MITE6330 Mindmap

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MITE6330 Mindmap by Mind Map: MITE6330 Mindmap

1. ADDIE Stage: Analysis

1.1. The first stage of instructional design.

1.1.1. Needs Assessment

1.1.2. User/Audience Analysis

1.1.3. System/Technology Analysis

1.1.4. Content Analysis

1.1.5. Feasibility Analysis

1.1.6. Risk Analysis

1.2. The systematic study of a problem, or innovation, incorporating data and opinions from varied sources, in order to make effective decisions and recommendations about what should happen. (Rosset, 1990)

1.3. Use a questionnaire to ask client about all information we need for the product and on the proposal

2. ADDIE Stage: Design

2.1. Project Proposal

2.1.1. The proposal should cover • General Introduction • Statement of what the client wants form a learning technology • Statement of what the user needs • Description of the general treatment and reasons for choice • Variations on the treatment that are possible • Outline diagram of the proposed structure • Description of the human resources needed Work breakdown and schedule • Cost/payment structure Company statement of the limitations of the proposal

2.2. What Should Do in Design Stage?

2.2.1. Define a Goal

2.2.2. Conduct Instructional Analysis (Performance, Task, Content Analysis) • Analysis of job description • Analysis of job-related documents • Observation of people at work, directly or via recordning • Discussion with people about specific jobs • Extrapolation of tasks from a customer's stated training needs

2.2.3. Analysis Learners and Context

2.2.4. Write Performance/Learning Objectives Learning Objectives are statements that describe what a learner will be able to do as a result of learning. They are sometimes called : Learning Outcomes Performance Objectives Instructional Objectives Behavioral Objectives Specific Instructional Objectives Learning Objectives are also statements that describe what a learner will be able to do as a result of teaching. Learning Objectives should cover knowledge and skills Fact Concept Principle Process Procedure Reusable Learning Object Strategy (CISCO RLO Strategy)

2.2.5. Develop Assessment Strategy Drill and Practice Essays Problem Solving Tasks

2.2.6. Develop Instructional Strategy

2.2.7. Arrange Instructional Events Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction Gain attention Inform learners of objectives Stimulate recall of prior learning Present the content Provide “learning guidance” Elicit performance (practice). Provide feedback Assess performance Enhance retention and transfer to the job

2.2.8. Develop a set of Flowcharts Flowchart required to content all components which are going to have in the lesson. Each screen or component need to have one flowchart Organization Prepared for Developers

2.2.9. Develop Storyboards Storyboards are graphic organizers in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence.(wiki) Each elements in the flowchart need to have one storyboard Storyboard need to be reviewed by others Project Team Editor A Client A Content Mater Expert A Representative of A Real User Storyboard need to be evaluated for • Content accuracy, appropriateness, completeness, coverage • Media, presentation, interface, interaction and treatment • Pedagogical quality/Instructional design • Technical issues Multimedia Learning Theory (Mayer 2003) 3 Main Assumptions 10 Principles

2.2.10. Write Design Specifications Document A design specification provides explicit information about the requirements for a product and how the product is to be put together. Design specification must include all necessary drawings, dimensions, environmental factors, ergonomic factors, aesthetic factors, cost, maintenance that will be needed, quality, safety, documentation and description

2.2.11. Develop a Prototype Defination A prototype is an early sample or model built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design, electronics, and software programming. A prototype is designed to test and trial a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. Included Elements Interface Design Interaction Design Presentation Design Prototype Evaluation By Client By Design Team By Development Team By Real User

2.2.12. Review and Evaluate Project Documentation

3. Web 2.0 Technology

3.1. Web 2.0 websites allow users to do more than just retrieve information. By increasing what was already possible in "Web 1.0", they provide the user with more user-interface, software and storage facilities, all through their browser.

3.2. Web 2.0 applications tend to interact much more with the end user

3.3. The end user is not only a user of the application but also a participant

3.4. The key features of Web 2.0 include:

3.4.1. Folksonomy; free classification of information

3.4.2. A rich user experience

3.4.3. A user as a contributor

3.4.4. Long tail

3.4.5. User participation

3.4.6. Basic trust

3.4.7. Dispersion

3.5. Useages

3.5.1. Blogs and Wikies Blog Web-Based Publication No Technical Skills Needed Contain Text, Media, Links Digital Story Telling Wiki A wiki is a website which allows its users to add, modify, or delete its content via a web browser usually using a simplified markup language or a rich-text editor. Wikis are powered by wiki software. Most are created collaboratively. Wikipedia

3.5.2. Social Bookmarking and Social Repositories Social Bookmarking A social bookmarking service is a centralized online service which enables users to add, annotate, edit, and share bookmarks of web documents. This technology offers knowledge sharing solutions and a social platform for interactions and discussions. These tools enable users to collaboratively underline, highlight, and annotate an electronic text, in addition to providing a mechanism to write additional comments on the margins of the electronic document. Social Repositories

3.5.3. RSS Feeds and Podcasting RSS RSS Rich Site Summary (originally RDF Site Summary, often dubbed Really Simple Syndication) is a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works—such as blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video—in a standardized format. An RSS document (which is called a "feed", "web feed", or "channel") includes full or summarized text, plus metadata such as publishing dates and authorship. RSS feeds can be read using software called an "RSS reader", "feed reader", or "aggregator", which can be web-based, desktop-based, or mobile-device-based. Podcast A podcast is a type of digital media consisting of an episodic series of audio radio, video, PDF, or ePub files subscribed to and downloaded through web syndication or streamed online to a computer or mobile device. Podcasts are distributed by using either RSS or Atom syndication format.

