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FFAI Brain Machine Interfaces by Mind Map: FFAI Brain Machine Interfaces
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FFAI Brain Machine Interfaces

object decoding

Meyers et al. Science


task: cat/dog decision

multi-unit recording from 443 ITC and 525 PFC were recorded

Inferior Temrporal Cortex

Prefrontal Cortex

decoding approach

train a classifier on the neural output activity

predict the class from that output activity

nearest neighbor classifier based on correlation coefficient


what information is present in a particular area, and when is it present?

how is that information represented?


sample-stimulus identity

sample stimulus category

decision stimulus category


comparison, labels

coding, ITC

coding, PFC


basic questions

can we rejuvenate by transplanting brains?

can we combine human brains and robot bodies?

not new questions

head transplant - feasible today, result would be quadriplegia; rejection drugs allow this, BCI allows better quality of life

brain transplant - theoretically possible; fewer rejection problems, BCI essential; classical "brain in a box"

partial brain transplant - easier or harder, requires stem cells

physical immortality?

brain ages and deteriorates

it's unknown whether this is intrinsic to the brain or caused primarily by the body

it's unknown how much the brain is dependent on a functioning body (e.g., for stem cells)

brain transplant (Robert White, Cleveland Medical Hospital)

neuroscience and neurosurgery

gross structure

individual neurons

awake brain surgery

main points

the brain is divided into areas with highly specific and conserved functions

the brain itself is composed of neurons; each neuron operates both chemically and electrically, and these electrical activities can be recorded and stimulated

electrical activity in the motor cortex generates signals that are conducted via nerves to muscles

light arriving in the eye generates nerve signals that travel to the visual cortex and are processed there

general points

brain and nervous system anatomy is extremely complicated and sensitive

things that sound nice theoretically ("let's interface directly with the brain") are messy, risky, and complicated

there is a big need for brain computer interfaes for the disabled

brain surgery has made enormous advances



helping the disabled

helping locked-in patients

cyborgs / brain in a box

neuroscience research

accessing brain states directly

application of machine learning


optogenetic stimulation Nature 2010 Video

optogenetic recording

direct brain interfaces

multielectrode arrays

brainstem implant

Utah electrode array

implantation sites

problems, inflammation due to friction and stiffness (insertion requires stiffness), inflammation due to unnatural materials, limited density, limited spatial resolution, fixed geometry, multiple neural targets (more a problem for stimulation than recording), transcutaneous connections, power, etc.

solutions, biocompatible surface coatings, stiffness during insertion with biodegradable matrix


ECOG arm, ECOG background

process, electrodes are hooked up to motor areas (the same areas that control muscles), human learns to generate the necessary control signals similar to learning a regular motor skill

status, experimental, costly, stationary, functional, potentially useful, other potential application: electronic bridging of severed spinal cord


auditory, cochlear implant, brainstem implant, process, fairly easy mapping of sounds into electrical signals, status, routine, high quality perception possible

visual, retinal implants, cortical implant, process, difficult, manual mapping of cortical locations to spatial locations, (how does this happen naturally?), status, highly experimental, poor quality, no real perception, but still useful


fMRI background

fMRI (and neuromarketing)

lie detection


fMRI reconstruction from visual cortex


EEG headband

Interaxon Muse


BCI typing




measures correlated synaptic activity of post-synaptic potentials in the cortex

high temporal resolution

EEG signals

different "waves"

delta waves - slow-wave sleep, attention (4 Hz)

theta waves - idle (4-8 Hz)

alpha waves - relaxation (8-13 Hz)

beta waves - alertness (13-30 Hz)

gamma waves - complex perceptual tasks (30 Hz and higher)

irregular - transient effects, states; epilepsy

spatial distribution


generally, collection of signals from many channels

each channel is a different mixture of multiple sources

problem: "blind source separation"

solution: ICA (independent component analysis), assuming statistical independence of the different components



biofeedback, relaxation

pure brain-based interfaces

lie detection