KINGDOMS OF LIFE

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KINGDOMS OF LIFE by Mind Map: KINGDOMS OF LIFE

1. ANIMALIA

1.1. Eukaryotic cells

1.2. Evolved from colonial, flagellated protists

1.3. They are multicellular

1.4. Live on land, OR in water

1.5. They do not carry out photosynthesis. Animals obtain nutrients by ingestion.

1.6. Reproduction is mostly sexual, however some reproduce asexually

1.7. CLASSIFICATION

1.7.1. SIMPLEST INVERTEBRATES

1.7.1.1. Porifera

1.7.1.1.1. Simple body plan with flagellated cells

1.7.1.1.2. Hermaphrodites

1.7.1.1.3. Mostly marine

1.7.1.2. Cnidaria

1.7.1.2.1. Hydras, anemones, jellyfish, coral animals

1.7.1.2.2. Radial symmetry

1.7.1.2.3. Tentacles with stinging cells

1.7.1.2.4. Some have external skeletons made of calcium carbonate

1.7.2. PROTOSOME INVERTEBRATES

1.7.2.1. Arthropoda

1.7.2.1.1. eg. spiders

1.7.2.1.2. Segmented bodies, antennae, exoskeletons

1.7.2.2. Nemotoda

1.7.2.2.1. eg. dog heartworms

1.7.2.2.2. Unsegmented cylindrical bodies with complete digestive tracts

1.7.2.2.3. Many are parasites

1.7.2.3. Annelida

1.7.2.3.1. eg. earthworm

1.7.2.3.2. Segmented bodies with complete digestive tract

1.7.2.3.3. Gas exchange through skin or gills

1.7.2.4. Mollusca

1.7.2.4.1. eg. snail

1.7.2.5. Rotifera

1.7.2.5.1. eg. rotifers

1.7.2.5.2. Small aquatic animals

1.7.2.5.3. Cilia to direct food into their mouths

1.7.2.5.4. No respiratory or circulatory systems

1.7.2.6. Platyhelminthes

1.7.2.6.1. eg. tapeworms

1.7.2.6.2. Flat, unsegmented worms

1.7.2.6.3. No respiratory or circulatory systems

1.7.3. VERTEBRATES

1.7.3.1. Agnathans

1.7.3.1.1. Cartilage skeletons

1.7.3.1.2. No jaws, gills, paired appendages

1.7.3.2. Chondrichthyes

1.7.3.2.1. Cartilage skeletons, jaws, vertebrae

1.7.3.2.2. Has gills and paired appendages

1.7.3.3. Actinopterygii

1.7.3.3.1. Bony skeletons

1.7.3.3.2. External fertilization

1.7.3.4. Amphibian

1.7.3.4.1. Aquatic larval stage with gills

1.7.3.4.2. Adults are tetrapods

1.7.3.4.3. External fertilization

1.7.3.4.4. Breathe through lungs or skin

1.7.3.5. Reptilian

1.7.3.5.1. Terrestrial tetrapods with dry scaly skin

1.7.3.5.2. Internal fertilization

1.7.3.5.3. Amniotic eggs with soft shells

1.7.3.6. Aves

1.7.3.6.1. Tetrapods

1.7.3.6.2. Modified wings, feathers

1.7.3.6.3. Warm blooded

1.7.3.6.4. Large brains

1.7.3.6.5. Internal fertilization

1.7.3.7. Mamalia

1.7.3.7.1. Tetrapods

1.7.3.7.2. Have hair

1.7.3.7.3. Warm blooded

1.7.3.7.4. Large brains

1.7.3.7.5. Internal fertilization

2. PLANTAE

2.1. Eukaryotic cells

2.2. They can survive under many different climatic conditions

2.3. They are multicellular

2.4. Plants live on land, OR in water

2.5. They produce energy by photosynthesis AND by absorption

2.6. Plant reproduction can be both sexual AND asexual

2.7. All plants are sessile - they cannot move around from place to place

2.8. IMPORTANCE

2.8.1. Plants provide habitats for many organisms

2.8.2. Humans rely on plants to make:

2.8.2.1. Medicines

2.8.2.2. Clothing

2.8.2.3. Wood products

2.8.2.4. Paper products

2.8.3. The diversity of ecosystems depend on plants

2.9. CLASSIFICATION

2.9.1. Gymnosperms

2.9.1.1. Coniferous trees

2.9.1.1.1. Pines, spruce, cedars, junipers

2.9.1.2. Adapted for hot, dry summers AND cold winters

2.9.1.3. Very large, support large ecosystems, and can live for hundreds of years

2.9.2. Angiosperms - the flowering plants

2.9.2.1. Monocots, Eudicots

2.9.2.2. Includes 90% of all plant species

2.9.2.3. Have specialized reproductive structures (FLOWERS) that produce egg and sperm. Flowers can be pollinated by animals or the wind

