feed on living worms. Alternaria, trichoderma

2.4. Viruses, Viroids, Prions and Lichens

2.4.1. Virus Non cellular organisms that have an inert crystalline structure that infect a cell to replicate. Contain either RNA(retrovirus) or DNA(adenovirus) Protein sheath called capsid. AIDS, Tobacco mosaic virus

2.4.2. Viroids Single RNA that enters a host and causes diseases

2.4.3. Prions Causes infectious neurological diseases and contains an abnormal folded protein. Bovine spongiform

2.4.4. Lichens Symbiotic associations between fungi and algae

3. Species a group of individual organisms having fundamental similarities.

4. Genus A group of related species that have similar characteristics compared to other species from other genera

5. Family Group of similar genera, with a few characteristics in common.

6. Order Assemblage of families with similar characters

7. Class Related orders are put together in the same class