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Grammar by Mind Map: Grammar

1. Usage of adverbs

1.1. We use adverbs to modify verbs

1.2. Adverbs can modify adjectives too

1.3. An adverb can modify another adverb

1.4. Adverbs of manner are usually placed after the verb they describe,or after the direct object if there is one.

1.5. Adverbs or adverbial phrases of place are used after the verb or after the direct object.

1.6. Adverbs or adverbial phrases of time usually occur at the beginning or the end of the sentence.

1.7. When we have to deal with a group of adverbs or adverbial expressions,we usually place them in this order : (1) manner (2) manner (3) time

1.8. Adverbs of Frequency are used after the verb "to be"

1.9. When the verb consists of more than one word, the Adverb of Frequency comes After the first word.

1.10. When the sentence has only one word as a verb,the Adverb is placed before it

1.11. Notice where the Adverbs of Frequency are placed in questions.

1.12. We form adverbs from adjectives by adding "ly" or by changing the "y" or "i" and and adding " ly:

1.13. Adverbs can also be forming by adding " ally"

2. Articles

2.1. Indefinite Articles

2.1.1. a We use "a" before a noun with a consonant sound.

2.1.2. an We use "an" before a noun with a vocal sound or starts with with a silent "h" We use "a"and "an" in expressions of speed,price,number and ratio. We do not use "a" or "an" before plural nouns,uncountable nouns and abstract nouns.

2.1.3. Not to put an article before the name of a person unless we do not know the identity.

3. Nouns

3.1. Common/proper

3.1.1. Sub Idea 1

3.1.2. Sub Idea 2

3.2. countable/uncountable

3.2.1. We use "some" and "any" before uncountable nouns and plurals. "Some" is usually used in positive sentences and "any" in negative and interrogative sentences.

3.2.2. We do not use "a" or "an" before uncountable nouns. We only use expressions like "a lot of ","plenty of","a little" etc. We use singular verbs with these expressions.

3.2.3. Uncountable nouns are generally used with singular verbs

3.2.4. Abstract nouns are uncountable singular verbs

3.3. expressions

3.3.1. We use expressions like "a"."few","many" with plural countable nouns. We use plural verbs with these expressions.

3.3.2. We can also use expressions like "a piece of ...","a bar of...",etc.

3.4. (labels) things

3.4.1. concrete apples

3.4.2. abstract determination

3.5. groups

3.5.1. They are usually used with singular verbs.

3.5.2. There are names for special groups of people,too.

3.6. suffixes

3.6.1. ness

3.6.2. ty

3.6.3. tion

3.7. other endings

3.7.1. affect - effect

3.7.2. advise - advice

3.7.3. contain - content

3.8. verb

3.8.1. rebel

3.8.2. love

3.8.3. taste

3.8.4. singular verb must be used with a singular subject There are subjects which take singular verbs. Each Every One Collective nouns are generally used with singular verbs For collective nouns like "audience",committee,"team" We use a singular verb when we mean it as a whole.

3.8.5. plural verb must be used with a plural subject All Both of Many

3.8.6. Either and Neither We can use these two words in both the singular and plural sense.

3.9. sentence structure

3.10. singular nouns

3.10.1. end in "s" are used with singular verbs

3.11. Possessive pronoun

3.11.1. Takes place of a possessive adjective plus noun

3.11.2. It stands alone

3.11.3. When we use "of" a possessive means "one of" This is a double possessive.

3.12. Reflexive pronoun

3.12.1. We use the reflexive pronoun as an indirect object when the action of the verb returns to the doer.

3.12.2. we can use reflexive pronouns after prepositions

3.12.3. Sometime we use reflexive pronouns with the verb " to be"

3.13. Emphatic pronoun

3.13.1. We use emphatic pronouns to stress the importance of the noun or pronoun.

3.13.2. We can leave out the emphatic pronoun but cannot leave out a reflexive pronoun

3.14. Relative pronouns

3.14.1. "Who refers to people, and is normally used with a verb after it.

