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Sudan by Mind Map: Sudan

1. Sudan's Past: Sudan’s background consists of being ruled by the UK and achieved independence in 1956. Many civil wars have consisted of the north in which consists of non-Muslim’s and the south which consists of a non-Arab region similar to what is occurring in present day. The first civil war would end in 1972 but the second would break out in 1983. Then with support the North and South signed a peace agreement (CPA) in January of 2005 that followed with full southern independence in 2011. With the independence it has affected the economy in both the north and the south.

2. The UN's past: The UN puts its focus on maintaining peace and security to the world's trouble spots; it currently has 15 peacekeeping missions around the world. The UN also promotes development in certain regions, especially Africa. In Africa they also put an end to apartheid in the Southern region during 1994 in which peoples were able to participate in a multiracial government. The UN has also aided many refugees including Palestinian refugees of 4.7 million peoples. They also provide assistance to disaster victims.

2.1. Actions that have been successful: The UN has played an important role in certain locations around the world. They have deployed missions in Guatemala, Sierra Leone, Burundi, Kosovo, Haiti and many more. With their peace missions the UN was able to provide support and aid to those who have been affected from war, natural disasters or genocide.

2.2. Actions that have failed: Failure is not uncommon for the UN, it has come across serious issues including the Cambodian genocide and Rwanda in which little to no aid was given. Also, with the five major countries being able to veto anything it poses as a major issue. When a country veto's something that would benefit a struggling country, it stops any help from arriving there. This is a problem that the UN is faced with.

3. Sudan's economic relationships: Sudan has had to face the independence of southern Sudan that held three fourths of the former oil production. Without the income found in oil the growth rate has fallen -11.2% and has created a poor country to fall even deeper into poverty. Almost half of the population falls under the poverty line, 46.5% to be exact. With oil production going down Sudan has attempted to boost its economy with the use of gold exportation and other industries. Its main exports are from Macau, China and it holds 65.2% and its other main export is the United Arab Emirates which holds 15.5%. Right now Russia is currently providing the majority of weapons to the Sudanese government in return for a large sum. This exchange is allowing Sudan to protect itself during this time of war. With Sudan attempting to achieve some of Southern Sudan’s oil fields it has allowed USA to step in along with China and Arab states to help fill the $3 billion bill. In 2011 the states were interested in finally stopping the stalemate of oil productions. The massive sum is due to compensation of lost revenue that occurred because of the civil war. Southern Sudan sells a barrel of oil for $9.48 and makes 120,000bbl/day which is a significant amount. Since oil is what provides 98% of the revenue for the country it is essential.

4. Countries who oppose Sudan in the Security Council

4.1. France: Fully supports the UN and wants to stop the genocide in Darfur. Government officials have been very outspoken about the situation and how they preserve it. Some sources say the France is still interested in the oil but not in the genocide. Junior Foreign Minister Renaud Muselier stated on a French radio station “In Darfur, it would be better to help the Sudanese get over the crisis so their country is pacified rather than sanctions which would push them back to their misdeeds of old.” With France being against Sudan it is no wonder why the Sudanese government isn’t fond of them.

4.2. United Kingdom: Has been fully supporting Darfur relief efforts since 2003 and has put £100 million in just from 2007 equaling to $129 million in US dollars. The UK has spent years to try and offer support and relief to the refugees. Each year the UK promises to get 3 million the health and nutrition needed for survival, 1.7 million get sanitation, 1.2 million will benefit from emergency shelters and 1.5 million will be provided with emergency food supplies. The UK’s main aid is called Oxfam and provided relief for refugees. Then in 2009 the Sudanese government would not allow any foreign relief efforts into the country including organizations like Save the Children. Even with non-government organizations the UK is still able to provide support.

5. Countries in which share a similar view

5.1. Russia: Put $200 million into uncovering oil fields in central Sudan. They are providing 87% of Sudanese arms during the recent war that has plagued Sudan. Russia and China have both teamed up to oppose any UN peacekeepers to Darfur. Russia has successfully cornered the Sudanese market for modern warplanes. In 2001, Russia signed a $120 million deal with Sudan to supply ten MiG-28SE fighters and two MiG-29UB. With Russia putting money into the oil fields it is allowing countries on the Security Council like America and China to get oil. If Russia was to pull from its support in Sudan it would be hurting major countries and other Arab countries that rely on Sudan’s oil.

5.2. China: Holds around 64% of Sudan's oil exports, China kept ties with Sudan until the 2008 Beijing "Genocide Olympics" in which China finally gave in and started to accept the UN's peacekeeping missions. However even with this Macau a city located in China is Sudan’s main export provider. It also plays a role in imports and contributes to 21.5%; with China supporting Sudan it is allowing the people to have a chance to change the economy.

6. Actions Sudan is willing to put into place: Sudan will be willing to still have open deals with the U.S.A and China to export the oil. Sudan will also allow black UN officers into the country but with very strict rules.

7. Actions that are out of the question: Sudan is not willing to allow any UN peacekeeping missions into the country because of the outrages numbers the government believes the death toll is at. Sudan blames the deaths on tribal conflicts and from famine to migration that is a daily factor in Sudanese life. The president, Omar-al-Bashir wants all countries to mind their own business and let the problems in Darfur fix themselves. He also has recently threatened to cut the flow of oil in Southern Sudan which would be dramatic in its oil partners. With so much pressure put on the government the president has begun to propose drastic ideas.