Chapter 11: agriculture

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Chapter 11: agriculture by Mind Map: Chapter 11: agriculture


1.1. Second agricultural Revolution

1.1.1. moved agriculture past subsistence to generate the kinds of surpluses needed in factories and industrialization.

1.1.2. Began with a series of innovations, improvements in Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark and neighboring countries.

1.1.3. the 17th and 18th century bought new crops (corn, potato) and help from the govenment with land extension and other laws.

1.1.4. Railroads and innovations in machinery in the late 1800's and early 1900's helped sustain the revolution.

1.2. Understanding Spatial Layout of Agriculture

1.2.1. Johann Heinrich von Thunen noted that the further away from the city (Rostock) that one commodity of crop gave way to another as you moved away. Nearest to town were high demand and high price crops such as strawberries and dairy products, Next was a ring of forest which provided wood for feul and building, the were the bulkier and less perishable crops such as grains and wheat , the last ring livestock and ranching replaced crops.

1.2.2. The Von Thunen model first effort to analyze the spacial of economic activity.

1.2.3. Lee Lui studied the agricultural spatial arrangement in china and discovered that farmers closest and farthest away from the village put high intensities into their work.

1.3. Third Agriculture Revolution

1.3.1. Green revolution American philanthropists discovered a hybrid by 1960 and they no longer had to import corn into mexico. after the founding of IR8 in indonesia they made an IR36 of rice which became the most widley produced crop by 1992. India became most sell-sufficent grain production, 1980s, and Asia saw a 2/3 increase between 1970 and 1995. higher yield processes of casava amd sorghum in Africa are under research.

1.4. New genrtically modified foods

1.4.1. genetically modified organisms genetically engineered crops, principal orientation of the 3rd agriculture revolution. found in 75% of all processed foods. The U.S leads the production with 38% of all acres in corn and 80% in soybeans.

1.5. Regional and Local Change

1.5.1. shift from subsistence agriculture to commercial agriculture

1.5.2. in latin America increas in export crops such as fruits and coffee.

1.5.3. In Asia, the production of grains such as rice and wheat have increased. In china 75% of the women labor force work in agriculture, and 70% in India.

1.5.4. In Subsaharan Africa, Commercial agriculture has increased bu exports have decreased. In Gambia, these changes have changed the relationships between men and women. Because women are now working in these transformed wetlands with less time at home. Over 85% of all women in the labor force work in agriculture.


2.1. Township-and-range system

2.1.1. rectangular survey system the prevailing survey system in the U.S., the one that appears as checkerboards across agriculture fields. adopted by the gov. after the American Revolution,

2.1.2. a cadastral system which the rectangular survey system is a part of.

2.1.3. Rigid grid-like pattern on the land, with 1 square mile sections and bought and sold for a whole, half, or quarter of a section.

2.1.4. The homestead act stated, after living on the land for five years and making improvements to it, you receive a 160 acres section of land.

2.2. metes and bounds survey

2.2.1. adopted along eastern seaboard, natural features were used to demarcate irregular parcels of land.

2.3. Longlot survey system

2.3.1. Used in Texas, Louisiana, Quebec, and Canadian Maritimes.

2.3.2. divides land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals.

2.4. Primogeniture

2.4.1. germanic system in which all land passes ti the eldest son, parcels tend to be larger and farmers work a single plot of land.

2.4.2. normal in northern europe and colonized areas- the Americas, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand.

2.5. the latter is the norm for Asia, Southern Europe and Africa.

2.6. Villages

2.6.1. Farm-village life is still common in India. Subsaharan Africa, China, Southeast Asia 70% of the Indian population is farming.

2.6.2. In core areas agriculture has taken a different form In the U.S. only 2% of the labor force remains engaged. In the US the farmhouses are in dispersed settlement pattern: the land is cultivated but by machine rather than hand. In japan the Farmhouses are so tightly packed together they must use every square foot of farming land possible.

2.6.3. Nucleated Settlement most prevalent rural residential pattern in agricultural areas. EX. Java, Indonesia, every half mile or so down the road, the land use is just as intense but it is all done by people and animals.

2.6.4. In hilly regions of Europe villages squeeze on hilltops leaving the level land for farming. The village takes the characteristic of a cluster. EX. Burgundy, France

2.6.5. Walled Villages Villages surrounded by a wall Built for protection for the farmers at night in Nigeria and In the fertile cresent from the horseman of Asia.

2.6.6. grid villages the modern village, they are built on a grid pattern. Built by Spanish invaders of middle america and by other colonial powers.

2.6.7. Round Village or the rundling European version of the east african circular village, with its ventral cattle coral

2.6.8. In china 800 million of 1.3 billion live in villages. In India 3 of every 4 people live in villages. Same with most of the inhabitants of Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Pakistan(developing countries).

2.6.9. Mexico, since the NAFTA has has a decrease in agriculture but and increase in rural living and an increase in migration from lack of jobs. Increase in construction work, pretty commerce and craft production commerce.