3.14.2. "That" refers to animals,and things,but in speech it can be used to refer to people,too.

3.14.3. "Which" refers to animals and things.We can use it with a verb,noun or pronoun

3.14.4. "Which" is also used with prepositions

3.14.5. Notice that there are many occasions where "which" and "that" can be omiited

3.14.6. This clause so formed is called a "contact clause"

3.14.7. "Whom" is used for persons.We use "whom" when it is the object of a verb.It is also used with a preposition.The preposition is normally in front of "whom" but in informal cases it can appear at the end of the clause.Sometimes "whom" can be replaced by "that".This occurs mainly in speech

3.14.8. "Whose" refers to people and is used to show possession in the wildest sense.It is usually followed by a noun.

3.14.9. We use the expression ".. of whom" to show a certain number of the persons we refer to. "of which: can also be used in the same way,but it refers to things,not people

3.14.10. "of which" can also be used in place of "whose" to show possession of things.

4. The simple present tense

4.1. To show a habitual action

4.1.1. adverbs often usually every day

4.2. To state a general turth

4.3. To show a future action

4.3.1. It is often used in connection with travels.

4.4. To show "historic present"

4.4.1. Occurs in commentaries on games.

4.4.2. in an effort to show the action as if were taking place at the moment of speaking

4.5. Passive form

4.5.1. shows that the action done to the subject not by the subject

5. Interrogative sentences

5.1. We can use "some" in interrogative sentences when we expect a positive answer or when it is an invitation or request.

6. Compound words

6.1. There are compound words such as "somebody","something","anybody","anything",etc.They are used in the same way as "some" and "any".

6.2. Compound words are treat as one word and the apostrophe s is added to the last word.

7. The apostrophe is

7.1. to show possession

7.2. used with "of the"

7.3. In cases of nouns ending in s we normally add the apostrophe only.

7.4. They involve,measurement,time,space,quantity.

8. Possessive adjective

8.1. to show possession

8.2. takes place of a possessive adjective plus noun

8.3. We never add an apostrophe to a possessive pronoun

9. Conjunctions

9.1. To show things of similar functional value: and,also,as well,as,besides

9.2. To show reason:because,for,as,since

9.3. Conjuctions to show alternatives :or,either or neither nor

9.4. Conjuctions to show result : so,consequently,therefore,etc

9.5. To show contrast,but,yet,still,although,even though, etc

9.6. The conjunctions "so that" shows purpose

9.7. "despite" and "in spite of" also show contrast.

9.8. Show two or more actions going on at the same time.

10. Present perfect tense

10.1. Shows an action that happpened and finished at sometime in the past.

10.2. The difficulty of when to use the present perfect or the simple past tense occurs especially in long sentences.

10.3. When the sentence contains an expression indicating past time,then we must use the simple past tense.

10.4. We may use the present perfect tense with an incomplete period of time.

10.5. Frequently used with adverbs like "already","frequently","recently","often","never","ever",etc.

10.6. When the present perfect is used with "just",it indicates that the action has been recently completed.

10.7. We use the passive form of the present perfect to show that the action is done to the subject and not by the subject.

10.8. The present perfect continuous tense shows an uninterrupted action beginning in the past and continuing into the present."for" and "since" are often used there

11. adjective

11.1. We can form adjectives from verbs,nouns,etc. by adding a suitable suffix.

11.2. Many adjectives form their opposites by the addition of suitable prefixes

11.3. Adjectives are usually used before the nouns they describe

11.4. Many adjectives are followed by prepositions

11.5. Some adjectives can be used as nouns to represent a class of the people or things mentioned.Usually the article "the" is used before it.

11.6. The usage of these forms follow a certain pattern

12. comparison of adjectives and adverbs

12.1. using of positive degree with the patterns "as ... as"

12.2. sometimes use to show the difference bewteen one thing and a collection of other things.

