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Methods by Mind Map: Methods

1. Fraud

1.1. Fabrication

1.1.1. Making up research data

1.2. Falsification

1.2.1. Manipulating research data

1.3. Plagiarism

1.3.1. Using ideas from others without source

2. Cycle of scientific thinking

2.1. Observation

2.1.1. Choice of object, research question, first data collection

2.2. Induction

2.2.1. propositions based on first data preliminary answer to the research question, based on first data collected

2.2.2. Observation > Pattern > Hypothesis > Theory

2.3. Deduction

2.3.1. hypotheses, conceptualization, operationalization the expected answer to the research question

2.3.2. Theory > Hypothesis > Observation > Confirmation

2.4. Testing

2.4.1. confrontation with reality (empirics)

2.5. Evaluation

2.5.1. feed back (research question, theory)

3. Research design

3.1. Types

3.1.1. by Goal Explorative research Exploratory research is a form of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Descriptive research Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. However, it does not answer questions about e.g.: how/when/why the characteristics occurred, which is done under analytic research. Hyptheses testing research H0, H1, etc. Interpretative research Interpretive studies assume that people create and associate their own subjective and intersubjective meanings as they interact with the world around them. Interpretive researchers thus attempt to understand phenomena through accessing the meanings participants assign to them Instrumental-nomologic research

3.1.2. by Time dimension Cross-section research Longitudinal research Trendstudies Cohort studies Panel studies

3.2. Choice

3.2.1. Methods Based on: Research question Theoretical frame Pragmatic aspects

3.2.2. Units of analysis Individuals Groups Organizations Social artefacts e.g. balance sheets e.g. riots e.g. songs/paintings

3.2.3. Based on: Oppertunities / difficulties Costs (both money & time)

3.3. Errors

3.3.1. Reductionism Making inferences about groups when using a individuals as unit of analysis.

3.3.2. Ecological fallacy (fallacy of the wrong level) Making inferences about individuals when using a group as unit of analysis.

4. Causality

4.1. Rationality (searching for insight into a complex world)

4.1.1. Natural science vs. Social science

4.1.2. Nomothetic vs. Idiographic Nomothetic Tendency to generalize Common for natural science Idiographic Tendency to specify Common for social science

4.2. Conditions

4.2.1. Idiograpgic explanations Credibility Lack of a better explanation

4.2.2. Nomothetic explanations Empirical correlation Time order No common cause (availability of a theory/explanation)

5. Conceptualization & Operationalization

5.1. Conceptialization

5.1.1. specifying the meaning of a certain term

5.1.2. looking for indicators & dimensions

5.2. Operationalization

5.2.1. specifying the measuresment of a theoretical concept

5.2.2. choosing features (attributes) of variables should exclude each other should complement each other should be exhaustive

5.3. Quality of the Research Instrument

5.3.1. precision

5.3.2. accuracy/truth

5.3.3. reliability test-retest method split-half method inter-personal tests

5.3.4. validity face-validity plausible, credible predictive (criterion-related) validity test external criterion contruct validity test other concept content validity covering complete content

6. Quality of quantative data

6.1. Survey errors

6.1.1. Research Design Design effects Object + research questions Presentation (e.g. anonymity) Research method Sampling design

6.1.2. Questionnaire Questionnaire effects Content of questions Order of questions Number/content of reply categories

6.1.3. Interviewer Interviewer effects Role independent Role dependent

6.1.4. Respondent Respondent effects Role independent Role dependent

6.1.5. Context Context effects The moment The scene

6.1.6. Interaction effects may strengthen or weaken each other (e.g. interviewer/respondent effect)

6.1.7. Non response

7. Qualitative research

7.1. Qualitative vs. Quantitative research

7.1.1. Qualitative Small scale Theoretical represent In-depth Valid

7.1.2. Quantitative Large scale Statistical representatation Superficial Reliable

7.2. Techniques of Qualitative research

7.2.1. Respondent selection Not statistical representative but theoretical representative Social map Snowball sampling Quota sampling

7.2.2. Respondent approach unobtrustive, trust is important.

7.2.3. Number of interviews Redundancy critereon

7.2.4. Item selection No questionnaire, eye&ear, during fieldwork

7.2.5. Protocols and Analasys Already during fieldwork Constant Comparative Method Grounded theory

7.2.6. Report follows analysis Usual errors Using percentages Mentioning numbers "the majority believes that"

7.2.7. Triangulation (complementary) Product variables vs. Process variables Qualitative preliminary research (exploration) Qualitative test research (questionnaires) Statistical frame for qualitative research Theory formation via induction!, then testing

8. Made by: Jan van Unnik


8.2. errors reserved