League of Nations

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League of Nations by Mind Map: League of Nations

1. Final Failure

1.1. USA not members of League

1.1.1. eco sanctions pointless

1.2. appeared to reward aggressors

1.3. too far away from some countries

1.4. some members left league when criticised

1.5. no way of enforcing punishment

1.6. effects of depression 1929

1.7. structure

1.7.1. all decisions unanimous once a year meeting decisions took too long

1.8. Uk and Fr prioritise their interests first

1.9. League is linked to TOV which becomes unpopular in '30s

2. Effects of Depression and Failed

2.1. Effects of Depression

2.1.1. UK High unemployment, wouldn't involve itself in int.national disputes while eco. suffering

2.1.2. USA cannot support eco. sanctions whilst own trade was a mess

2.1.3. France built series of frontier defences, became known as Maginot Line, due to changing situation in Germany

2.1.4. Italy eco. probs encouraged Mussolini to build overseas empire in order to draw attention away from difficulties govt. faced

2.1.5. Japan dep. threatened total collapse of country's industry. led Jap to take over Manchuria

2.1.6. Germany Nazi tactics involved promise to solve economic probs caused by depression (unemployment and poverty).

3. Structure

3.1. Council

3.1.1. 5 times p/year

3.1.2. permanent members; UK Fr It and Jap p/m's had a veto

3.1.3. temporary members; elected by assembly for 3 year blocks

3.1.4. powers moral condemnation choose aggressor and blame them economic/financial sanctions refuse to trade with this aggressor military force armed forces used against aggressor

3.2. Assembly

3.2.1. equiv of League's parliament

3.2.2. each country in League sent representative suggest action to Council

3.2.3. decisions unanimous met once a year

3.2.4. vote on... admitting new members appointing temp members to council budget of League ideas put forward by council

3.2.5. based in Switzerland

3.3. Secretariat

3.3.1. civil service, had specialist sections

4. Manchuria and Abbysinia

4.1. Manchuria '31

4.1.1. WHY increase Jap control in Manchuria resist Western armies, make Jap govt. rich and powerful like USA or UK solution to economic problems unhappy with treaty had expected more of Germany's empire, so started their own 'self defence' Chinese soldiers invaded Manchuria railway USA introduced tariffs which affected Jap needed access to raw materials and market for its goods, Manchuria provided that

4.1.2. League Reaction Lytton Committee took 12 months Japan already had control, 24.02.33 accepted by League criticised Jap, didnt reccommend trade ban or use of force moral condemnation used, Jap acted unlawfully and must return Manchuria to China WHY China far away eco sanctions wouldn't work UK worried about risk of fighting with Jap leading to loss of empire, India, Singapore, Hong Kong US and USSR had resourses to remove Japan from Manchuria France reluctant to get involed

4.1.3. Consequences Set example that aggression was acceptable League was powerless if a strong nation committed aggression and invaded neighbours, League couldn't do anything Manchuria conquered by Japan until '45

4.2. Abyssinia '35

4.2.1. WHY Mussolini wanted to draw attention away from difficulties govt. faced restore Italy's prestige to what it was at time of Roman empire in exchange for supporting Fr and UK in Europe he could attack Abyssinia without interference (Stresa Front, alliance against Germany) revenge from battle of Adawa already controlled territory in East Africa

4.2.2. importance of Hoare-Laval Pact British foreign secratary, Hoare and French PM, Laval had secret talks in return for calling off invasion they would be given (italy) 2/3 of Abyssinia League not consulted pact leaked to press pact delayed League's debate about sanction of oil League's main powers went around rules

4.2.3. League Reaction Suez Canal left open to Italian shipping imposed limited sanctions, banned arms saled to Italy, banned all loans to Italy and Imports from Italy banned exports of rubber, tin, metals to Italy delayed banning of oil supplies WHY Uk and Fr DONT want to alienate Italy and push her into having an alliance with Hitler (similar schools of thought) instead UK and Fr and It signed Stresa Front 35 to stand firm against Germany USA not in League Abyssinia nearer than Manchuria, can't be ignored

4.2.4. Consequences League broken aggression seemed to work Hitler marched into Rhineland 36 -Fr do nothing to potentially alienate Italy Nov 36 It and Germ sign Rome-Berlin axis to persue common interests Nov 36 It Germ and Jap sing ANti Soviet pact took opportunity to remilitarise Rhineland while main powers distracted with Abyssinia build up to WW2 League do nothing to prevent war

5. Success and Failures

5.1. Vilna

5.2. Success

5.2.1. Upper Silesia 1921 referrendum results: 700 000 Germany 500 000 Poland 1/3 to Poland and 2/3 to Germany

5.2.2. Aaland Isl. '21 3 isl between Sweden and Finland. both countries want control. most are Swedish but Finnish use as naval base give to Finland

5.2.3. French Ruhr invasion '23 Germany fell behind on reparations payments. Compensation: French invaded German industrial area of Ruhr, take coal etc (acceptable as this is agreed upon in TOV) Allow French to remain

5.2.4. Bulgaria '25 Greek troops invade Bulgaria after Greek soldiers killed on border between both countries Greeks must withdraw and pay compensation or sanctions will be imposed

5.3. Failure

5.3.1. Vilna '20 Poland and Lithuania, new, TOV creations, Vilna is capital of Lithuania, population Polish. Polish took it by force 1920 allow Poles to stay

5.3.2. Corfu Crisis '23 Italian killed on border between Greece and Albania, no one caught. mussolini, blamed Greek Govt. and demanded compensation. Greeks asked for help from League. Mussolini bombed Greek isl. of Corfu, 15 killed. Mussolini take isl. unless Greece pays Makes Greeks pay Italy

5.4. League a success in '20s

5.4.1. most disputes were minor countries

5.4.2. most countries remained members of League during this time (USA USSR are exceptions)

5.4.3. humanitarian work: popular and successful paint mosquito

5.4.4. decisions accepted by countries Bulgaria & Greece

5.4.5. TOV June 1919 League remained popular as there was no major challenge to treaty during '20s until '30s, when there was the rise of Germany, Italy and Japan