12.3. when comparing two unequal things use the comparative degree with "than".

12.4. the word "than" can be left out when the comparison bewteen the objects is understood.

12.5. when we compare three or more things,we use the superlative.The usual pattern are "the ... of"

12.6. in certain cases we use "a" instead of "the" with the superlative.

12.7. We may use two comparatives in the same sentence.No difficulty occurs if the comparatives are of the same form.

12.8. Comparatives also follow a fixed pattern.

12.9. It is wrong to use a double comparative.

12.10. Careful usage of words "Worse" "worst and "older"

12.11. Some adjectives and adverbs do not have comparatives.

13. Agreement of pronouns

13.1. Must use the right pronoun to refer to the right subject.

13.2. Sometime we use the masculine gender to refer to either of the sexes.

13.3. "she" "her "Hers" are singular and refer to the feminine gender.

13.4. We use it its itself to refer to the neuter gender or the sex is unknown.They take singular verbs.

13.5. Inanimate objects like spring,winter,the sun,the moon or abstract nouns may sometimes be personified.They may be referred to as either masculine or feminine.

13.6. The pronouns "we,us,our" are plural in form."You" can either be singular or plural.

13.7. Indefinite pronouns like "anybody,somebody,someone" are singular.When we refer to them,we use singular pronouns.

13.8. The relative pronoun (who,whom,whose,which,that) takes the same number and gender as the noun before it.

13.9. Remember to be consistent when referring to your subjects.

14. prepositions and nouns

14.1. Prepositions can be used before or after nouns.

14.2. In advance,in agony,in anger.

14.3. of age,of no avail, of consequence

14.4. For certain,for example,for effect

14.5. on account,on the alert, on approval

14.6. by accident,by chance,by aeroplane

14.7. at anchor,at the beginning,at one"s command.

14.8. from habit,from memory, from scratch.

14.9. To advantage,to all appearances,to depth.

14.10. With care,with consent,with indifference.

14.11. under arrest,under a cloud,under orders,

14.12. affinity bewteen choice bewteen difference bewteen

14.13. competition against,fight against,proof against.

14.14. over the mark,influence over,precedence over.

14.15. discussion about feelings about opinion about

14.16. without ceremony,without delay,without mercy

14.17. Prepositions are used with adjectives in certain patterns too.Here are some adjectives used with prepositions.

15. Special finites or anomalous finites.

15.1. several features which distinguish them from ordinary verbs.

15.2. We form the negative by adding "not".

15.3. Special finites form the interrogative by the inversion of the verb and the subject.We have to use special finites to form the questions of ordinary verbs.

15.4. we use special Finites to avoid repetition.

15.5. We also use special Finites for stress and emphasis.

16. Be,do,have

16.1. As a special Finite,the verb "to be" is used to form the active continuous tenses and the passive voice of all the tenses.

16.2. the verb "to be" is used to state a fact.

16.3. It expresses an arrangement when used with an infinitive.

16.4. The same construction also shows an impersonal command.

16.5. The verb "to be" is used in the imperative with or without "do".

16.6. do - As a special finite,it helps to form the negative interrogative and the emphatic affirmative of other verbs.

16.7. Have- forms of the verb are : has,have,had,having.As a special finite,it is used to form the perfect tenses.

16.8. The verb "to have" is a special Finite when it shows possession.When it is used with other meanings it is not a special Finite.

17. Have to, must,need,needn't.

17.1. When "have" is used with the infinitive.It shows obligation.Usually the obligation has been imposed by an external authority or circumstance.

17.2. "Must " also expresses obligation but one which is more personal.

17.3. "Have to" replaces "must" in the future and past tenses.

17.4. Needn"t is the negative of "must". "Need" is chiefly used in the interrogative and negative.

17.5. "Need not" means it is not necessary but "must not" means the act is forbidden.

