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Homeostasis by Mind Map: Homeostasis
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Homeostasis

Endocrine System

Pituitary Gland

Anterior Pituitary (Master gland that produces many hormones essential to the body), ACTH, Stimulates the Adrenal Cortex, FSH, Stimulates ovarian follicle development in females and spermatogenesis in males, LH, Stimulates corpus luteum development in females and testosterone development in males, TSH/TRH, Stimulates thyroid to release hromones

Posterior Pituitary (Lesser master gland that secretes some hormones and also acts as a storage sac for these hormones), Oxytocin, Stimulates various contractions such as lactation in mammary glands, ADH (Vasopressin), Increases water and ion retention rates in kidney

Adrenal Glands

Adrenal Cortex (releases long term coping agents), Mineralcorticoids, e.g. Aldosterone that manages directly sodium absorption and indirectly water reabsorption, Regulates water and ion balance, Glucocorticoids, Manages immune system and metabolic processes, e.g. cortisone

Adrenal Medulla (releases short term coping agents, Norepinphrine, Performs similar function as to epinphrine, Epinphrine, Evokes "Fight or Flight" response in the sympathetic nervous system. Heightens breathing, heart rates etc.

Thyroid Glands

Parathyroid Glands, Calcitonin, Regulates calcium levels in blood, PTH, Regulates calcium levels in blood

Thyroxine (T3), Controls rate of Metabolism

Triiodothyronine (T4), Controls rate of Metabolism

Pancreas

Islets of Langerhans, Alpha Cells, Glucagon, Converts stored Glycogen into Glucose, Beta Cells, Insulin, Converts excess Glucose into Glycogen

Hypothalamus

Detects changes in the body and signals the pituitary glands to release various hormones

GnRH (LnRH), Stimulates release of FSH and LH in anterior pituitary

Female Reproductive System

Menstrual Cycle, Process, Corpus Luteum, Produces Progesterone and Estrogen, Developed by LH stimulation, Eventually becomes Corpus Albicans

Male Reproductive System

Spermatogenesis, Process

Disorders

Goiter, Inflammation of thyroid glands caused by lack of Iodine and overstimulation of glands TSH

Addison's Disease, A disorder of the adrenal glands that causes low levels of hormone production

Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus, Low Insulin results in excess carbohydrates not being stored and is passed into urine, Diabetes Insipidus, Water retention rate is extremely reduced which results in constant need for urination due to damage of the glomerulus

Bright's Disease (Nephritis), Inflammation and subsequent destruction/impairment of glomerulus function

Action Mechanisms of Hormones

Protein Hormones, These polar molecules are received outside the cell membrane by a receptor protein

Lipid Hormones, These non-polar molecules are received inside the cell membrane

Cyclic AMP, Key intermediate in enzyme activation

Nervous System

Central Nervous System

Brain, Hosts many of the conscious functions of the body such as thought and memory and autonomic functions such as heart rate and breathing in the medulla oblongata

Spinal Cord, Hosts many autonomic functions of the body such as quick reflex arcs and acts as a transmitter/relayer of nerve pulses to the brain

Peripheral Nervous System

Nerve Impulses

Saltatory Conduction, Myelin Sheaths, insulates the nerve so that the pulse conducts to the next node of ranvier, Nodes of Ranvier, Spaces myelin sheaths and provides the succesive destinations for the saltatory pulses

Summation, The combination of the electrical pulses of many nerves. Occurs when axons overlap

Method of Functionality, Resting Potential -70mV, Potassium ions are inside the nerve while sodium ions are outside. Ion gates are closed, Stimulus, Opens sodium gates to allow Na+ ions to flow into the nerve, Threshold Potential -55mV, The threshold of all or nothing action. If the stimulus does not reach this threshold, there will be no action, Depolarization +50mV, A large surge of sodium ions into the nerve causes the potential to become positive and initiates the electrical pulse. Sodium gates begin to close slowly during this, Repolarization, The potassium ions inside the nerve flow out into the ECF and restores the concentration gradient., Undershoot Potential, Excessive K+ moves out of the nerve and can overshoot the potential to - 85 mV

Neuron

Sensory/Motor Neuron, Axon, Conveys electrical pulses down to the dendrites of other neurons, Dendrite, Receives nerve impulses, Soma, Cell body that hosts organelles, Myelin Sheaths, Present in saltatory conduction sites to insulate the axon

Synapses, Vesicles, Holds neurotransmitters in axon end, Neurotransmitters, Various chemicals (ex. acetylcholine) that lock on to the enzymes of the next neuron to continue the nerve signal by initiating another stimulus

General Systems

Sympathetic nervous system, The stress response nervous circuit of the body that prepares the body for stressful situations through the release of hormones such as epinphrine

Parasympathetic nervous system, The "brake" to the sympathetic system, this manages many of the functions that restore the body to its original state by undergoing digestion, excretion etc.

General Concepts

Poikilotherms

Homeotherms

Positive feedback loops

Negative feedback loops

Exocrine System

Kidneys

Parts of a Kidney, Cortex, Medulla, Medullic Pyramids, Nephron, Afferent Arteriole, Carries blood to glomerulus, Efferent Arteriole, Carries blood out of glomerulus, Glomerulus, Juxtaglomerular Apparatus, Detects changes in Blood Pressure, Bowman's Capsule, A spherical apparatus that covers the glomerulus and takes in diffused water, urea etc. main site of filtration, Proximal Tubule, The duct that follows after the bowman's capsule, much of the reabsorption occurs here, Descending Loop of Henle, Very permeable to water, a main site of water reabsorption, Ascending Loop of Henle, Thin, Occurs before the thick section and is permeable to reabsorb ions. Not permeable to water, Thick, Even more permeable than thin to sodium, magnesium, chloride, and potassium ions, Distal Tubule, The duct that follows the loop of Henle and is the final site of reabsorption, Collecting Duct, Takes concentrated urine to the pelvis, Pelvis, Collects urine and brings it to the bladder by emptying into ureters

Bladder

Stores urine for expulsion from body

Definition: The regulation and control of an organism's internal conditions/environment so that it stays in stability and equilibrium in spite of external changes