Argument Template

Format for building a logical argument for any position.

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Argument Template by Mind Map: Argument Template

1. Step

1.1. Evidence

1.1.1. Evidence

2. Idea Template

2.1. Step 1:

2.1.1. Evidence

2.2. Step 2:

2.2.1. Evidence

2.3. Step 3:

2.3.1. Evidence

2.4. Step 3:

2.4.1. Evidence

2.5. Step 4:

2.5.1. Evidence

2.6. Step 5:

2.6.1. Evidence

2.7. Main Conclusion

3. step

3.1. Evidence

3.1.1. Evidence

4. Your logical fallacy is...

4.1. Appeal to nature

4.1.1. Making the argument that because something is 'natural' it is therefore valid, justified, inevitable, good, or ideal

4.2. Begging the question

4.2.1. A circular argument in which the conclusion is included in the premise

4.2.1.1. A Tautology

4.3. False Dichotomy

4.3.1. Where two alternative states are presented as the only possibilities, when in fact more possibilities exist

4.3.1.1. Signature: Answer me, YES or NO

4.4. No true Scotsman

4.4.1. Making what would be called an appeal to purity as a way to dismiss relevant criticisms or flaws of an argument

4.5. Special pleading

4.5.1. Moving the goalposts or making up exceptions when a claim is shown to be false

4.6. Appeal to authority

4.6.1. Saying that because an authority thinks something, it must therefore be true

4.7. Strawman

4.7.1. Misrepresenting someone's argument to make it easier to attack

4.7.1.1. Signature: So what you're saying is.

4.8. Appeal to emotion

4.8.1. Manipulating an emotional response in place of a valid or compelling argument

4.8.1.1. "Don't you...."

4.9. Tu quoque

4.9.1. Avoiding having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser - answering criticism with criticism

4.10. Burden of proof

4.10.1. Saying that the burden of proof lies not with the person making the claim, but with someone else to disprove

4.11. Middle ground

4.11.1. Saying that a compromise, or middle point, between two extremes must be the truth

4.12. The Texas sharpshooter

4.12.1. Cherry-picking data clusters to suit an argument, or finding a pattern to fit a presumption

4.13. Composition or division

4.13.1. Assuming that what's true about one part of something has to be applied to all, or other, parts of it

4.14. Bandwagon

4.14.1. Appealing to popularity or the fact that many people do something as an attempted form of validation

4.15. Anecdotal

4.15.1. Using personal experience or an isolated example instead of a valid argument, especially to dismiss statistics

4.16. False cause

4.16.1. Perceived or real relationship between things means that one is the cause of the other

4.17. Ad hominem

4.17.1. Attack your opponent's character or personal traits in an attempt to undermine their argument

4.18. Loaded question

4.18.1. Asking a question that has an assumption built into it so that it can't be answered without appearing guilty

4.19. Personals incredulity

4.19.1. Saying that because one finds something difficult to understand, it's therefore not true

4.20. Ambiguity

4.20.1. Using double meanings or ambiguities of language to mislead or misrepresent the truth

4.21. Mott & Bailley

4.21.1. conflating two positions that share similarities, one modest and easy to defend and one much more controversial and harder to defend

4.22. Slippery slope

4.22.1. Answering that if we allow A to happen, then Z will consequently happen, therefore A should not happen

4.23. Red Herring

4.23.1. irrelevant information is presented alongside relevant information, distracting attention from that relevant information.

4.23.1.1. when I was your age,

4.24. Hitler

4.24.1. any conversation with liberals

5. Cognitive Biases

5.1. Dunning-Kruger

5.1.1. whereby people with limited knowledge or competence in a given intellectual or social domain greatly overestimate their own knowledge or competence in that domain relative to objective criteria or to the performance of their peers or of people in general.

5.2. Confirmation

5.2.1. the tendency to interpret new information as confirmation of your preexisting beliefs and opinions.

5.3. Hindsight Bias

5.3.1. The tendency to perceive past events as more predictable than they actually were

5.4. Monte Carlo fallacy

5.4.1. When an individual erroneously believes that a certain random event is less likely or more likely to happen based on the outcome of a previous event or series of events.

5.5. Self-serving

5.5.1. The tendency to take personal responsibility for positive outcomes and blame external factors for negative outcomes.

5.6. Loss Aversion

5.6.1. A real or potential loss is perceived by individuals as psychologically or emotionally more severe than an equivalent gain.

5.7. Framing Effect

5.7.1. An individual’s choice from a set of options is influenced more by the presentation than the substance of the pertinent information

5.8. Availability heuristic

5.8.1. the tendency to think that examples of things that readily come to mind are more common than what is actually the case.

6. step

6.1. Evidence

6.1.1. Evidence

7. step

7.1. Evidence

7.1.1. Evidence

8. step

8.1. Evidence

8.1.1. Evidence

9. Conclusion

9.1. Thesis

10. Appeal to Tradition