18. special finites

18.1. "can" is used for all persons in the present and future tense."Could" is the past tense of "can" and is also used with a future meaning.

18.2. We often use "can" in speech to show permission."Cant" or "cannot" expresses prohibition."could" is a more polite form of request.

18.3. "Can" and "could" may be used to show possibility or to query the possibility of an action.

18.4. Cant and could nt may be used to express a negative deduction too.

18.5. "may" and "might" are special Finites."may" is also used to show permission.It is a more polite form than "can". "Might" is used as the past tense of "may".

18.6. "may" also expresses possibility in the present or future."might" shows a greater doubt than "may".

18.7. When used with the perfect infinitive,"may" and "might" expresses a doubt in the possibility of a past action.

18.8. "may" and "might" can be used to show a wish/a casual request/ in clauses of purpose and concession.

18.9. As a special Finite,"will" forms the future tenses.

18.10. It also forms the conditional tenses.

18.11. "would" is the past tense of "Will".It must be used when the main verb is in the past.

18.12. When "Will" is used in the interrogative,it shows an invitation or request."Would" is a more polite form.

18.13. "Will" and "Would" also show habitual actions."Would" refers to past habits.

18.14. Sometimes "will" (when stressed) shows a formal command.The speakers expects to be obeyed.

19. "Shall and should"

19.1. have some functions similar to "will" and "Would".They are used to form the future tenses but only the pronouns i and we.

19.2. It is used to form conditional tenses.

19.3. "shall" when used in questions expresses a request for advice.

19.4. We can use "shall" to show our intention of doing some thing.It can be a promise,a command or a threat.

19.5. "should" is used with the meaning "ought to".It expresses a duty or obligation given from the speaker"s point of view.

19.6. "should" with a perfect infinitive shows that the action was not performed or fulfilled.

20. ought,used and dare

20.1. "ought" is used with the to- infinitive.Its meaning is equivalent to "should"

20.2. "ought" + a perfect infinitive expresses a duty or sensible action that was neglected or unfulfilled.

20.3. "Used" as a special finite expresses a habit that was done or existed in the past.It has only one form and is used with the "to-infinitive".

20.4. "Dare" can be used as a special finite or an ordinary verb.As a special Finite,it has only one form and is normally used in the negative with a bare infinitive.

20.5. "Dare" is also used in the interrogative especially with the word "how".

21. question tags

21.1. We use question tags when we wish to confirm the statements we have made.Question tags are formed with special finites.

21.2. When we make a positive statement,we add a negative tag.The expected answer in this case is yes.

21.3. When we make a negative statement,we add a positive tag.The expected answer is then "no".

21.4. Note that we use the same special Finite in the statement, in the question tag and in the expected answer.

21.5. When we use add question tags to statements with ordinary verbs,we use the special Finite "do".

21.6. Notice that we use the same subject in the sdtatement as in the question tag.

21.7. With subjects like "everybody","somebody","everyone","anyone",etc.We use singular verbs.But in question tags,we use "they" with a plural verb for these subjects.

22. The simple past tense

22.1. We use the simple past to show an action completed at some time in the past.A time expression is usually stated or indicated in the sentence.

22.2. The simple past is used to show a past habit.Here,we use it with adverbs like "always', "never", "frequently", etc.

22.3. We also use the simple past in conditional tenses of the unlikely type.

22.4. The simple past replaces the simple present when changing from the direct to the indirect speech.

23. The past continuous tense.

23.1. The past continuous shows an action happening at some time in the past.The time of the action is usually mentioned.

23.2. We can use the past continous to show two continous actions happening at the same time.The word "while" is often used here.

23.3. One action can take place while another action is going on.We use the past continous to emphasize the continuity of the action while the simple past shows the completed action.

23.4. The past continous can also be used to show past habitual actions.Adverbs like "always", "never",'often", etc. are used here.

23.5. You will remember that some verbs do not have the continuous form.

24. The past perfect tense

24.1. We use the past perfect to show which of two past actions happened first.The past perfect reaches further back into the past.