3.5.4. "Web as a platform" applications This MindMeister Google Doc

3.5.5. Mashups and Open Source Open Source Opening the source code enabled a self-enhancing diversity of production models, communication paths, and interactive communities. The open-source software movement arose to clarify the environment that the new copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues created. Android Open Office Mashups A mashup, in web development, is a web page, or web application, that uses and combines data, presentation or functionality from two or more sources to create new services. Top APIs for Mashups

3.5.6. Social Networking Facebook Twitter

3.5.7. Possibilities for application in support of research activities

4. Learning Theory

4.1. Behaviorism

4.1.1. Defination Stimulus & Response Mind process is not important All behaviour caused by external stimuli Teachers Present, Design Practice, Give Feedback when Student respond Learner Learner starts off with a clean slate. Receive what teacher given, Continously Practice, Give response

4.1.2. Focus The knowledge Obvious Cause and Effect relationship

4.1.3. Application Example Teach a dog how to shake hands Teach little baby how to use spoon to eat

4.1.4. Outcomes: Like most traditional teaching methods on Mainland China: just remember A+B=C but 'Why' is not so important.

4.1.5. Summary Based on stimulus and response. The learner is passive and starts off with a clean slate. Behaviour is shaped through positive/negative reinforcement, both of which will increase probability of behaviour happening again In contrast, punishment will decrease change of behaviour happening again Learning is defined as a change in behaviour of the learner

4.2. Cognitivism

4.2.1. Defination Mind as Information Processor Mind Representations Teachers Transfer knowledge through cognitive strategies Learner Remember rules, patterns, strategies

4.2.2. Focus Long Term, Short Term, and Working memory

4.2.3. Application Example Learning how to drive Learning how to play tennis

4.2.4. Outcomes Nowadays

4.2.5. Summary Learner as an information processor Mind is a 'Black Box' that should be opened and understood Focuses on inner mental activities and thinking, memory, problem solving need to be explored to see how ppl learn Knowledge seen as a schema (mental constructions) Learning as a change in the a learners schemata (ideas, thoughts or the world etc)

4.3. Constructivism

4.3.1. Defination Construct knowledge with assimilation and accomendation Knowledge is inseparable by knower Social constructivism involved from cognitive constructivism "cognitive constructivism" which is about how the individual learner understands things, in terms of developmental stages and learning styles "social constructivism", which emphasises how meanings and understandings grow out of social encounters

4.3.2. Forcus Learning is active process that involves personal discoveries

4.3.3. Application Example Whole Language Learning Classroom: Some open source forum for software design or information technology: we can show what we know and discuss with others about what we don't know or help others to solve their questions

4.3.4. Summary Learning is an active process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it Knowledge is constructed from personal experiences and interpretation of the environment Learners continuously test their hypothese through social interaction and negotiation Everybody has their own different interpretation and knowledge construction process Learners use past experiences to help interpret knowledge so learning is not a blank slate

