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VENICE - A Great City-State of Its Time by Mind Map: VENICE - A Great City-State of Its Time
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VENICE - A Great City-State of Its Time

Rise Of Venice

Leadership

Establishing control in the Adriatic Sea, Doge Pietro II Orseolo, Reconciled feuding cities, Negotiated treaties w/ major powers, Subdued pirates in Dalmatia, Established diplomatic relations

Building the Venetian Empire, Doge Enrico Dandolo, Directed Fourth Crusade, Originally, Military campaign to free Jerusalem from Muslim control, In the end, Overthrow Byzantine Emperor, Take over capital at Constantinople, Venice gained recognition from other states, Turning point in Venice's history, weakened Byzantine Empire, Helped venice rise further

Expanding the Venetian Empire in the Mediterranean Sea, Set up military outposts along impt. trade routes, Strengthened V's military presence, Strengthened V's economic (commercial) influence

Reforms in the Government

Meeting the challenges of a growing city-state, C: met needs of people + maintained themselves, Creation of the Great Council, 12th century, Settle disputes btw members of different councils, Passed laws, Meted out punishments, Granted pardon to criminals, Specialisation of duties, A: to competition to serve in govt, Council of Forty, handled, matters of law, finances, coinage, 60-member Senate, handled, foreign relations, commerce, operations of Venetian fleets, A: expansion of trade & establishment of foreign relations

Maintaining checks and balances, Effective checks on power, Council of Ten, Doge, 6 Ducal Councillors, 3 Heads of Council of Forty, Monitored activities of organisations and officials, Ensure no corrupt practices or abuse of power, Handled confidential & critical matters, ended uprisings, handled cases of treason, Limiting power of doge, Preventing the concentration of power, Added Nominating Committee, A: Prevent any individual or family from dominating govt, Nobles couldn't, Campaign for support in the election, Rivalry discouraged, Couldn't be appointed cause of personal favour, Reject positions, A: Ensured all positions of responsibility were filled up

Trade Developments and Expansion

Attitude towards trade, Good attitude > Innovation > More efficient > Topple competition, Skilled diplomats, A: Maintained competitive edge, Enterprising Spirit, Took calculated risks, Spirit of curiosity > Innovate > Explore regions, Explored new trade routes, supplies + markets, Allowed V to expand its trade > Wealth > V = great city!

Innovations in maritime technology, C: Allowed them to adapt too, Advanced in areas of navigation + weaponry on ships, Galleys/Vessels > Travel to unexplored areas/regions > EVEN IN WINTER + DARKNESS > V could, others couldnt, As a result, Venetians were not affected by challenging natural and climatic conditions, Superior Vessels, Rowed by Oarsmen, Sail swiftly over long distances, Propelled by oars and sails, Merchant + Battle fleets could travel further

Efficiency in managing voyages, C: Organised and monitored schedule of trade voyages, A: Travelled in convoys, More profitable to trade in larger quantities, Safer (Pirates)

Overcoming trade competition, Main competitor: Genoa, G vs V: conflict of political & commercial inerests, Resulted in many wars, Late 14th Century: V defeated G, V could control Mediterranean sea and gain more international trade

Trade monopoly, Used overland + sea routes to trade in Arabian ports (Alexandria + Hormuz), Provided a large variety of goods from East, European states HAD to buy from V

Industrial Development

Trade-related Industry, shipbuilders were centralised at Arsenal, A: Prevent overcrowding + minimise noise pollution at Bacino San Marco, Eventually became backbone of V's maritime industry + power

Manufacturing Industries, Manufacturing industries, Glassmaking, Candles + Scented soap, A: serve large reading public in V, Started printing industry, Extensive trade made it easy to find buyers for goods + obtain supplies (like paper), C: created job opportunities, attracted skilled craftsmen

Innovative Practices

Double-entry bookkeeping, A: made trading easier, Useful system, Record business transactions, Standardises credit and debit columns and entries

Giro-banking, A: don't have to carry large amounts of money or carry different currencies, Make/receive payment by making request at the bank, Carry out several transactions in a day, Check for sufficient funds

Fall Of Venice

Foreign Threats

New empires rise, old empires fall

Involvement in the mainland, Mainland territories supply V w/ essential resources (food + water), Needed to secure & maintain supply of resources (did not have natural resources) for growing population and expanding industries, Protect territories and commercial interests, Took advantage of rivalry among mainland states, A: Tried to achieve balance of power by (C:) helping one fight against the other, Created alliances with large states (France, Spain who were feuding) when occasion suited its interest, V was at high risk, Constantly treading on fragile relations < Act of switching alliance, If negotiations fails, V could come under attack, No certainty which alliance would ultimately benefit V, A: deal with challenge, V equipped herself with a strong army (mercenaries bcoz V has a small population), Rivalry among mainland states, Overland trade route unsafe, Constant battles were being fought in region, V depended on these commercial crossroads for trade & wealth

