Principles of Instructional Design focus on improving individual performance by determining: who ...

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Principles of Instructional Design focus on improving individual performance by determining: who I'm designing for, what they need to do, and how I will know they have achieved it. To do this, an instructional designer uses subject matter experts to solve an instructional problem for their client and learners. They make use of design processes like ADDIE to meet learning objectives by using appropriate instruction methods to deliver instruction, then evaluating the results. by Mind Map: Principles of Instructional Design focus on improving individual performance by determining: who I'm designing for, what they need to do, and how I will know they have achieved it.  To do this, an instructional designer uses subject matter experts to solve an instructional problem for their client and learners. They make use of design processes like ADDIE to meet learning objectives by using appropriate instruction methods to deliver instruction, then evaluating the results.

1. concept-related sequencing includes grouping by relationship, continuum, or class

1.1. class relation sequencing prescribes teaching characteristics of a group before teaching about individual concepts in the group; like teaching the concept of positive and negative before computing with integers

1.2. propositional relationship sequencing prescribes giving examples first, then teaching the concept

1.3. sequencing by sophistication prescribes beginning with the most simple and concrete information and moving to the most abstract or complex

1.4. sequencing by logical prerequisites simply means teaching what the learner needs to know first in order to build on it for later learning; you need to know what an integer is before you can compute with them

2. Instructional Need - collect and analyze data through needs assessment process, determine aims and set goals

2.1. normative/comparative - compared to national standard or larger group

2.2. felt- desired or wanted

2.3. expressed- felt need that is acted on

2.4. anticipated/future- changes that will occur in the future

2.5. critical-failures with significant consequences

3. Learner and Context- who is my learner and in what context should the learning take place?

3.1. learner characteristics: gender, age, experience, education, ethnicity, styles, and disabilities.

3.2. Learner context: orientation (knowledge, attitude), instructional (strategies to use, environment, logistics), transfer (applying the knowledge) Learner context: orientation (knowledge, attitude), instructional (strategies to use, environment, logistics), transfer (applying the knowledge)

3.3. Contextual analysis: background or environment relevant to to the situation in 3 contexts; orienting, instructional, & transfer

3.3.1. the learner; profile, goal setting, perceived utility, perceived accountability, role perception, task perception, perceived resources, transfer coping strategy, experience and background

3.3.2. immediate environment; social support, sensory condition, seating, instructor role perception, learning schedule, content culture, transfer opportunities, social support, situation

3.3.3. organization; incentives, learning culture, rewards, learning and teaching support, transfer culture

4. Task Analysis of the content required for instruction

4.1. topic analysis; used to define facts, concepts, principles, and rules that make up the instruction

4.2. procedural analysis; used to analyze the steps needed for each task

4.3. task analysis; detailed information about the task gathered from a subject matter expert

5. Instructional Objectives identify the information needed to solve the performance problem: review the task analysis, group tasks, write objective for each need, write objective for other essential information

5.1. Cognitive: related to information, knowledge, and the intellectual aspects of learning

5.1.1. from lesser to greater complexity we; remember, evaluate, analyze, apply, understand, and create

5.2. Psychomotor: requires use of muscles, performing skills, movement

5.2.1. Dave's model- from lesser to greater complexity we; imitate or copy, manipulate or perform, gain precision, articulate, then naturalize

5.2.2. Simpson's model- from lesser to greater complexity we; perceive using sensory clues to distinguish or select, we set by demonstrating a readiness to perform by demonstrating an awareness of the concept, we give guided response by attempting to try the skill, we demonstrate mechanism by showing the skill, we demonstrate the complete overt response by performing the complete skill correctly, we demonstrate adaptation by modifying the skill, and origination by developing an original skill to replace the one we learned.

5.2.3. Harrow's model- categorized the steps in learning a skill as reflex movement of segments of the task, basic-fundamental movements that are manipulative and locomotor or nonlocomotor, perceptual abilities involving the senses, physical abilities involving endurance and strength or flexibility, skilled movements that can be simple or complex, and nondiscursive communication demonstrated as expressive or interpretive mevement as we arrange ,create or design.