2.9.2.4. The main function of the fruit is to help disperse seeds

2.9.3. Seedless vascular plants/pteriodophytes

2.9.3.1. Club Mosses, Ferns

2.9.3.2. Vascular tissue consisting of xylem and phloem specialized for transportation of water and nutrients

2.9.3.3. Reproduce sexually

2.9.3.4. Forms symbiotic relationships with mycorrhiza that help obtain water and other nutrients from the soil

2.9.4. Non vascular plants/bryophytes

2.9.4.1. Mosses, Liver-worts, Hornworts

2.9.4.2. Simplest land plants

2.9.4.3. Have a protective cuticle

2.9.4.4. Can only live in habitats that are wet

2.9.4.5. Some can reproduce asexually through a clump of haploid cells called gemma

2.10. PHYLOGENY

2.10.1. Thought to have evolved from charophytes - green algae in the kingdom Protista

2.11. LIFE CYCLE

2.11.1. Alternation of Generations

2.11.1.1. Diploid AND haploid generations

2.11.1.2. Diploid generation produces spores

2.11.1.3. Haploid generation produces gametes

3. EUBACTERIA

3.1. Prokaryotic cells

3.2. They are unicellular

3.3. They live in every imaginable habitat

3.4. Also called pathogens

3.5. Most bacteria play a POSITIVE role on Earth

3.5.1. They recycle nutrients

3.5.2. Maintain biogeochemical cycles

3.5.3. Nitrogen fixers - they convert atmospheric nitrogen into chemical compounds that can be used by plants

3.5.4. Photosynthetic bacteria are major producers of atmospheric oxygen

3.5.5. They are also producers in marine ecosystems

3.5.6. INDUSTRIAL USES

3.5.6.1. Food production

3.5.6.1.1. Cheese

3.5.6.1.2. Yoghurt

3.5.6.1.3. Chocolate

3.5.6.1.4. Soy sauce

3.5.7. MEDICINAL USES

3.5.7.1. Genetically engineered bacteria produce insulin

3.5.7.2. Some make antibiotics

3.6. 6 GROUPS OF EUBACTERIA

3.6.1. Proteobacteria

3.6.1.1. Photosynthetic

3.6.1.2. Ancestors of mitochondria

3.6.1.3. Responsible for diseases (e.g. plague, gonorrhea, ulcers)

3.6.2. Green bacteria

3.6.2.1. Photosynthetic

3.6.2.2. Found in salt water or hot springs

3.6.3. Cyanobacteria

3.6.3.1. Photosynthetic, similar to plants

3.6.3.2. Ancestors to modern day chloroplasts

3.6.3.3. Major producers, nitrogen fixers

3.6.3.4. Form symbiotic relations with fungi

3.6.4. Gram-positive bacteria

3.6.4.1. Cause many diseases (e.g. pneumonia, meningitis)

3.6.4.2. Food production (found in probiotics)

3.6.4.3. Many don't have cell walls

3.6.5. Spirochetes

3.6.5.1. Spiral shaped flagellum

3.6.5.2. Move in a corkscrew motion

3.6.5.3. Cause syphilis

3.6.5.4. Symbiotic relationship with termites allowing them to digest wood

3.6.6. Chlamydias

3.6.6.1. Parasites

3.6.6.2. Cause chlamydia (the most common STI)

3.6.6.3. Cause trachoma - the leading cause of blindness

3.7. Normally reproduce asexually

3.7.1. BINARY FISSION

3.7.1.1. Parent cell divides, and each daughter cell receives the genetic material from the parent.

3.7.1.2. Copying errors result in mutations in the DNA

3.7.1.3. This process occurs VERY fast

3.7.1.4. High mutation rate --> genetic diversity

4. ARCHAEA

4.1. Prokaryotic cells without cell membranes

4.2. Live under extreme conditions

