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1.1. Eukaryotic cells

1.2. Evolved from colonial, flagellated protists

1.3. They are multicellular

1.4. Live on land, OR in water

1.5. They do not carry out photosynthesis. Animals obtain nutrients by ingestion.

1.6. Reproduction is mostly sexual, however some reproduce asexually


1.7.1. SIMPLEST INVERTEBRATES Porifera Simple body plan with flagellated cells Hermaphrodites Mostly marine Cnidaria Hydras, anemones, jellyfish, coral animals Radial symmetry Tentacles with stinging cells Some have external skeletons made of calcium carbonate

1.7.2. PROTOSOME INVERTEBRATES Arthropoda eg. spiders Segmented bodies, antennae, exoskeletons Nemotoda eg. dog heartworms Unsegmented cylindrical bodies with complete digestive tracts Many are parasites Annelida eg. earthworm Segmented bodies with complete digestive tract Gas exchange through skin or gills Mollusca eg. snail Rotifera eg. rotifers Small aquatic animals Cilia to direct food into their mouths No respiratory or circulatory systems Platyhelminthes eg. tapeworms Flat, unsegmented worms No respiratory or circulatory systems

1.7.3. VERTEBRATES Agnathans Cartilage skeletons No jaws, gills, paired appendages Chondrichthyes Cartilage skeletons, jaws, vertebrae Has gills and paired appendages Actinopterygii Bony skeletons External fertilization Amphibian Aquatic larval stage with gills Adults are tetrapods External fertilization Breathe through lungs or skin Reptilian Terrestrial tetrapods with dry scaly skin Internal fertilization Amniotic eggs with soft shells Aves Tetrapods Modified wings, feathers Warm blooded Large brains Internal fertilization Mamalia Tetrapods Have hair Warm blooded Large brains Internal fertilization


2.1. Eukaryotic cells

2.2. They can survive under many different climatic conditions

2.3. They are multicellular

2.4. Plants live on land, OR in water

2.5. They produce energy by photosynthesis AND by absorption

2.6. Plant reproduction can be both sexual AND asexual

2.7. All plants are sessile - they cannot move around from place to place


2.8.1. Plants provide habitats for many organisms

2.8.2. Humans rely on plants to make: Medicines Clothing Wood products Paper products

2.8.3. The diversity of ecosystems depend on plants


2.9.1. Gymnosperms Coniferous trees Pines, spruce, cedars, junipers Adapted for hot, dry summers AND cold winters Very large, support large ecosystems, and can live for hundreds of years

2.9.2. Angiosperms - the flowering plants Monocots, Eudicots Includes 90% of all plant species Have specialized reproductive structures (FLOWERS) that produce egg and sperm. Flowers can be pollinated by animals or the wind The main function of the fruit is to help disperse seeds

2.9.3. Seedless vascular plants/pteriodophytes Club Mosses, Ferns Vascular tissue consisting of xylem and phloem specialized for transportation of water and nutrients Reproduce sexually Forms symbiotic relationships with mycorrhiza that help obtain water and other nutrients from the soil

2.9.4. Non vascular plants/bryophytes Mosses, Liver-worts, Hornworts Simplest land plants Have a protective cuticle Can only live in habitats that are wet Some can reproduce asexually through a clump of haploid cells called gemma


2.10.1. Thought to have evolved from charophytes - green algae in the kingdom Protista


2.11.1. Alternation of Generations Diploid AND haploid generations Diploid generation produces spores Haploid generation produces gametes


3.1. Prokaryotic cells

3.2. They are unicellular

3.3. They live in every imaginable habitat

3.4. Also called pathogens

3.5. Most bacteria play a POSITIVE role on Earth

3.5.1. They recycle nutrients

3.5.2. Maintain biogeochemical cycles

3.5.3. Nitrogen fixers - they convert atmospheric nitrogen into chemical compounds that can be used by plants

3.5.4. Photosynthetic bacteria are major producers of atmospheric oxygen

3.5.5. They are also producers in marine ecosystems

3.5.6. INDUSTRIAL USES Food production Cheese Yoghurt Chocolate Soy sauce

3.5.7. MEDICINAL USES Genetically engineered bacteria produce insulin Some make antibiotics


3.6.1. Proteobacteria Photosynthetic Ancestors of mitochondria Responsible for diseases (e.g. plague, gonorrhea, ulcers)

3.6.2. Green bacteria Photosynthetic Found in salt water or hot springs

3.6.3. Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic, similar to plants Ancestors to modern day chloroplasts Major producers, nitrogen fixers Form symbiotic relations with fungi

3.6.4. Gram-positive bacteria Cause many diseases (e.g. pneumonia, meningitis) Food production (found in probiotics) Many don't have cell walls

3.6.5. Spirochetes Spiral shaped flagellum Move in a corkscrew motion Cause syphilis Symbiotic relationship with termites allowing them to digest wood

3.6.6. Chlamydias Parasites Cause chlamydia (the most common STI) Cause trachoma - the leading cause of blindness

3.7. Normally reproduce asexually

3.7.1. BINARY FISSION Parent cell divides, and each daughter cell receives the genetic material from the parent. Copying errors result in mutations in the DNA This process occurs VERY fast High mutation rate --> genetic diversity


