Direct Instruction

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Direct Instruction by Mind Map: Direct Instruction

1. Key Researchers

1.1. William Huitt

1.2. David Monetti

1.3. John Hummel

2. Often produces highest student scores (Rosenshine, 1995)

3. Reigeluth's (1999) position: Instructional-event theories

3.1. Improve student learning

3.2. Inform practitioner methods to employ

3.3. Improve likelihood that desired outcomes will occur

4. Criterion to evaluate (Reigeluth, 1999)

4.1. Effectiveness

4.2. Efficiency

4.3. Appeal

5. Presentation

5.1. Overview

5.1.1. Review - previous material or prerequisite skill

5.1.2. What - knowledge or skill

5.1.3. Why - objectives are important

5.1.4. Explanation - of knowledge or skill to be learned

5.1.5. Probe & Respond - multiple opportunities for students

5.2. How about cognitive load?

6. Practice

6.1. Guided Practice - teacher supervises

6.2. Independent Practice

6.3. Periodic Review - use previous skills and content

7. Assessment & Evaluation

7.1. Formative - leading up to the summative

7.2. Summative - usually tests or projects

8. Monitoring & Feedback

8.1. Cues & Prompts - hint important information called Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1978)

8.1.1. Good point

8.2. Corrective Feedback - reinforcement for both correct and incorrect responses

9. Students come with (Carroll, 1963; Bloom, 1976)

9.1. Prerequisite skills

9.2. Capacities to learn

9.3. What if they don't have the prerequisite skills?

10. (JOHNSON, T., 2013)