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Methods by Mind Map: Methods

1. Fraud

1.1. Fabrication

1.1.1. Making up research data

1.2. Falsification

1.2.1. Manipulating research data

1.3. Plagiarism

1.3.1. Using ideas from others without source

2. Cycle of scientific thinking

2.1. Observation

2.1.1. Choice of object, research question, first data collection

2.2. Induction

2.2.1. propositions based on first data

2.2.1.1. preliminary answer to the research question, based on first data collected

2.2.2. Observation > Pattern > Hypothesis > Theory

2.3. Deduction

2.3.1. hypotheses, conceptualization, operationalization

2.3.1.1. the expected answer to the research question

2.3.2. Theory > Hypothesis > Observation > Confirmation

2.4. Testing

2.4.1. confrontation with reality (empirics)

2.5. Evaluation

2.5.1. feed back (research question, theory)

3. Research design

3.1. Types

3.1.1. by Goal

3.1.1.1. Explorative research

3.1.1.1.1. Exploratory research is a form of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist.

3.1.1.2. Descriptive research

3.1.1.2.1. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. However, it does not answer questions about e.g.: how/when/why the characteristics occurred, which is done under analytic research.

3.1.1.3. Hyptheses testing research

3.1.1.3.1. H0, H1, etc.

3.1.1.4. Interpretative research

3.1.1.4.1. Interpretive studies assume that people create and associate their own subjective and intersubjective meanings as they interact with the world around them. Interpretive researchers thus attempt to understand phenomena through accessing the meanings participants assign to them

3.1.1.5. Instrumental-nomologic research

3.1.2. by Time dimension

3.1.2.1. Cross-section research

3.1.2.2. Longitudinal research

3.1.2.2.1. Trendstudies

3.1.2.2.2. Cohort studies

3.1.2.2.3. Panel studies

3.2. Choice

3.2.1. Methods

3.2.1.1. Based on:

3.2.1.1.1. Research question

3.2.1.1.2. Theoretical frame

3.2.1.1.3. Pragmatic aspects

3.2.2. Units of analysis

3.2.2.1. Individuals

3.2.2.2. Groups

3.2.2.3. Organizations

3.2.2.4. Social artefacts

3.2.2.4.1. e.g. balance sheets

3.2.2.4.2. e.g. riots

3.2.2.4.3. e.g. songs/paintings

3.2.3. Based on:

3.2.3.1. Oppertunities / difficulties

3.2.3.2. Costs (both money & time)

3.3. Errors

3.3.1. Reductionism

3.3.1.1. Making inferences about groups when using a individuals as unit of analysis.

3.3.2. Ecological fallacy (fallacy of the wrong level)

3.3.2.1. Making inferences about individuals when using a group as unit of analysis.

4. Causality

4.1. Rationality (searching for insight into a complex world)

4.1.1. Natural science vs. Social science

4.1.2. Nomothetic vs. Idiographic

4.1.2.1. Nomothetic

4.1.2.1.1. Tendency to generalize

4.1.2.1.2. Common for natural science

4.1.2.2. Idiographic

4.1.2.2.1. Tendency to specify

4.1.2.2.2. Common for social science

4.2. Conditions

4.2.1. Idiograpgic explanations

4.2.1.1. Credibility

4.2.1.2. Lack of a better explanation

4.2.2. Nomothetic explanations

4.2.2.1. Empirical correlation

4.2.2.2. Time order

4.2.2.3. No common cause

4.2.2.4. (availability of a theory/explanation)

5. Conceptualization & Operationalization

5.1. Conceptialization

5.1.1. specifying the meaning of a certain term

5.1.2. looking for indicators & dimensions

5.2. Operationalization

5.2.1. specifying the measuresment of a theoretical concept

5.2.2. choosing features (attributes) of variables

5.2.2.1. should exclude each other

5.2.2.2. should complement each other

5.2.2.3. should be exhaustive

5.3. Quality of the Research Instrument

5.3.1. precision

5.3.2. accuracy/truth

5.3.3. reliability

5.3.3.1. test-retest method

5.3.3.2. split-half method

5.3.3.3. inter-personal tests

5.3.4. validity

5.3.4.1. face-validity

5.3.4.1.1. plausible, credible

5.3.4.2. predictive (criterion-related) validity

5.3.4.2.1. test external criterion

5.3.4.3. contruct validity

5.3.4.3.1. test other concept

5.3.4.4. content validity

5.3.4.4.1. covering complete content

6. Quality of quantative data

6.1. Survey errors

6.1.1. Research Design

6.1.1.1. Design effects

6.1.1.1.1. Object + research questions

6.1.1.1.2. Presentation (e.g. anonymity)

6.1.1.1.3. Research method

6.1.1.1.4. Sampling design

6.1.2. Questionnaire

6.1.2.1. Questionnaire effects

6.1.2.1.1. Content of questions

6.1.2.1.2. Order of questions

6.1.2.1.3. Number/content of reply categories

6.1.3. Interviewer

6.1.3.1. Interviewer effects

6.1.3.1.1. Role independent

6.1.3.1.2. Role dependent

6.1.4. Respondent

6.1.4.1. Respondent effects

6.1.4.1.1. Role independent

6.1.4.1.2. Role dependent

6.1.5. Context

6.1.5.1. Context effects

6.1.5.1.1. The moment

6.1.5.1.2. The scene

6.1.6. Interaction effects

6.1.6.1. may strengthen or weaken each other (e.g. interviewer/respondent effect)

6.1.7. Non response

7. Qualitative research

7.1. Qualitative vs. Quantitative research

7.1.1. Qualitative

7.1.1.1. Small scale

7.1.1.2. Theoretical represent

7.1.1.3. In-depth

7.1.1.4. Valid

7.1.2. Quantitative

7.1.2.1. Large scale

7.1.2.2. Statistical representatation

7.1.2.3. Superficial

7.1.2.4. Reliable

7.2. Techniques of Qualitative research

7.2.1. Respondent selection

7.2.1.1. Not statistical representative but theoretical representative

7.2.1.1.1. Social map

7.2.1.1.2. Snowball sampling

7.2.1.1.3. Quota sampling

7.2.2. Respondent approach

7.2.2.1. unobtrustive, trust is important.

7.2.3. Number of interviews

7.2.3.1. Redundancy critereon

7.2.4. Item selection

7.2.4.1. No questionnaire, eye&ear, during fieldwork

7.2.5. Protocols and Analasys

7.2.5.1. Already during fieldwork

7.2.5.2. Constant Comparative Method

7.2.5.3. Grounded theory

7.2.6. Report follows analysis

7.2.6.1. Usual errors

7.2.6.1.1. Using percentages

7.2.6.1.2. Mentioning numbers

7.2.6.1.3. "the majority believes that"

7.2.7. Triangulation (complementary)

7.2.7.1. Product variables vs. Process variables

7.2.7.2. Qualitative preliminary research (exploration)

7.2.7.3. Qualitative test research (questionnaires)

7.2.7.4. Statistical frame for qualitative research

7.2.7.5. Theory formation via induction!, then testing

8. Made by: Jan van Unnik

8.1. http://about.me/ReadySteadyFlow

8.2. errors reserved