4.1. Prokaryotic cells without cell membranes

4.2. Live under extreme conditions


4.3.1. Methanogens Live in low-oxygen environments (e.g. the sediments of swamps, marshes, lakes) Also live in the digestive tracts of some mammals (including humans) They produce energy by converting chemical compounds into methane gas which is released into the atmosphere

4.3.2. Halophiles Live in highly saline environments Most are aerobic Get energy from organic food molecules Some get energy from light

4.3.3. Extreme Thermophiles Live in extremely hot environments (e.g. hot springs, hydrothermal vents)

4.3.4. Psychrophiles Live in the cold - found in Arctic/Antarctic oceans

4.4. They do not cause diseases

4.5. Not much is known about this kingdom


5.1. Eukaryotic cells with cell membranes

5.2. They are unicellular

5.2.1. They are the smallest eukaryotes

5.3. Most live in aquatic environments (e.g. lakes, oceans)

5.3.1. They are major producers in the world's oceans

5.3.2. Protists are important consumers

5.4. Some protists obtain nutrients by ingestion, and some produce energy by photosynthesis

5.4.1. Mobile, and have complex behaviours

5.5. Reproduction is sexual OR asexual


5.6.1. Euglenoids Unicellular Have two flagella for moving around Outer surface consists of stiff proteins

5.6.2. Ciliates Complex internal structures Have many cilia, and no cell walls Unicellular

5.6.3. Apicomplexa Unicellular No cell walls All are parasites

5.6.4. Diatoms Unicellular Move by gliding They are covered by glass-like silica shells

5.6.5. Amoebas Some have hard outer skeletons They move with pseudopods

5.6.6. Slime moulds Their life cycles have unicellular stages AND multicellular stages They move with flagella or pseudopods

5.6.7. Red algae Photosynthetic Multicellular Their cell walls are made of cellulose They have no cilia or flagella

5.7. Protists are extremely diverse

5.7.1. Many protists are parasites - some cause diseases such as malaria

5.7.2. Seaweed is a protist - it is used in food, cosmetics, paints, toothpastes, etc.


5.8.1. Animal Protists Protozoans Heterotrophs

5.8.2. Plant-like Protists Euglenoids Autotrophs

5.8.3. Fungi-like Protists Molds Heterotrophs

5.9. Also called the "catch-all" kingdom because it receives the species that don't belong under any other kingdomm.


6.1. Eukaryotic cells

6.2. Heterotrophic

6.3. They are unicellular OR multicellular

6.4. Most fungi live on land

6.5. They do not carry out photosynthesis - they obtain nutrients through absorption

6.6. They produce sexually

6.7. The reproductive structure of fungi grows above the ground (the visible part of the fungi), but most of the organism is actually underground


6.8.1. Chytridiomycota (chytrids) The only fungi with swimming spores Most are saphrophytes - organisms which obtain nutrients from dead organic matter They can be single-celled or multicellular

6.8.2. Zygomycota (zygomycetes) Most are soil fungi Used commercially Many are parasites of insects

6.8.3. Glomeromycota (Glomeromycetes) All form symbiotic relationships with plant roots

6.8.4. Ascomycota (Ascomycetes) Many are useful to humans (e.g. yeast) Can cause serious plant diseases

6.8.5. Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) Includes mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi Most are decomposers Some form symbiotic relationships with plants


6.9.1. Mycelium A branched mass of hyphae

6.9.2. Hypha A thin filament that makes up the body of a fungus They form the "fuzz" often associated with mould Long tubes of cytoplasm containing many nuclei

6.9.3. Chitin A complex chemical found in the cell walls of fungi and in the external coverings of insects and crustaceans such as lobsters and crabs

6.9.4. Fungi have external digestion - they release digestive enzymes into the environment and then absorb nutrients through the cell membranes of the hyphae


7.1. Small, non-living particles consisting of genetic material

7.2. Cannot reproduce on their own and do not produce or use energy

7.3. Responsible for many plant and human diseases

7.3.1. E.g. common cold, chicken pox, AIDS, cholera, rabies

7.3.2. Some viruses are transmitted very easily (such as the influenza virus) and can infect millions of people in a short amount of time

7.3.3. Some viruses relate to the development of some cancers - mutated cells are infected by a virus, and can lead to cancer

7.3.4. Plant viruses destroy millions of tonnes of crops each year (especially sugar cane, potatoes, sugar beets, etc.)


7.4.1. Orders

7.4.2. Families

7.4.3. Genera

7.4.4. Species


7.5.1. Some biologists suspect that viruses originated from "escaped" fragments of DNA or RNA molecules of living cells

7.5.2. A possibility is that viruses originated as small infectious cells, which over time, lost their cytoplasm and ability to reproduce outside a cell


7.6.1. Lytic Cycle Lysis occurs - the rupturing of a cell. It can occur when newly made viruses are released from a host cell

7.6.2. Lysogenic Cycle Lysogeny occurs - a state of dormancy in which viral DNA may remain within a host cell's chromosome for many cell cycle generations

7.7. Viroids

7.7.1. A very small infectious piece of RNA responsible for some serious diseases in plants

7.7.2. They are plant pathogens that can destroy entire fields of tomatoes, potatoes, citrus, etc.

7.8. Prions

7.8.1. An abnormally shaped infectious protein responsible for some brain diseases of mammals (including humans)