Learning & Technology Theories

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Learning & Technology Theories by Mind Map: Learning & Technology Theories

1. Media Ecology

1.1. Technology, modes of information and codes of communication play a leading role in human affairs

1.1.1. Technology influences society and the way we learn

1.1.2. Structures what we can see and say

1.1.3. Assigns roles to us and insists on our playing them

1.1.4. Specifies what we are permitted to do and what we are not

1.2. How media of communication affect human perception

1.3. How interaction with media can facilitate or impede our chances of survival

1.4. Questions what role media forces us to play, how media structures what we see, and why media makes us feel and act the way we do

2. Constructivism

2.1. Learning is an active, constructive process

2.2. The learner is an information constructor, rather than like a computer

2.2.1. The teacher is more of a facilitator - they should not tell students anything directly, but should allow students to construct knowledge for themselves Elimination of standard curriculum Curricula is customized to the students' prior knowledge No standardized testing - assessment becomes a part of the learning process

2.3. Individuals actively construct their own subjective representations of reality

2.3.1. Knowledge is constructed through personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment New information is linked to prior knowledge Learners test hypotheses through social negotiation

2.3.2. Each person has their own view of the knowledge process

2.4. Learner is not a blank slate, but rather brings past experiences to a situation

2.4.1. In the classroom, hands-on problem solving is used to engage the students and encourage them to analyze, interpret, and predict information Lego building, robot building, computer programs (i.e. scratch)

3. Behaviorism

3.1. The belief that behaviors can be measured, trained and changed

3.1.1. Learning in the classroom consists of repetitive actions that are used consistently in order to maintain good behavior and to emphasize the learning concepts Ways of learning can include computer tools that assist the students in their learning (i.e. Math Blasters, Funbrain)

3.2. The mind is a blank slate that can be influenced by the external environment - responses to environmental stimuli shapes behaviors

3.2.1. Students can engage in the learning process by positive reinforcement from the teacher

3.3. All behaviors are acquired through conditioning; internal mental states, such as emotions and moods, are too subjective and do not matter

3.3.1. The teacher is the dominant figure of the classroom and decides what is right and what is wrong - facilitates the students' learning

3.4. Behavior of individuals can be studied in a systematic and observable manner and can be reinforced using cues, praises and punishments

3.4.1. Is used in education to praise students for good behavior and to punish for bad behavior in the classroom

4. Cognitivism

4.1. The "black box" of the mind should be opened and understood, rather than individuals being viewed as programmed and merely responding to environmental stimuli

4.1.1. Rather than the teacher being the main facilitator, the teacher both actively guides students and allows opportunities for independent exploration

4.2. The learner is viewed as an information processor

4.2.1. The mind is a computer - information goes in, gets processed, and leads to certain outcomes Teachers are concerned with the process of learning, rather than the end product

4.2.2. Prior knowledge is key in learning

4.3. Mental processes, such as thinking, memory, knowing and problem solving

4.3.1. Teachers are able to understand the value of academic tasks and effort needed to complete those tasks Motivates students to learn better in the classroom environment

4.3.2. Cognitive games can be used to stimulate learning and promote critical thinking i.e. educational websites and computer games/tools

4.4. Involves examining learning, memory, problem solving, skills and intelligence

4.4.1. In the classroom, teachers are able to create a learning environment that encourages students to do their best Creates a motivational climate in the classroom Students are encouraged to learn from one another and hear each other's views

4.5. Examples of technologies: mind maps, Prezi, mindmeister, databases, electronic note taking

5. Connectivism

5.1. Knowledge is distributed across a network of connections

5.1.1. Learning consists of the ability to construct these networks Technologies include Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Evernote, bookmarking apps, newsreaders, Reddit, search engines, and discussion forums

5.1.2. Accurate, up-to-date knowledge is the intent of all learning activities Online materials can be used to compose new thoughts and new understandings

5.1.3. Maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning Students can develop their own personalized learning tools, environments, learning networks, and communities with which they can store their knowledge

5.2. Knowledge is not acquired or transmitted - what we learn and know are the connections we form between neurons as a result of experience

5.2.1. Learning and knowledge arises from diversity of opinions Students can use different technologies to share thoughts and ideas with others and to learn different perspectives

5.2.2. Connecting specialized nodes or information sources is how learning is developed

5.3. The capacity to know more is more critical than what is already known

5.3.1. It is more important to "know-where" to find things in your network than to "know-how" or "know-what" More important for students to know where to find the knowledge they require rather than to internalize it

6. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT)

6.1. Understand links between social and technological processes

6.1.1. Both are human constructions

6.2. Technology is shaped by engineers, market forces, consumer needs and demands, organizations, government policies, and all individuals and groups who are social products

6.2.1. "The Safety Bicycle" : Variety of groups - Engineers, consumers, anti-cyclists; Heterogeneity - male and female users

6.3. Link the activity of individuals to wider social processes

6.3.1. Avoid linear analysis of technological development Avoid asymmetry - include focus on failed technology


7.1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

7.1.1. Content Knowledge (CK)

7.1.2. Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) All three areas influence and aid one another in the TPACK framework

7.1.3. Technological Knowledge (TK) Technology plays a role in influencing content and pedagogy and vice versa

7.2. Attempts to identify the nature of knowledge required by teachers for technology integration in their teaching

7.3. Addresses the complex, multifaceted and situated nature of teacher knowledge

7.4. Effective technology integration for pedagogy around specific subject matter requires developing sensitivity to the dynamic relationship between all three components

8. Philosophy of Teachnology

8.1. Your beliefs about how technology can and should be used in your teaching practices

8.2. Similar to philosophy of teaching: your beliefs about your teaching practices

8.3. Each teacher can have a different Philosophy of Teachnology and can make written statements about what technology they believe is best for the classroom

8.4. Includes online learning, technological use in the classroom, and use in Professional Development

8.5. Professional Learning Networks can be used as one's Philosophy of Teachnology

8.5.1. i.e. Twitter, Facebook, blogs