4.4. Learning from Technology: Instructivist Models

4.5. Learning with Technology: Constructivist Models

5. ID Models

5.1. Liner Model (By Dick & Carey 1990)

5.1.1. Identify Instructional Goals

5.1.2. Conduct Instructional Analysis

5.1.3. Identify Entry Behaviouries, Characteristics

5.1.4. Write Performance Objectives

5.1.5. Develop Criterion-Referenced Test Items

5.1.6. Develop Instructional Strategy

5.1.7. Develop and Select Instructional Materials

5.1.8. Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation

5.1.9. Design and Conduct Summative Evalutation

5.2. Rapid Prototyping Model (By Tripp & Bichelmeyer 1990)

5.2.1. Access Needs & Analyze Content

5.2.2. Set Objectives

5.2.3. Construct Prototype (Design)

5.2.4. Utilize Prototype (Research)

5.2.5. Install & Maintain System

5.3. Oval Model (By Kemp 1985)

5.3.1. Learning Needs, Goals, Priorities/Constraints

5.4. Top-to-Bottom Model (By Braden 1996)

5.4.1. Determine Needs & Goals

5.4.2. Goals Analysis & Conduct Student Analysis

5.4.3. Write Performance Objectives & Write Tests

5.4.4. Develop Instructional Stratege

5.4.5. Develop Instructional Materials

5.4.6. Pilot Test

5.4.7. Finalize Instructional Materials

5.5. Spiral Model (By Romiszowski 1981)

5.5.1. Define Task

5.5.2. Risk Assessment / Rapid Prototype

5.5.3. Analysis

5.5.4. Plan Next Steps

5.6. The Four-Component ID Model (4C/ID-Model) (van Merriënboer. Clark. & Croock, 2002)

5.6.1. 4 Components Learning Tasks Concrete, authentic, whole task experiences that are provided to learners in order to promote schema construction for non-recurrent aspects and, to a certain degree, rule automation by compilation for recurrent aspects. Design Steps Supportive Information Information that is supportive to the learning and performance of non-recurrent aspects of learning tasks. Design Steps Just-In-Time(JIT) Information Information that is prerequisite to the learning and performance of recurrent aspects of learning tasks. Design Steps Part-Task Practice Practice items that are provided to learners in order to promote rule automation for selected recurrent aspects of the whole complex skill. Design Step

5.7. Learning by Doing / Case-Based Reasoning

5.7.1. Tell me, and I'll forget. Show me, and I may not remember. Involve me, and I'll understand. (荀子曰:“不闻不若闻之, 闻之不若见之, 见之不若知之, 知之不若行之, 学至于行而止也。“)

5.7.2. Theory Based on: Learning to do (skills), not just to know (factual knowledge); Learning that occurs in the context of a goal that is relevant, meaningful, and interesting to the student; Content knowledge that is learned in the context of relevant tasks closely related to how students will use it outside the learning environment.

5.7.3. Kolb Learning Cycle Concrete Experience (doing / having an experience) Reflective Observation (reviewing / reflecting on the experience) Abstract Conceptualisation (concluding / learning from the experience) Active Experimentation (planning / trying out what you have learned)

5.7.4. Dufour's "Lerning by Doing" Experience: the activity Share: the results, reactions, and the observations publicly Process: discussing, looking at the experience, reflection, analysis Generalize: connect experience to real-world examples Apply: apply what have learned to similar or different situation; practice

5.8. Resource-Based Learning

5.8.1. 4 Key Components of a Learning Environment: Resources and Tools, Activity (Task), Support, Evaluation

5.9. Jonassen's Constructivist Learning Environment (CLE)

5.9.1. the essential components in the constructivist learning environments include: Problem, question or project as the focus of the environment; the focus on problem, question or project constitutes a learning goal driving the learning process. The desired quality of this driving power is to be interesting, relevant and authentic.

5.9.2. The model conceives of a problem, question, or project as the focus of the environment, with various interpretative and intellectual support systems surrounding it.

5.9.3. The goal of the learner is to interpret and solve the problem or complete the project.

5.9.4. Related cases and information resources support understanding of the problem and suggest possible solutions; cognitive tools help learners to interpret and manipulate aspects of the problem; conversation/collaboration tools enable communities of learners to negotiate and co-construct meaning for the problem; and social/contextual support systems help users to implement the CLE.

5.9.5. 3 major components need to be included in the design of the problem The problem context: a description of the physical, organization, and sociocultural context in which the problem occur should be represented to the learners. The problem representation or simulation: the principle of representing the problem is to make the representation interesting, appealing and engaging. The representation of the problem needs to be authentic to "present the same types of cognitive challenges as those in the real world,"as well as to be interesting and relevant to the learners so that they can engage in solving the problems. The problem manipulation space: meaningful learning needs to be a mindful activity, in which the learners are provided opportunities to manipulate objects and interact with the environment. The problem manipulation spaces exactly provide such opportunities. They can be the causal models for students to test the effects of the manipulation by receiving feedback in the changes of the physical objects or the simulation, or they can be the students' argumentation to support their solutions to problems.

6. Instructional Learning Design

6.1. What's Instructional Design?

6.1.1. Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the practice of creating "instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing". ( Merrill, M. D., Drake, L., Lacy, M. J., Pratt, J., & ID2_Research_Group)

6.2. Who's Instructional Designer?

6.2.1. Designs and develops instructional material for specified client

6.2.2. Demonstrates and utilizes effective needs analysis, project management, course development, and evaluation skills.

6.2.3. Technology knowledge and skills. More than 3 years related working experiences at least.

6.3. Instructional Design v.s. Lesson Planning

6.3.1. A lesson plan is the instructor’s road map of what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during the class time.

6.3.2. Instructional Design includes lesson planning but also the whole production and more about the development

6.4. LT Productions

6.4.1. Educational Institutions ICT in Class & Partly e-Learning Flexible Learning Distance Education Education Staff Development

6.4.2. Commercial Environment Solve own training needs Provide specialized e-training Develop digital content for sale Develop custom solutions for client

6.4.3. e-Books, iTunesU, Podcast, Multimedia Packages, Blended Learning packages, Distance Learning Objects, Educational Digital Videos or websites, games and electrical devices.

6.5. Project Development Stage:ADDIE

6.5.1. Analysis

6.5.2. Design

6.5.3. Development

6.5.4. Implementation

6.5.5. Evaluation