24.2. The past perfect also shows an action which had been done in the past.A time expression is always given.

24.3. The past perfect is used to replace the present perfect and the simple past in indirect speech.In such a case the introductory verb is in the past tense.

24.4. The past perfect is also used in conditional sentences of the "impossible" type.

24.5. The passive form of the past perfect shows an action which happened to the subject.

24.6. we form the past perfect continuous with "had been" + a present participle.Its usage is similar to the past perfect but it emphasizes the continuity of the action.

24.7. The past perfect continuous is used in Indirect speech.It replaces the present perfect continuous.

24.8. Remember that some verbs do not have a continuous form.These verbs can only be used in the past perfect tense.

24.9. Determinatives are a class of words which we use with nouns.You will have come across many determinatives e.g. "many" , "a few","some" etc.We uses determinatives with singular countable nouns,plural countable nouns and uncountable.

25. Determinatives

25.1. The two tables on the previous page show you some of the determinatives used with countable nouns.We must use one of the appropriate determinatives with a singular countable noun but it is not necessary with a plural noun.

25.2. When we use determinatives before pronouns,we have to add the word "of".

25.3. We can use determinatives with the word "more".

25.4. The above table shows you some of the determinatives used with uncountable nouns.It is not always necessary use a determinative but when we do,only one determinative can be used before a noun.

25.5. The present participle is normally used in an expression to tell us something more about a thing or person.We can use it at the start of the sentence.

25.6. The present participle can be used after a noun or pronoun.In such sentences you will usually find verbs of perception such as "see","hear","feel" etc.

25.7. We can seperate the present participle from the noun.

25.8. The present participle is also used as an adjective.In this usage it has an active meaning.

26. past partciples

26.1. The past participle is used like the present participle.It is used to start an expression.

26.2. The past participle is used after the noun it describes.

26.3. It can also be separated from the subject it describes.

26.4. The past participle can be used as an adjective too.

27. perfect participles

27.1. The active form of the perfect participle is made with "having"+ a past participle.It can introduce qualifying expressions just like the present participle.

27.2. The passive form of the perfect participle shows that the action is done to the subject and not by the subject.

27.3. When we use two perfect participles in a sentence,we can leave out part of the second participle.

28. Gerunds

28.1. A gerund is the "" form of a verb.It functions mainly as a noun.It is often called a "verbal noun".

28.2. Forms of the gerund , active: she is good at teaching retarded children.Passive: He is being taught the rules of the game.

28.3. As the subject of a verb

28.4. As the object of a verb

28.5. used after certain words like: worth,need,busy,help,etc.

28.6. After prepositions.

28.7. In quite a number of impersonal expressions.

28.8. We also use gerunds in polite phrases with the word "mind" meaning "object to".

28.9. We can use a pronoun in place of a possessive adjective in certain cases,especially in speech.

28.10. Sometimes we can use a gerund to modify a noun.It forms a compound noun,normally with a hyphen.Notice the difference between the participle and the gerund as modifiers.

29. Infinitives

29.1. We can use the infinitive without "to after these special Finites."may" "can" "must"

29.2. We use the infinitive with "to" after these special finites. "ought" "used" "have"

29.3. We normally use the perfect infinitive with these words : "should","ought",need;t."might"," couldn"t ",etc.

29.4. The infinitive with "to" is used after certain verbs.

29.5. We use the bare infinitives with verbs of sensation like see,hear,feel,etc.

29.6. In the pattern "verb + object + infinitive",we use the to-infinitive with these verbs :tell ,order,force,invite,permit,teach,want,forbid,encourage,request,advise,tempt.Etc.