4.3. 4 GROUPS OF ARCHAEA

4.3.1. Methanogens

4.3.1.1. Live in low-oxygen environments (e.g. the sediments of swamps, marshes, lakes)

4.3.1.2. Also live in the digestive tracts of some mammals (including humans)

4.3.1.3. They produce energy by converting chemical compounds into methane gas which is released into the atmosphere

4.3.2. Halophiles

4.3.2.1. Live in highly saline environments

4.3.2.2. Most are aerobic

4.3.2.3. Get energy from organic food molecules

4.3.2.4. Some get energy from light

4.3.3. Extreme Thermophiles

4.3.3.1. Live in extremely hot environments (e.g. hot springs, hydrothermal vents)

4.3.4. Psychrophiles

4.3.4.1. Live in the cold - found in Arctic/Antarctic oceans

4.4. They do not cause diseases

4.5. Not much is known about this kingdom

5. PROTISTA

5.1. Eukaryotic cells with cell membranes

5.2. They are unicellular

5.2.1. They are the smallest eukaryotes

5.3. Most live in aquatic environments (e.g. lakes, oceans)

5.3.1. They are major producers in the world's oceans

5.3.2. Protists are important consumers

5.4. Some protists obtain nutrients by ingestion, and some produce energy by photosynthesis

5.4.1. Mobile, and have complex behaviours

5.5. Reproduction is sexual OR asexual

5.6. 7 GROUPS OF PROTISTS

5.6.1. Euglenoids

5.6.1.1. Unicellular

5.6.1.2. Have two flagella for moving around

5.6.1.3. Outer surface consists of stiff proteins

5.6.2. Ciliates

5.6.2.1. Complex internal structures

5.6.2.2. Have many cilia, and no cell walls

5.6.2.3. Unicellular

5.6.3. Apicomplexa

5.6.3.1. Unicellular

5.6.3.2. No cell walls

5.6.3.3. All are parasites

5.6.4. Diatoms

5.6.4.1. Unicellular

5.6.4.2. Move by gliding

5.6.4.3. They are covered by glass-like silica shells

5.6.5. Amoebas

5.6.5.1. Some have hard outer skeletons

5.6.5.2. They move with pseudopods

5.6.6. Slime moulds

5.6.6.1. Their life cycles have unicellular stages AND multicellular stages

5.6.6.2. They move with flagella or pseudopods

5.6.7. Red algae

5.6.7.1. Photosynthetic

5.6.7.2. Multicellular

5.6.7.3. Their cell walls are made of cellulose

5.6.7.4. They have no cilia or flagella

5.7. Protists are extremely diverse

5.7.1. Many protists are parasites - some cause diseases such as malaria

5.7.2. Seaweed is a protist - it is used in food, cosmetics, paints, toothpastes, etc.

5.8. CLASSIFICATION

5.8.1. Animal Protists

5.8.1.1. Protozoans

5.8.1.2. Heterotrophs

5.8.2. Plant-like Protists

5.8.2.1. Euglenoids

5.8.2.2. Autotrophs

5.8.3. Fungi-like Protists

5.8.3.1. Molds

5.8.3.2. Heterotrophs

5.9. Also called the "catch-all" kingdom because it receives the species that don't belong under any other kingdomm.

6. FUNGI

6.1. Eukaryotic cells

6.2. Heterotrophic

6.3. They are unicellular OR multicellular

6.4. Most fungi live on land

6.5. They do not carry out photosynthesis - they obtain nutrients through absorption

6.6. They produce sexually

6.7. The reproductive structure of fungi grows above the ground (the visible part of the fungi), but most of the organism is actually underground

