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Gateway 1: Why are some areas more prone to tectonic hazards? by Mind Map: Gateway 1:
Why are some areas more
prone to tectonic hazards?
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Gateway 1: Why are some areas more prone to tectonic hazards?

Natural Hazards


Caused by severe and extreme weather and climate conditions, Eg. Droughts, tropical cyclones, Floods

More widely distributed


Caused by plate movements 1) Convergent 2) Divergent 3) Transform, Eg. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis

Mainly concentrated near the coastlines of the Pacific Ocean

Continental Theory

From Great Pangea to 7 continental plates

African Plate

Pacific Plate

Eurasian Plate

North American Plate

South American Plate

Antarctic Plate

Indo-Australian Plate


-Fitting coastlines -Matching fossil reptiles in South America and Africa -Rocks of the same age and geological structure -Presence of coal under the Antarctic Ice caps

Plate Tectonic Theory

Earth crust divided into 7 major plates

Plates float on semi-molten mantle and are moved by convection currents

Edges of the plates are the zones of movement and are instable as well

3 Main movements!




How the Earth was built

God made Earth in 7 days

Big Bang Theory

Internal Structure of the Earth


Very dense

Central of the earth

Made of iron and nickle

Inner - 1200 km thick - Solid - High pressure

Outer - 2100 km thick - Semi-molten - 3000-5000 degree Celsius


Takes up 80% of the Earth's volume

2900 km thick

Dense rocks

800-3000 degree celsius

Lower - solid

Upper - solid rocks and athenosphere


Less then 1% og the Earths volume

Few km to 70 km thick

Thinnest layer

Lighter Rocks

Consists of continental & oceanic plates

Crust + Upper Mantle = Lithosphere

Reason to why tectonic plates move

Convection currents

1) Hot substances rises and cool substances sinks

2) The material in the mantle is heated up by the core, thus expanding and rising , spreading out along the plates.

3) The plates is then pulled away from each other

4) The hot mantle slowly cools down and sinks, dragging the plates along as well.

2 types of tectonic plates


Beneath deep ocean waters

5 - 8 km thick

Mainly made of basalt

Less then 200 million years old


Land masses

30 - 60 km thick

Made of lighter rocks, Eg. Granite

Wide range of rock ages

More about CONVERGENT plates

Continental - Continental (C-C)

Both lands are equally light

NO subduction occurs

Crust uplifted against each other

Land folds together and piles up

Fold mountains formed, Eg. Himalayas - India & Eurasian Plates

Continental - Oceanic (C-O)

Thinner, denser oceanic plate converges with the thicker, lighter continental plate

SUBDUCTION of the oceanic plate beneath the continental plate OCCURS, parts of the oceanic plate destroyed

Ocean trenches and fold mountains formed

Volcanoes made, Eg. Andes Mountains - Oceanic Nazca & Continental South America Plate

Oceanic - Oceanic (O-O)

2 Oceanic plates collide

1 plate will sink; most likely the denser one

Subduction occurs, parts of the crustal plate destroyed

Oceanic trenches, submarine volcanoes and volcanic islands arc/chains formed, Eg. Marianas Trench - Pacific Ocean

More about DIVERGENT plates

Result of rising magma within mantle just below the crustal plates

2 C/O plates moving away from each other

(C - C) forms Rift Valleys

(O - O) forms Ocean Trenches

Mid-ocean ridges

forms new crust and new seafloor

Crust nearest to the ridge is the youngest

More about TRANSFORM plates

2 Plates sliding/gliding past each other

Eg. 1) San Andreas fault - Pacific and North American Plates 2) North America Fault - Turkey and Anatolian Plate

No crust destroyed/created

Earthquakes created; little or no volcanic activities