Tenses and Moods English/Spanish

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Tenses and Moods English/Spanish by Mind Map: Tenses and Moods English/Spanish

1. English Tenses

1.1. Time:

1.1.1. is a concept which is related to our perception of reality. There are three times: past, present and future. Tense is a grammatical category which is marked by verb inflection and expresses when an event or action happens in the flow of time.

1.1.1.1. Time expresses: •past - before now •present - now, or any time that includes now •future - after now

1.1.1.1.1. Examples:

1.2. Aspects:

1.2.1. is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

1.2.1.1. Aspect is a verb form (or category) that indicates time-related characteristics, such as the completion, duration, or repetition of an action.

1.2.1.1.1. They are 2 types:

2. Tenses in Spanish

2.1. Llamamos tiempos al conjunto de formas verbales que presentan la acción de la misma manera y corresponden a un mismo tiempo (pasado, presente o futuro).

2.1.1. Presente:

2.1.1.1. El verbo expresa acciones que se están realizando ahora mismo según la expresión del hablante (aunque en realidad puede que no se estén dando ahora).

2.1.2. Pasado:

2.1.2.1. El verbo expresa acciones que ya han pasado. Hay distintos grados del pasado.

2.1.3. Futuro:

2.1.3.1. El verbo expresa acciones que aún no han pasado. Hay distintos grados del futuro.

3. Moods in English

3.1. is a form of verb used to refer to the quality of the verb in the sentence. It also indicates the tone of a verb in a sentence.

3.2. There are five categories of moods:

3.2.1. Indicative Mood:

3.2.1.1. This mood is used to express a fact statement. The verb in the indicative mood expresses an action as a statement of fact.

3.2.1.2. Examples:

3.2.1.2.1. - She likes the gift. - He always cooks his meals.

3.2.2. Imperative Mood:

3.2.2.1. This mood is used to express a command or a request statement. The tone of the sentence is a direct command, not a mild suggestion.

3.2.2.2. Examples:

3.2.2.2.1. - Clean your room. - At three o'clock, call the boss.

3.2.3. Interrogative Mood:

3.2.3.1. This mood is used to express a sense of uncertainty by asking a question. The question contains an auxiliary verb (helping verb) and then a main verb.

3.2.3.2. Examples:

3.2.3.2.1. Are you coming to the summer camp? - Where have the children gone?

3.2.4. Conditional Mood:

3.2.4.1. This mood is used to express a condition statement. The sentence contains an auxiliary verb (helping verb) that supports a main verb.

3.2.4.2. Examples:

3.2.4.2.1. If you want to visit your friends, you should study now. - If I traveled to Orlando, I would visit Disney World.

3.2.5. Subjunctive Mood:

3.2.5.1. This mood is used to express a wish, doubt, demand, or a hypothetical situation. The verb in the subjunctive mood always changes.

3.2.5.2. Examples:

3.2.5.2.1. If I were in her situation, I would never drive. (Expresses a hypothetical situation) - My mother demanded he prepare the luggage. (Expresses a demand) - I wish my sister were faster at preparing food in the morning. (Expresses a wish)

4. Moods in Spanish

4.1. Los modos verbales son las diversas formas en que la acción del verbo puede expresarse. El modo del verbo manifiesta la actitud del hablante ante lo que dice. Es la categoría gramatical que clasifica la acción, el proceso o el estado de un verbo, desde la perspectiva del emisor.

4.1.1. Tipos de modos verbales:

4.1.1.1. Modo Imperativo:

4.1.1.1.1. Los verbos conjugados en el modo imperativo sirven para expresar alguna orden, para advertir, amenazar o rogar.

4.1.1.2. Modo subjuntivo:

4.1.1.2.1. El modo subjuntivo del verbo expresa una posibilidad, una acción hipotética.

4.1.1.3. El modo condicional /modo potencial:

4.1.1.3.1. Se refiere a acciones hipotéticas o posibles.

4.1.1.4. Modo indicativo:

4.1.1.4.1. El modo indicativo del verbo se caracteriza por expresar acciones concretas y reales.

5. Word order in English /Spanish and cognates.

5.1. Cognates and False Cognates.

5.1.1. Cognates are words in two languages that share a similar meaning, spelling, and pronunciation.

5.1.2. ENGLISH – SPANISH COGNATES

5.1.2.1. Actor Actor Admirable Admirable Agenda Agenda Alcohol Alcohol

5.1.2.2. Perfect cognates

5.1.2.2.1. as words that are spelt exactly the same in Spanish and English except for maybe an accent over one letter and they mean the same thing in both languages.

5.1.3. ENGLISH – SPANISH FALSE COGNATES

5.1.3.1. Advertisement advertencia Assist asistir Carpet carpeta College colegio

5.1.3.2. False cognates or false friends

5.1.3.2.1. they are words that are spelt the same or similar but mean completely different things.

5.2. Word order in Spanish.

5.2.1. Por lo general, el español presenta la información discursiva con el siguiente orden de palabras: sujeto (S), verbo (V) y objeto (o). Esta combinación se acompaña de frases adverbiales en la posición final, es decir, se presentan después del objeto.

5.2.2. 2 Tipos principales de orden:

5.2.2.1. Orden natural

5.2.2.1.1. Sujeto-Verbo-Objeto-Complementos adverbiales

5.2.2.2. Orden invertido

5.2.2.2.1. Complementos adverbiales-Sujeto-Verbo- Objeto

5.2.3. Orden sintáctico

5.2.3.1. Para construir una frase hay que tener en cuenta los principios sintácticos, el orden lógico y la construcción armoniosa. La construcción sintáctica es la que ordena los elementos de la frase según su función gramatical: 1ro. el sujeto 2do. el verbo 3ro. atributo o complementos: a) directo, b) indirecto c) circunstancial

5.2.4. Casos sobre orden de palabras en Castellano:

5.2.4.1. El verbo se coloca normalmente intercalado entre el sujeto y el complemento. Lo que no es correcto en castellano es colocar el verbo al final de la frase. Esta construcción o es un latinismo o un germanismo.

5.3. Word order in English.

5.3.1. Standard word order is the most common sentence pattern in English. The SUBJECT comes before the VERB.

5.3.1.1. Example:

5.3.1.1.1. SUBJECT VERB That book was heavy.

5.3.2. Main elements in Word order

5.3.2.1. Word order refers to the way words are arranged in a sentence. The standard word order in English is: Subject + Verb + Object. To determine the proper sequence of words, you need to understand what the subject, verb and object(s) are.

5.3.2.1.1. Subject: typically a noun or pronoun—the person, place or thing

5.3.2.1.2. Verb: the action or state of being

5.3.2.1.3. Object: the word or group of words influenced by the verb

5.3.3. Word order Patterns in English

5.3.3.1. 1. Normal word order

5.3.3.2. 2.Inverted (verb subject) word order: there are six situations: a.Questions b. Sentences beginning with "there" c. Sentences beginning with "it" d. Sentences beginning with Place expression +an intransitive verb. e. Sentences beginning with negative word f. Conditional sentences

5.3.3.3. 3. Word order of direct and indirect object