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Vegetation by Mind Map: Vegetation

1. Tropical Rainforests

1.1. structure

1.1.1. consist of five layers undergrowth shrub understorey canopy emergent

1.1.2. have tall, straight, thick trunks

1.1.3. "our ground is sparse and largely made up of grasses, ferns, mosses and fungi"

1.2. diversity

1.2.1. large variety one hectare, 750 species of trees and 1500 species of other plants

1.2.2. "my cousins are called Kerulng, Kapur, Chengal and Meranti"

1.3. density

1.3.1. extremely dense due to high temperature and rainfall

1.4. leaves

1.4.1. evergreen due to high rainfall

1.4.2. do not shed leaves

1.4.3. large and broad maximise surface area

1.4.4. drip-tip and waxy surface to prevent harmful bacteria and drain rainwater

1.5. rainfall and location

1.5.1. >1500 mm/year

1.5.2. 10 degree North and South

1.5.3. 27 degree celsius

2. Mangrove Forests

2.1. structure

2.1.1. 3 horizontal zones with no vertical layers 2metre-40metre average height is 15metre

2.2. diversity

2.2.1. grow on muddy and clayey soil e.g. Sea Hibiscus and Nipah Palm

2.3. density

2.3.1. dense and luxuriant due to high temperature and rainfall

2.3.2. continuous canopy hence competition for sunlight

2.3.3. sparse undergrowth

2.4. leaves

2.4.1. evergreen

2.4.2. broad with drip-tip allow water to flow off quickly

2.5. rainfall and location

2.5.1. coastal regions 23.5 degrees North and South in the tropics

3. Tropical Monsoon Forests

3.1. structure

3.1.1. consist of 3 layers canopy understorey undergrowth

3.2. diversity

3.2.1. 200 species in one hectare

3.2.2. "Teak, Sandalwood and Sals are my pals"

3.3. density

3.3.1. less dense than tropical rainforest but plant growth is abundant wet season very dense and luxuriant dry season appears sparse

3.4. leaves

3.4.1. deciduous shed leaves during dry seasons

3.4.2. waxy with drip-tips

3.5. rainfall and location

3.5.1. more than or equals to 1500 mm/year

3.5.2. 26 degree celsius

3.5.3. "you can find me at 10-25 degree North and South

4. Coniferous Forests

4.1. structure

4.1.1. no distinct layers grow tall and generally uniform in height

4.1.2. little undergrowth due to low amount of sunlight received

4.2. diversity

4.2.1. few species of trees due to not many plants being able to adapt to low temperatures only a single or mix of at most 2-3 species grow in an area

4.2.2. "my cousins are Pine, Spruce and Fir"

4.3. density

4.3.1. not dense due to low temperature in addition, precipitation cannot support dense vegetation growth

4.4. leaves

4.4.1. evergreen and do not shed leaves in autumn

4.4.2. "i'm always green and have needle like leaves"

4.5. rainfall and location

4.5.1. average of 20-21 degree celsius

4.5.2. 60 degree North - 70 degree North

4.5.3. "i love snow and don't mind even when its -40 degree celsius"

4.5.4. "i come from Alaska and my uncle lives in Sweden now"