VENICE - A Great City-State of Its Time

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VENICE - A Great City-State of Its Time by Mind Map: VENICE - A Great City-State of Its Time

1. Rise Of Venice

1.1. Leadership

1.1.1. Establishing control in the Adriatic Sea Doge Pietro II Orseolo Reconciled feuding cities Negotiated treaties w/ major powers Subdued pirates in Dalmatia Established diplomatic relations

1.1.2. Building the Venetian Empire Doge Enrico Dandolo Directed Fourth Crusade

1.1.3. Expanding the Venetian Empire in the Mediterranean Sea Set up military outposts along impt. trade routes Strengthened V's military presence Strengthened V's economic (commercial) influence

1.2. Reforms in the Government

1.2.1. Meeting the challenges of a growing city-state C: met needs of people + maintained themselves Creation of the Great Council 12th century Settle disputes btw members of different councils Passed laws Meted out punishments Granted pardon to criminals Specialisation of duties A: to competition to serve in govt Council of Forty 60-member Senate A: expansion of trade & establishment of foreign relations

1.2.2. Maintaining checks and balances Effective checks on power Council of Ten Limiting power of doge Preventing the concentration of power Added Nominating Committee Nobles couldn't

1.3. Trade Developments and Expansion

1.3.1. Attitude towards trade Good attitude > Innovation > More efficient > Topple competition Skilled diplomats A: Maintained competitive edge Enterprising Spirit Took calculated risks Spirit of curiosity > Innovate > Explore regions Explored new trade routes, supplies + markets Allowed V to expand its trade > Wealth > V = great city!

1.3.2. Innovations in maritime technology C: Allowed them to adapt too Advanced in areas of navigation + weaponry on ships Galleys/Vessels > Travel to unexplored areas/regions > EVEN IN WINTER + DARKNESS > V could, others couldnt As a result, Venetians were not affected by challenging natural and climatic conditions Superior Vessels Rowed by Oarsmen Propelled by oars and sails Merchant + Battle fleets could travel further

1.3.3. Efficiency in managing voyages C: Organised and monitored schedule of trade voyages A: Travelled in convoys More profitable to trade in larger quantities Safer (Pirates)

1.3.4. Overcoming trade competition Main competitor: Genoa G vs V: conflict of political & commercial inerests Resulted in many wars Late 14th Century: V defeated G

1.3.5. Trade monopoly Used overland + sea routes to trade in Arabian ports (Alexandria + Hormuz) Provided a large variety of goods from East European states HAD to buy from V

1.4. Industrial Development

1.4.1. Trade-related Industry shipbuilders were centralised at Arsenal A: Prevent overcrowding + minimise noise pollution at Bacino San Marco Eventually became backbone of V's maritime industry + power

1.4.2. Manufacturing Industries Manufacturing industries Glassmaking Candles + Scented soap A: serve large reading public in V Started printing industry Extensive trade made it easy to find buyers for goods + obtain supplies (like paper) C: created job opportunities attracted skilled craftsmen

1.5. Innovative Practices

1.5.1. Double-entry bookkeeping A: made trading easier Useful system Record business transactions Standardises credit and debit columns and entries

1.5.2. Giro-banking A: don't have to carry large amounts of money or carry different currencies Make/receive payment by making request at the bank Carry out several transactions in a day Check for sufficient funds

2. Fall Of Venice

2.1. Foreign Threats

2.1.1. New empires rise, old empires fall

2.1.2. Involvement in the mainland Mainland territories supply V w/ essential resources (food + water) Needed to secure & maintain supply of resources (did not have natural resources) for growing population and expanding industries Protect territories and commercial interests Took advantage of rivalry among mainland states A: Tried to achieve balance of power by (C:) helping one fight against the other V was at high risk Rivalry among mainland states

2.1.3. The Ottoman Empire Expanded in the 13th Century Replaced Genoa as V's #1 competitor for maritime control by 15th Century V could not face large Ottoman armies on their own Involvement in mainland drained V's energy and resources Had to give up some less impt. territories to avoid further losses Ottomans acquired territories along coast of Adriatic Sea Ottomans launched attacks at Venetian territories Fought 7 year war with Venetians for control of Aegean Sea and Adriatic Sea Drained Venice's resources and manpower Disrupted trade Balance of Power Ottomans Other European States European neighbours developed deep hostility for V 1463, Military campaign against the Ottomans V was left to fight on their own against Ottomans cause of RESENTMENT by other European states Other states didn't provide V with military support as promised 1470, V lost Negroponte to Ottomans - impt Eastern trade outpost Challenged V for maritime and trade control in 16th and 17th Centuries

2.1.4. The League of Cambrai formed in 1508, a military alliance against V Spain, Hungary and France Aims Reduce power of Venice Divide V's territories amongst larger states Defeated Agnadello (Venetian mercenary army) badly Many of V's territories fell to members of the League Tested V's political and military capabilities New node Changing alliances among members Allowed V to create new alliances with some states Allowed V to recapture some of its own territories through renewed military campaigns No unity (like LON, Arab League)

2.2. Maritime Competition

2.2.1. Discovery of New Sea Routes Age of exploration and discovery Competition to search for new maritime trade routes European explorers V expanded trade to North Sea region and maintained trade links with England

2.2.2. New Trade Rivals Dutch East India Company Bypassed V to get to East for supplies English East India Company Brought cotton & pepper from India and tea & porcelain from China Dutch & British had better-designed ships Imitate design of ships < V tried to stay competitive A: to challenges by imposing protectionist policy

2.3. Political Challenges

2.3.1. Incapable Leadership Govt Fighting battles

2.3.2. Corruption in the Govt

2.3.3. Over-dependence on mercenaries Mercenaries not loyal to Venice

2.4. Social Challenges

2.4.1. Widening income gap

2.5. The Fall of Venice

2.5.1. Failed to respond to internal and external changes

2.5.2. Causes Weakening government Gradual loss of important overseas territories, like Constantinople Discovery of New Trade Routes Rise of Bigger + More powerful European Nations Nobles' Absence of Fighting Spirit

2.5.3. DIED ON 12 MAY 1797

3. Peak of Development

3.1. Territorial Possessions

3.1.1. Along impt trade routes esp around Mediterranean sea

3.1.2. Allowed V great galleys to replenish supplies w/o incurring more costs

3.1.3. Strengthen maritime authority over Mediterranean region

3.1.4. "Queen of the Adriatic Sea"

3.2. Social Transformation

3.2.1. Cosmopolitan city-state Wealth + Recognition Easy to conduct commercial activities Attracted foreign traders who eventually settled down in V Faced serious labour shortage in manual occupations (galley oarsmen) C: V govt promoted migration into V Offered merchants + skilled craftsmen special incentives (housing + citizenship to live in V)

3.2.2. Artistic Achievements Centre of arts in Europe Famous of mosaic art

3.2.3. Scientific & Literary Developments Physics, medicine, law and psychology. Then Astrology and astronomy Nobles enrolled in popular University courses (law & medicine) C: V govt provided funds to attract distinguished professors Made V universities more repuable + attracted many foreign students V professors travelled overseas then returned to teach in universities No pri/sec education Young V nobles learnt through apprenticeship, private tutoring or by accompanying elder members of the family on business trips or naval missions

3.3. Economic Prosperity

3.3.1. Guilds were created Ensure job security Ensure quality of goods produced remained high

3.3.2. V goods were renowned for their quality Increased Trade < Resulted in higher demand More trade = Higher income