2.7. Funtional Differation Within Villages

2.7.1. Range in size and house quality represents the owners wealth and standing in community. In Africa, a higher social position is associated with a more impressive house In India, farm workers, carpenters and crafts people have large walled compounds, stand in sting contrast. The poorest have a one-room, wattle-and-thatch dwelling. In Cambodia, poorer people live on the outhouses on the polluted pond and the richer people live in the Mekong Basin.

2.7.2. different areas of villages play different roles and function differently.


3.1. Plantations from middle America to Malaysia were established to grow crops for consumers in Europe.

3.2. Commercial agriculture

3.2.1. traced back to the European colonial powers in the 18th and 19th century.

3.2.2. EX. Cotton made in Egypt, Sudan, India and other colonized countries was bought cheap by Europe, and made into clothes and then sold again.

3.2.3. Transportation and kitchen devices has increased commercial agriculture. EX. Beef industry in Argentina, secured a world market when refrigerated ships made it possible to transport a highly perishable product world wide,

3.3. Monoculture

3.3.1. dependence on a single agriculture commodity.

3.3.2. colonies became known for certain crops and colonizers came to rely on their crops for manufacturing. EX. Ghanians still grow cacao, Mocambiquans still grow cotton and Sri Lankans still produce tea.

3.4. The World Map of Climates

3.4.1. Koppen Climate Classification System Classifies the worlds climate base on temperature and precipitation. Climatic Regions areas with similar climatic characteristics. equatorial rainforest regions monsoon climate desert steppe Humid Temperature Mediterranean climate and then they get colder toward the poles and in Siberia.

3.5. The Wordl Map of Agriculture

3.5.1. Cash Crops and plantation Agriculture Cash farming continues to provide badly needed money. EX. In the Caribbean they wish to sell their sugar at the highest price but they are not in the position to dictate prices. collective countries perform a cartel to to present a united front to importing countries. Ex. Europe and Russia sugar beets yield 25% of the 70% annual world harvest. plantation agriculture production system when cash crops are grown on large estates. Middle and south america- Bananas, sugar, coffee, and cocoa. west and east Africa- rubber, cocoa ,tea south asia- tea Southeast Asia- rubber Many of most productive owned by Europeans and Americans.

3.5.2. Cotton and Rubber India began producing cotton a larger scale after the plantation-scale. Industrial revolution provided machines for cotton ginning, spinning and weaving increasing the industry in the 19th century. promoted in Egypt's Nile Delta, Punjab region, Sudan, Mexico, Uganda, and Brazil. cotton is in comp. with synthetic fibers(nylan, rayon) and rubber is in comp. with synthetic rubber. rubber was colled in Amazon Basin in Northen South America Wold War 2 bought a demand for rubber especially because Japan occupied southeast asia.

3.5.3. Luxury Crops Luxury Crops EX> Tea, cacao, coffee and tobacco.

3.5.4. Commercial Livestock, Fruit and Grain Agriculture LArgest areas of commercial agriculture Dairying fruit, Truck and Specialized crops Mixed livestock and crop farming Comercial Grain and farming Livestock Raising the raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and byproducys, such as leather and wool. U.S., Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Aus., New Zealand S. Africa.

3.5.5. Subsistence Agriculture 3 Types Subsistence Crop and livestock farming Intensively subsistence Farming( Rice) Intensively Subsistence farming( Wheat and other crops) EX.Southeast Asia rice is grown on small plots and labor is intense., subsistence and export production occur side by side.

3.5.6. Mediterranean Agriculture mediterranean Agriculture refers to particular climate zone. grow: grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, figs, veggies, dates...etc.

3.6. Enviromental Impacts of Commercial Agriculture

3.6.1. by the 1980's over fishing began to destroy the fish stocks. Atlantic bluefin tuna fish pop dropped from 250,000 to 20,000.

3.6.2. In Mediterranean Europe there is still evidence of where the trees were cut down for trade.

3.6.3. livestock herding in arid and semiarid areas , natural vegetation in these areas cannot always sustain herds especially during prolonged droughts. land- water and energy-intensive process.

3.7. Agribusiness and the changing geography of Agriculture.

3.7.1. agribusiness businesses that provide a vast array of goods and services to support the agriculture industry.

3.7.2. over the past 50 yrs poultry production has extrememly changed. selctive breeding. Mechanilized broiler houses NW Arkansas, N Georgia, Delmarva peninsular, east of Washington D.C, N Carolina, Valeey of Virginia. Illegal Drugs periphery farmers find more profit growing marijuana, coca, and poopy the food crops for the core.

3.7.3. With the arrival of corporate hog farm in the 1990's hog production had an extreme increase in Oklahoma and Texas. (4 million)

3.7.4. Soviet Union and Maoist China tried to control agriculture by creating collective farms and agricultural communes.

3.7.5. Farming re-privatization is under way in Chiba and Russia today,

3.7.6. A global Network farm production is oriented for a fifth of the world's production.

3.8. Loss of Productive Farmland

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