29.7. With verbs like "make" and "let" we use the bare infinitive.

29.8. After words like "how","where","when" and "what" we usually use the to-infinitive.

29.9. The to-infinitive can be used after nouns and pronouns to show how they are used.

29.10. We also use the to-infinitive after certain adjectives.

29.11. Uses of infinitives:, the infinitive can be the subject of a sentence.

29.12. We also can use an infinitive to indicate the purpose of an action.

29.13. We use an infinitive after the verb "to be" to show command or a planned action.

29.14. When we use infinitive after the verb "to be" + about, it shows action in the near future.

29.15. The infinitive is used after "only" to show a disappointing consequence.

30. Direct speech

30.1. We use inverted commas to mark off direct speech.We must use either single or double inverted commas - whichever it is we should be consistent.

30.2. Take note of the punctuation marks where the speech is separated by a speech verb.

30.3. When the name of a person is addressed in speech,it is usually marked off by a comma or an exclamation mark.

30.4. Remember that we start a new paragraph whenever another person speaks.Also,after each introductory speech verb,we put either a comma or a full stop,depending on the sentence.

30.5. Direct speech is a mixture of questions,statements,commands,exclamations,etc.When we report them in indirect speech,we have to be careful of the speech verb we use.

31. Indirect speech

31.1. We use the indirect speech to report the words of the speaker.When changing direct into indirect speech we have to be careful of the tense,time,place and pronouns we use.

31.2. We DO NOT change the tense of a statement which is a general truth or saying.

31.3. We also do not change the tense when we know that the action is still happening or will happen soon.

31.4. When the introductory verb or speech verb is in the present or future tense , we DO NOT change the tense of the statement.

31.5. We have to change the time and place of direct speech to suit the situation in indirect speech.This is a matter of common sense.

31.6. To make the identity of the person clear,we have to change the pronouns or possessive adjectives when using the indirect speech.

31.7. When we use direct commands and requests into indirect speech,we make use of the to-infinitive.

31.8. Notice that after an introductory verb,we always have an object.

31.9. In changing exclamations into indirect speech,we have to be careful to convey the actual mood of the speaker.We can use words like remarked,exclaimed,shouted angrily,etc.

31.10. Changes in pronouns,possessive adjectives,time and place follow the same rules as those in statements.We change the tense when it is necessary to show that the action is in the past.

31.11. When we change direct questions to indirect,we have to be careful of the word order.In indirect questions the verb comes after the subject,as in a simple statement.

31.12. We can introduce indirect questions with words like ask,inquire,find out,etc.We DO NOT use a question mark after any indirect question.

31.13. Sometimes we can have an indirect question within a direct question.In these cases we use a question mark.

31.14. As in indirect speech,the change in tense,pronoun,possessive adjective,place,time,etc,depends on the situation and the tense of the introductory verb.

32. Indirect questions

32.1. When we use words like what,who,which,where, in direct speech.We also use them in indirect questions.But when the question starts with part of a verb,we use "if" or "whether" to introduce the question.

32.2. When "shall" is used in a direct question,it is changed in indirect questions according to its usage.When it is used as a simple future it is changed to "should" or "Would",according to the pronoun used.

32.3. When "shall" is used as a request for advice,we retain it in indirect questions.

33. Tenses to show the future

33.1. There are various ways of expressing future action.We may use the simple present,the present continuous,the "going to" form,the simple future and the future continous tenses.There are two classes of future actions - one which is planned in advance and the other which cannot be planned or which takes its normal course in the future.

33.2. We use the simple future to show an action which is not planned at all."shall" is used with "i" and "we" especially in questions."Will" is used for all persons,both in questions and statements.

33.3. When we emphasize "Will"/"Shall",the simple future then shows a command or a formal announcement.

33.4. "will"/"shall" can be used with verbs which do not have a continuous form,e.g. know,seem,understand,etc.

33.5. The passive form of the simple future shows an action which will be done to the subject.

33.6. The "going to" form shows actions which have been planned.It is used with or without a time expression.Without a time expression it shows an action in the near future.

