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Floods & Droughts by Mind Map: Floods & Droughts
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Floods & Droughts

Causes of Droughts

Climate change due to global warming

Causes droughts in places of drier climate

E.g. Sahel,Africa

Global atmospheric processes

El Nino and La Nina

These natural phenomena cause change in rainfall patterns

Reduced forest cover

Deforestation lead to less cloud formation

Thus,less rainfall

Amid or Semi-Arid regions

Delayed rain or insufficient rainfall

Monsoon einds delayed,dry seasons prolonged

Heavy dependence on river and groundwater

Population increase

More water needed for homes,industries and agriculture

Impacts of Droughts


Spread of deserts into areas where there is no rain

Forest fires

Dry vegetation catches fire very easily, Smoke spreads to neighboring countries when the wind blows

Haze, Pollutes the air, Environmental hazards, Eye irritations, Breathing difficulties

Civil servants to put out fire, High economic loss


Lack of water as rivers and lakes run dry, Animals and people suffer from dehydration, Plants wilt, Crop production failure, Famine, High economic loss, Seek help from neighboring countries, Lack of food, Crops are destroyed, Severe damages to coastal ecology

Causes of floods

Melting snow

New node

Storm surges

Strong winds raise the waves in the ocean to high levels


No vegetation to hold the soil when eroded

Increased surface runoff


flood and destroy coastal settlements


movements of the earth's surface results in landslides

soil loosened


excessive clearance of land

increase amount of surface runoff

Excessive rainfall

Places experiencing Tropical Monsoon Climate have seasons of heavy rain

Impact of floods

Loss of lives

People attracted to stay near river that floods therefore impact is bigger

Damaged to property and infrastructure

Homes' power lines and power supply destroyed

Spread of diseases

Makeshift shelters lack sanitation, Outbreak of cholera and malaria

Fertile soil for agriculture

Regular flooding makes the soil surrounding the river fertile and suitable for farming

Nile Delta in Egypt

Damage to environment

Destroy trees and natural habitats of animals