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Salt Preparation by Mind Map: Salt Preparation
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Salt Preparation

Salt to be prepared is not soluble

Precipitation

Starting Materials, A soluble salt containing the basic component, Another soluble salt containing the required acidic component, Alternatively, an acid can be used

Process, Mix the 2 solutions, Filter the product, The insoluble salt forms as a precipitate (the residue), Liquid solution is called the supernate (the filtrate)

Salt to be prepared is soluble

Salt is a sodium, potassium or ammonium salt

Titration & Neutralision, Process, Place alkali in a burette and known amount of acid in a beaker, Add indicator to acid in beaker, Phenolphthalein, Universal indicator, Bromothymol blue, Red litmus paper, pH meter, Add acid to alkali until reaction is complete, i.e. neutralisation takes place, Record the volume of alkali used, Repeat again, this time without the indicator, Repitition prevents the salt from being contaminated by indicator, Starting Materials, An acid and an alkali

All such salts are soluble, Impossible to obtain a insoluble, solid reactant

Salt is otherwise

Process, Acid is added into beaker and warmed, Warmer acid reacts faster, Increased rate of effective collisions, Add solid reactant in excess, stirring it, Adding in excess ensures all acid has reacted, Prevents contamination of final salt, Stirring increases the rate of reaction, Increased contact surface area between reactants, Filter mixture, Filtrate is salt solution, Residue is unreacted solid reactant

Starting materials, An acid, Solid insoluble reactant, Insoluble metal oxides, Metal carbonates, Metals, cannot be used if the metal is, unreactive, copper, silver, highly reactive, potassium, sodium

What are salts?

Ionic Compound (neutral)

Cation (Positively Charged Ions), Examples are (for salts):, Na+ (sodium ion), Mg2+ (magnesium ion), K+ (potassium ion)

Anion (Negatively Charged Ions), Examples are (for salts):, CH3COO- (ethanoate), SO4 2- (sulphate), NO3- (nitrate), Cl-(chloride)

Formed when a metallic ion replaces one or more hydrogen ions in an acid

Examples are:, sulphates, formed from sulphuric acid (H2SO4), chlorides, formed from hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitrates, formed from nitric acid (HNO3), carbonates, formed from carbonic acid (H2CO3), ethanoates, formed from ethanoic/acetic acid (CH3COOH), fluorides, formed from hydrofluoric acid (HF)

Objective

To obtain a pure, crystallised, hydrated sample of a salt

Steps taken

Obtaining a pure salt solution

Crystallising the solution

Obtain crystallised sample

Heat filtrate until solution is saturated and leave it to cool

Test for saturation by dipping cold, glass rod, Crystals will form if solution is saturated

Crystals will only form from cool solutions

Dry crystals by pressing them between sheets of filter paper

Heating to dryness will cause crystals to lose water of crystallisation, They will then become powders, E.g. copper sulphate, Anhydrous copper sulphate is a white powder, Hydrated copper suphate is in the form of blue crystals