33.7. The "going to" form also expresses the speaker 's feeling of certainty.

34. Present continuous to show the future

34.1. We can use the present continuous to show a planned future action.Usually a time expression is given.

34.2. The present continous is mainly used with verbs denoting movement,e.g.,go,come, arrive,move,etc.Verbs without a continuous form has to use other tenses to show future time.

35. The future continuous

35.1. We use the future continuous to show a future action that occurs in the normal course of events.It is not planned at all.

35.2. The future continuous can be used to show an action taking place at sometime in the future.A time expression is usually given.

36. The future perfect

36.1. The future perfect shows an action that will be completed by a certain future time.It is always used with a time expression.

36.2. The passive form shows that the action will have been done to the subject.

37. passive voice-with and without agent

37.1. We use the passive voice when the doer of the action or the agent is unknown or rather vague.Thus the agent is not mentioned.

37.2. The passive form is preferable when we wish to stress the importance of the action or the object.

37.3. We have to mention the agent when the sense of the sentence is not complete without it.

37.4. When the sentence has two objects,we make the "personal" one the subject of the passive sentence.

37.5. Some sentences,when put in to the passive voice,require a change in the construction.This mainly occurs in generalized statements with these verbs : believe,claim,think.We than use an infinitive construction in the passive voice.

37.6. We use the infinitive construction in these cases too.

37.7. When the active sentence contains prepositions or adverbs, we have to include in these in the passive form too.Note that some prepositions and adverbs change positions in the passive form.

38. likely conditions

38.1. There are three types of conditional sentences.They are sentences in which the conditions are likely,unlikely and impossible to be fufilled.

38.2. In sentences with conditions that are likely to be fulfilled,we use the simple present tense in the "if" clause.The verb is the main clause is usually in the future tense.

38.3. We use the simple present tense in the main clause when the result is natural or expected.

38.4. The imperative "can' or "may" could also be used in the main clause.

38.5. We can introduce the "if" clause with these words : unless,suppose,on condition that, provided that,etc.

39. unlikely conditions

39.1. In sentences where the conditions are less likely to be fufilled,we use the simple past in the "if" clause.We use the past equivalent of the future tense in the main clause.

39.2. We include suppositions under conditions that are unlikely to happen.We use "were" for all persons.

40. Impossible conditions

40.1. Sometimes certain events might have happened but they cannot happen now because the events are past.They are thus impossible to be fulfilled.We then use the perfect conditional tense in the main clause and the past perfect tense in the "if" clause.

40.2. We can also use the perfect equivalent of "may" and "can" in the main clause.

40.3. Where "if" is followed by words such as were,should and had,we can put the word at the beginning at the sentence and leave out "if".This applies to all three types of sentences.

41. Adjective clauses

41.1. Adjective clauses give us information about the nouns they refer to.They are generally introduced by relative pronouns :who,whom,whose,which,that,etc.

41.2. When,where,why can be used to introduce adjective clauses too when they mean "on which" in which" for which"

41.3. In certain adjective clauses we can leave out the introductory word.In such a case, a "contact" clause is formed.

41.4. Adjective clauses can be divided into defining and non-defining clauses.Defining clauses pinpoint the nouns we are referring to.They are important in conveying the meaning of the sentence.

41.5. Non defining clauses give us more information about the noun.They can be left out without damaging the sense of the sentence.They are usually marked off by commas.

42. Noun clauses

42.1. subject of a verb

42.2. complement of a verb

42.3. the object of a verb.

42.4. in apposition to a noun

42.5. the object of a preposition.

42.6. in apposition to it.

43. Adverb clauses

43.1. Adverb clauses do the word of adverbs.The main type of adverb clauses are

43.2. Adverb clauses of manner

43.3. Adverb clauses of place

43.4. Adverb clauses of time

43.5. Adverb clauses of purpose

43.6. Adverb clauses of reason

43.7. Adverb clauses of result

43.8. Adverb clauses of concession

43.9. Adverb clauses of comparison