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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Constructivism

1.1.1. Basic Principles Individuals make connections with their environment Students actively construct their own new knowledge based on their prior knowledge (instead of passively receiving information from teacher directed lectures) If new information does not fit with prior knowledge, students can change to accommodate the new information (through assimilation and accommodation) Discovery learning Problem solving based Project based Student directed learning Students take responsibility for their own learning Zone Proximal Development (ZPD) Teach a little ahead of where students are, so that they can develop their own knowledge with guidance

1.1.2. Implications For Education Have to teach students how to build their own knowledge Develops critical and creative thinking Teacher creation of authentic, challenging, real world tasks and problems Teacher as a facilitator of information Teacher guides student learning with questions, authentic and real world problems, teaching to ZPD, and prompting Rejects traditional teaching methods Collaboration and social interaction with peers and with teacher is key

1.2. Connectivism

1.2.1. Basic Principles Learning as construction of networks to find information Creation of networks so have a guide for all knowledge and information Learning, knowledge, and information exist outside of humans Exists in machines, technology, organizations, databases, and in the networks Currency Who to connect with to gain knowledge needed When to connect to gain knowledge needed Diversity Of Opinions Many different answers for the who and when of currency Capacity to learn more Achieve greater knowledge if continue learning instead of stopping or giving up Ability to see connections See visible and hidden connections to build network of knowledge Maintenance Need to maintain and build networks and connections for continual growth Information flow is essential

1.2.2. Implications For Education Need to teach students how to create networks and connections Need to teach students where to go to find information Innovation Creation of personal learning networks (PLN) Social networking and social media Need to teach and foster management skills and leadership Changes design of learning environments Student directed learning Technology based learning Innovation in teaching methods

1.3. Cognitive Load (Cognitivism)

1.3.1. Basic Principles Working Memory Takes in information from environment through senses Limited information retention Cognitive loads Amount of information processed by working memory for any given task Extraneous cognitive load Intrinsic cognitive load Germane Learning is when information from senses is transferred to working memory, deemed important and sent to be stored in long term memory

1.3.2. Implications For Education Teachers need to be aware of information overload and underload Teachers need to make sure not to overload or underload students working memory Teachers need to make sure tasks and information are authentic Authentic information allows student working memory to transfer information to long term memory and create connections with prior knowledge Teachers need to be careful how present information to students Teachers need to help students learn strategies to help working memory with information retention Chunking/ knowledge compression Repetition Organization

2. Technology Theories

2.1. Social Construction Of Technology (SCOT)

2.1.1. Basic Principles Human action and knowledge shapes technology Technology embedded in society Who defines whether or not technology is a success or failure in society What societal groups define what success or failure of technology is Symmetry Interpretative Flexibility Technology interpretations by various societal groups Relevant stakeholders in societal groups Users and producers of tecchnology Design Flexibility Many different ways of designing and developing technology (especially depending on stakeholders) Varying interpretations of technological artifacts from various societal groups

2.1.2. Implication for Education Teachers need to realize that technology is embedded in society and therefore education Teachers need to maintain their technological literacy Make sure students are aware that technology is shaped by and embedded in society Use of technology allows creative thinking and collaboration of students Find and use tools that are societally accepted in the classroom to enhance learning Make sure students are aware how society has shaped technology Teach students how to appropriately use technology to take responsibility for their learning

2.2. Media Ecology

2.2.1. Basic Principles Media and technology dictate knowledge and actions of society Study of media as multiple environments Study of environments as multiple forms of media “The interactions of communications media, technology, technique, and processes with human feeling, thought, value, and behavior." (Nystrom, 1973) “How media of communication affect human perception, understanding, feeling, and value; and how our interaction with media facilitates or impedes our chances of survival.” (Postman, 1970) Media as technology, techniques, communication, symbols, codes, databases

2.2.2. Implication For Education Teachers need to understand and communicate to students how media and technology shape society How it changes our needs and wants Make students aware of generational gap in technology users Younger people are more technologically literate than older generations How technology can enhance learning process Show students different kinds of technology to use in classrooms compared to traditional teaching methods Make students aware of proper uses of technology in the classroom

3. TPACK Framework (Technology, Pedagogy And Content Knowledge)

3.1. Elements / Basic Principles & Implications For Teaching

3.1.1. Primary Elements Technological Knowledge (TK) Content Knowledge (CK) Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) Contexts

3.1.2. Secondary Elements Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

4. Philosophy Of Teachnology

4.1. Elements / Basic Principles & Implications For Teaching

4.1.1. Teacher's personal beliefs about how technology can be used and incorporated into education and own teaching practices Just like a teaching philosophy but purposefully includes specific belief statements about technology in the classroom Different for every teacher Developed over time and with experience in classroom

4.1.2. Alignment (University Of Pittsburgh) Technology used purposefully Not a distraction to students and take away from teacher pedagogy Aligned with curriculum Keeping learning objectives in mind Aligned with teacher pedagogy and student needs

4.1.3. Accessibility (University Of Pittsburgh) Accessible to school and students Make sure students know how to use and use in appropriate ways Accessibility to teacher Try technology ahead of time in classroom to make sure it works the way intended for lesson Make sure teacher is familiar with technology (how to use it)

4.1.4. Assessment (University Of Pittsburgh) Teacher provide students with guidance Teacher should be clear with students about how going to assess student technology use in assignments (etc) Teacher should structure student interaction with technology used in lesson

4.1.5. Reinforcement (University Of Pittsburgh) Technology should supplement and reinforce content being taught Should not substitute teacher or their pedagogy Should not teach, in a different format, the same content teacher Should provide students with better understanding of content being taught (meaningful learning)