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Autism by Mind Map: Autism

1. No treatment was supported by evidence considered stronger than "moderate." Treatments in this category are supported by reasonable evidence, but include the caveat that further research may change the confidence about the results. In contrast, a treatment supported by a high level of evidence is unlikely to be changed by further research.

2. some brain circuits develop too quickly - hyperlexia

2.1. Individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC) are known to excel in some perceptual cognitive tasks, but such developed functions have been often regarded as “islets of abilities” that do not significantly contribute to broader intellectual capacities. However, recent behavioral studies have reported that individuals with ASC have advantages for performing Raven's (Standard) Progressive Matrices (RPM/RSPM), a standard neuropsychological test for general fluid intelligence, raising the possibility that ASC′s cognitive strength can be utilized for more general purposes like novel problem solving.

3. Causes

3.1. Theory of Mind

3.2. High CReactive Protein in Prenatal moms

3.3. over 300 genetic variants

3.3.1. some duplicate genes result of environment and not hereditary

3.3.2. causes are so varied that it's hard to find enough people with a given mutation to establish a clear pattern

3.4. possible auditory pathways created wrong, like too much or too little variation in sounds heard as a baby

3.5. see brain

3.6. environment

3.6.1. possible empathy is not modelled to babies by parents ruled out

3.7. vaccine cause ruled out once it was found out studies done had no merit

4. Therapies

4.1. vigorous exercise stops depression

4.2. visual music learning like notes on a piano helps auditory processing

4.3. diuretics reduce behavior

4.4. green tea - diuretic and eccg to promote synapses

4.4.1. however amount of eccg in green tea not enough

4.5. ABA Therapy

4.5.1. Verbal Behavior Therapy

4.5.2. pivital response therapy

4.5.3. Early Start Denver Model

4.5.4. Gold Standard

4.5.4.1. the sooner initiated the better outcome

4.6. The expert panel agreed there was enough evidence to endorse the use of applied behavioral analysis, integrated behavioral/developmental programs, the Picture Exchange Communication System and various social skills interventions for Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism. In addition, they agreed that children with autism spectrum disorders should have access to at least 25 hours per week of comprehensive interventions (often called "intensive early intervention") to address social communication, language, play skills and maladaptive behavior.

5. Studies

5.1. chelation treatment more harmful than good

5.2. ssri tests in progress

5.2.1. anxiety common

5.3. vaccines found not responsible

5.4. Impaired coordination of brain activity in autism involves local, as well as long-range, signaling

5.5. Metal-binding agents such as DMPS* do not work

5.6. hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism.

5.7. . A study in the journal NeuroImage, shows that the brain is incapable of being simultaneously logical and empathetic

5.8. supplement found to help seizure autism

6. Properties

6.1. Level 1

6.2. Level 2

6.3. Level 3

6.4. eyes

6.4.1. children with ASD looked downwards and made more extensive use of their lateral field of view when exploring the environment.

6.4.2. Visual behavior is known to be atypical in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Monitor-based eye-tracking studies have measured several of these atypicalities in individuals with Autism.

6.4.3. zooming out with eyes is slower than normal

6.4.3.1. probably why eye contact hard

6.4.3.2. sunglasses can help if over visualized.

6.4.3.3. some autistics see 60hz as flashing Flourescent lights at 60hz can bother some

6.4.3.4. Attentional Zoom-Out Deficit

6.5. social

6.5.1. Individuals with autism often violate social rules and have lower accuracy in identifying and explaining inappropriate social behavior.

6.5.1.1. dont automatically use language to encode social integration

6.6. communication

6.6.1. Language Delay

6.6.1.1. The autism group (compared to the control group) showed (a) reversed hemispheric dominance during verbal auditory stimulation; (b) a trend towards reduced activation of auditory cortex during acoustic stimulation; and (c) reduced cerebellar activation during nonverbal auditory perception and possibly expressive language. These results are compatible with findings of cerebellar anomalies and may suggest a tendency towards atypical dominance for language in autism.

6.6.2. non-verbal

6.6.3. echolalia

6.6.4. mixed expressive receptive language disorder

6.7. repetitive behaviors

6.7.1. rigid fearfulness is linked to the severity of classic symptoms of autism, such as repeated movements and resistance to change

6.7.1.1. harder to let go of fears

7. Homelife

7.1. some enjoy squeeze machine evidence coat wearing

7.2. stimming should be allowed, but controlled times

7.3. get kids a pet to increase proscial behaviors

8. Brain

8.1. asd child prodigies have 99% working memory

8.2. Many projects mapping brain pathways

8.3. associated with reduction in level of cellular adhesion molecules(CAM)

8.3.1. synapses that are prone to overstimulation, establishing a `hyperconnectivity' that many researchers believe underlies the symptoms of ASD.

8.3.1.1. Neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders are marked by mutations that impair signaling between neurons. These mutations cause key brain circuits involved in learning and memory to develop too quickly, leading to long-lasting behavioral and cognitive deficits, according to a study published by Cell Press in the November 9th issue of the journal Cell. The findings could pave the way to new treatment strategies for severe forms of neurodevelopmental disorders.

8.3.2. They found that the individuals with ASD showed a blunted brain response to stimulation of the motor cortex when viewing a transitive hand gesture. In other words, the mirror neuron system in the ASD individuals became less activated when watching the gestures, compared to the healthy group. In addition, among people with ASD, less mirror neuron activity was associated with greater social impairments. This finding adds to the evidence that deficits in mirror neuron system functioning contribute to the social deficits in ASD.

8.4. Specific thinking first, then general

8.5. Npas4 is a transcription factor, which is highly expressed in the brain and regulates the formation and maintenance of inhibitory synapses in response to excitatory synaptic activity.

8.5.1. Our results suggest that Npas4 may play a major role in the regulation of cognitive and social functions in the brain with possible implications for developmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism.

8.6. visual thinker probably because of auditory and language delay

8.7. Auditory Processing

8.7.1. The absence of right-hemispheric predominance of the P100m and a tendency for its right-hemispheric reduction in the ASD children suggests disturbance of the RH ascending reticular brainstem pathways and/or their thalamic and cortical projections, which in turn may contribute to abnormal arousal and attention. The correlation of sensory abnormalities with atypical, more leftward, P100m lateralization suggests that reduced preattentive processing in the right hemisphere and/or its shift to the left hemisphere may contribute to abnormal sensory behavior in ASD.

8.7.2. Electro- and Magnetoencephalography (EEG and MEG) methods have good time resolution, allowing investigation of auditory processing stages affected in autism. Using EEG we have recently found a reduction of the temporal N1c (also called Tb) component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) in 4–8 year-old children with autism

9. Diagnosis

9.1. 82% on fMRI scans

9.1.1. The hypothesis posits that autism is marked by under-functioning high-level neural connections and synchronization, along with an excess of low-level processes. Evidence for this theory has been found in functional neuroimaging studies on autistic individuals and by a brain wave study that suggested that adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have local over-connectivity in the cortex and weak functional connections between the frontal lobe and the rest of the cortex. If such coherence is confirmed, our learning rule should accommodate this prior knowledge to be more effective.

9.2. genetic testing can be beneficial

9.2.1. if child has intellectual disability

9.2.2. genetic connection with schizophrenia

9.3. EEG have high probability

9.4. ADOS and MCHAT

9.4.1. used by schools to diagnose