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Organic Chemistry by Mind Map: Organic Chemistry
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Organic Chemistry

Homologous Series

Alcohols

good solvents, Polar

Classing, Primary, Oxidised by Potassium Dichromate to form aldehydes, then again to form carboxylic acids, 0/1 other carbon attached to carbon that is attached to functional group, Secondary, 2 carbons attached carbon that is attached to functional group, Oxidised to keytones which cannot undergo further oxidation, Tertiary, cannot be oxidised, 3 carbons attached...

Keytones

formed by oxidation of secondary alcohols

Alkenes

reactive, C=C has lower bond enthalpy than C-C, Addition reactions, Because Alkenes are unsaturated, Bromination, Hydration, Hydrogenation, Addition polymerisation

Cyclo-alkanes

Alkanes

Unreactive, Strong C-C and C-H bonds, low polarity, Only readily undergo combustion reactions with oxygen., Substitution reactions with halogens under U.V. light

Aldehyde

Formed by oxidation of primary alcohols

carboxylic acid

can be formed by oxidation of aldehydes

Halogenoalkanes

Alkene + Halogen

Alkene + Hydrogen Halide

Alkane + Halogen (U.V. Light)

Can be categorised

Very useful intermediates in organic chemistry

Functional Groups

Hydroxyl group

R-OH

Carboxyl group

R-COOH

amino group

R-NH2

amine group

ester linkage

HCOO

amide link

Naming organic compounds

identify longest carbon chain

1 carbon = meth-

2 carbons = eth-

3 carbons = prop- ect.

identify type of bonding in the chain or ring

Identify functional group

Formulae

Structural formula

full, showing all bonds and structure

Shortened structural formula

Skeletal formula showing grouped sets e.g. CH3CH2CH3

Molecular formula

Just showing ratio of elements in organic molecule

Benzene

Formula C6H6

Structure

Delocalised electrons above and below the ring

Carbon to carbon bonds are all the same length

Molecule is planar (flat)

Many consumer products contain benzene rings

Products that contain benzene are called aromatic compounds

One of the main uses of aromatic compounds is in petrol.