The Ottoman Empire, Expanded in the 13th Century, Replaced Genoa as V's #1 competitor for maritime control by 15th Century, V could not face large Ottoman armies on their own, Involvement in mainland drained V's energy and resources, Had to give up some less impt. territories to avoid further losses, Ottomans acquired territories along coast of Adriatic Sea, Ottomans launched attacks at Venetian territories, V fought hard to maintain control of the Adriatic Sea, V had to use galleys to fight off attacks, Galleys could not be use for trading purposes, Fought 7 year war with Venetians for control of Aegean Sea and Adriatic Sea, Drained Venice's resources and manpower, Disrupted trade, Galleys were used by govt for war against Ottomans, Traders feared loss of trading privileges, Ottomans impose high tariffs on Venetian traders in ports they control, V could not earn profit from trade, Traders protected by Ottomans had lower tariffs imposed on them, Balance of Power, Ottomans, Willing to give concessions to Ottomans whenever suited to V's interests, Other European States, Seek military aid from other European states to fight Ottomans to defend territories, European neighbours developed deep hostility for V, 1463, Military campaign against the Ottomans, V was left to fight on their own against Ottomans cause of RESENTMENT by other European states, Other states didn't provide V with military support as promised, 1470, V lost Negroponte to Ottomans - impt Eastern trade outpost, Challenged V for maritime and trade control in 16th and 17th Centuries

The League of Cambrai, formed in 1508, a military alliance against V, Spain, Hungary and France, Aims, Reduce power of Venice, Divide V's territories amongst larger states, Defeated Agnadello (Venetian mercenary army) badly, Many of V's territories fell to members of the League, Tested V's political and military capabilities, Negotiated for separate peace with some states by giving concessions (territories and wealth), New node, Changing alliances among members, Allowed V to create new alliances with some states, Allowed V to recapture some of its own territories through renewed military campaigns, No unity (like LON, Arab League)

Maritime Competition

Discovery of New Sea Routes, Age of exploration and discovery, Competition to search for new maritime trade routes, European explorers, Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, 1497, Vasco da Gama, Discovered new route to India, Go round Cape of Good Hope, Bought spices directly, Bypassed Venice, destroyed V's monopoly of lucrative spice trade, greatly reduced V's profits, V expanded trade to North Sea region and maintained trade links with England

New Trade Rivals, Dutch East India Company, Bypassed V to get to East for supplies, English East India Company, Brought cotton & pepper from India and tea & porcelain from China, Dutch & British had better-designed ships, Imitate design of ships < V tried to stay competitive, V sailors had no skill to operate, A: to challenges by imposing protectionist policy

Political Challenges

Incapable Leadership, Govt, Fighting battles

Corruption in the Govt

Over-dependence on mercenaries, Mercenaries not loyal to Venice

Social Challenges

Widening income gap

The Fall of Venice

Failed to respond to internal and external changes

Causes, Weakening government, Gradual loss of important overseas territories, like Constantinople, Discovery of New Trade Routes, Rise of Bigger + More powerful European Nations, Nobles' Absence of Fighting Spirit

DIED ON 12 MAY 1797

Peak of Development

Territorial Possessions

Along impt trade routes, esp around Mediterranean sea

Allowed V great galleys to replenish supplies w/o incurring more costs

Strengthen maritime authority over Mediterranean region

"Queen of the Adriatic Sea"

Social Transformation

Cosmopolitan city-state, Wealth + Recognition, Easy to conduct commercial activities, Attracted foreign traders who eventually settled down in V, Faced serious labour shortage in manual occupations (galley oarsmen), C: V govt promoted migration into V, Offered merchants + skilled craftsmen special incentives (housing + citizenship to live in V)

Artistic Achievements, Centre of arts in Europe, Famous of mosaic art

Scientific & Literary Developments, Physics, medicine, law and psychology. Then Astrology and astronomy, Nobles enrolled in popular University courses (law & medicine), C: V govt provided funds to attract distinguished professors, Made V universities more repuable + attracted many foreign students, V professors travelled overseas then returned to teach in universities, No pri/sec education, Young V nobles learnt through apprenticeship, private tutoring or by accompanying elder members of the family on business trips or naval missions

Economic Prosperity

Guilds were created, Ensure job security, Ensure quality of goods produced remained high

V goods were renowned for their quality, Increased Trade < Resulted in higher demand, More trade = Higher income