6.8. CLASSIFICATION

6.8.1. Chytridiomycota (chytrids)

6.8.1.1. The only fungi with swimming spores

6.8.1.2. Most are saphrophytes - organisms which obtain nutrients from dead organic matter

6.8.1.3. They can be single-celled or multicellular

6.8.2. Zygomycota (zygomycetes)

6.8.2.1. Most are soil fungi

6.8.2.2. Used commercially

6.8.2.3. Many are parasites of insects

6.8.3. Glomeromycota (Glomeromycetes)

6.8.3.1. All form symbiotic relationships with plant roots

6.8.4. Ascomycota (Ascomycetes)

6.8.4.1. Many are useful to humans (e.g. yeast)

6.8.4.2. Can cause serious plant diseases

6.8.5. Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes)

6.8.5.1. Includes mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi

6.8.5.2. Most are decomposers

6.8.5.3. Some form symbiotic relationships with plants

6.9. STRUCTURE

6.9.1. Mycelium

6.9.1.1. A branched mass of hyphae

6.9.2. Hypha

6.9.2.1. A thin filament that makes up the body of a fungus

6.9.2.2. They form the "fuzz" often associated with mould

6.9.2.3. Long tubes of cytoplasm containing many nuclei

6.9.3. Chitin

6.9.3.1. A complex chemical found in the cell walls of fungi and in the external coverings of insects and crustaceans such as lobsters and crabs

6.9.4. Fungi have external digestion - they release digestive enzymes into the environment and then absorb nutrients through the cell membranes of the hyphae

7. VIRUSES

7.1. Small, non-living particles consisting of genetic material

7.2. Cannot reproduce on their own and do not produce or use energy

7.3. Responsible for many plant and human diseases

7.3.1. E.g. common cold, chicken pox, AIDS, cholera, rabies

7.3.2. Some viruses are transmitted very easily (such as the influenza virus) and can infect millions of people in a short amount of time

7.3.3. Some viruses relate to the development of some cancers - mutated cells are infected by a virus, and can lead to cancer

7.3.4. Plant viruses destroy millions of tonnes of crops each year (especially sugar cane, potatoes, sugar beets, etc.)

7.4. CLASSIFICATION

7.4.1. Orders

7.4.2. Families

7.4.3. Genera

7.4.4. Species

7.5. PHYLOGENY

7.5.1. Some biologists suspect that viruses originated from "escaped" fragments of DNA or RNA molecules of living cells

7.5.2. A possibility is that viruses originated as small infectious cells, which over time, lost their cytoplasm and ability to reproduce outside a cell

7.6. INFECTIOUS CYCLES

7.6.1. Lytic Cycle

7.6.1.1. Lysis occurs - the rupturing of a cell. It can occur when newly made viruses are released from a host cell

7.6.2. Lysogenic Cycle

7.6.2.1. Lysogeny occurs - a state of dormancy in which viral DNA may remain within a host cell's chromosome for many cell cycle generations

7.7. Viroids

7.7.1. A very small infectious piece of RNA responsible for some serious diseases in plants

7.7.2. They are plant pathogens that can destroy entire fields of tomatoes, potatoes, citrus, etc.

7.8. Prions

7.8.1. An abnormally shaped infectious protein responsible for some brain diseases of mammals (including humans)