5.3. Affective: concerns attitudes, values, and emotions

5.3.1. Behavioral Learning theory- learning happens when learner demonstrates behavior consistent with desired attitude and gets positive reinforcement

5.3.2. Cognitive Dissonance theory (Festinger)- when persuaded t act in a way that goes against a current attitude, a person may change to reduce dissonance, Dissonance must exist and a way to reduce it be provided

5.3.3. Functional Theories- state that to change an attitude the student must understand the purpose

5.3.4. Social Judgement Theories- states that prior attitudes shape any change. attitudes within the "lattitude of acceptance" are more likely to change with persuasion

5.3.5. Social Learning Theory- states that we learn attitudes by observing credible models and immitating them

5.3.6. Krathwohl's Taxonomy- states that attitude intensity is built in stages and each step in learning builds on the previous

6. Message Design-effective instruction is designed by engaging the learner and clearly stating the important points.

6.1. Preinstructional strategies introduce the learning

6.1.1. Pretests alert students to what will be expected

6.1.2. Behavioral Objectives inform students exactly what is expected of them, and are best used in traditional instruction methods

6.1.3. Overviews prepare the learner, and work best when teaching facts or concepts

6.1.4. Advance Organizers are a framework that helps clarify the content and are best used with factual information

6.2. text design is the key to communicating effectively

6.2.1. lists of items or ideas in no particular order

6.2.2. comparing and contrasting

6.2.3. temporal sequencing; by time or order

6.2.4. cause and effect sequencing gives the relationship between two things

6.2.5. definitions and examples teach concepts effectively

6.3. pictures and graphics provide interest, representation, organization, interpretations, and help transform concrete images into an abstract thought

7. Sequencing Instruction involves efficiently ordering the content to help the learner achieve the objective. Strategies are prescribed to insure the instruction produces reliable results each time.

7.1. learning-related sequencing includes identifying prerequisites, then most familiar, increasing in difficulty, most interesting first, and developmentally leveled

7.1.1. identifiable prerequisites are skills we need first in order to perform additional skills

7.1.2. begin with the most familiar information then move to the more remote

7.1.3. teach less difficult material first, then in increasing difficulty

7.1.4. catch their interest with the most interesting material first, then move to less interesting

7.1.5. Developmental level is important, be sure the learner is developmentally ready for the learning

7.2. world-related sequencing is applicable when teaching work or life related skills, includes spatial organization, temporal, and physical

7.2.1. spatially related sequencing is taught in some logical order such as right to left, north to south, or top to bottom.

7.2.2. Temporal sequencing is taught in historical or time order; first to last, fast to slow

7.2.3. Physical sequencing groups the skills or concepts in some way by like characteristics; color, shape, size

8. Design Strategies should effectively and efficiently produce reliable results each time the learning is presented and have 2 components.

8.1. Generative strategies

8.1.1. organizational; helps identify how new information relates to existing knowledge

8.1.2. integration; for transforming now information for easier remembering generate new examples/non-examples, paraphrase

8.1.3. elaboration; helps add existing ideas to new information

8.1.4. recall; for learning facts or lists rehersal , mnemonics

8.2. Initial Presentation

8.2.1. best is direct, concrete experience

9. Develop Materials- the translation of design into instruction. Make it concrete, make steps and pace appropriate for your learners, stay consistent, and use cues.

9.1. Initial Presentation includes cues that signal the learner of important information

9.2. Generative Strategies provide guidance to learner and let them relate new information to existing

9.3. Transitions get the learner from one idea to the next effectively

9.4. Cognitive Load is the amount of information that the learner can remember at one time. Research shows that between 5 and 9 items can be remembered at one time.

9.4.1. Intrinsic Load is the number of items that must be processed at once for learning to take place

9.4.2. Extraneous Load occurs when learners are required to engage their working memory for tasks that are not necessary for active learning, for the schema to be built.

9.4.3. Germane Load occurs when beneficial processing is happening promoting abstractions and elaborations

9.4.4. Designers can control cognitive load, decreasing extraneous load Goal-Free Effect occurs when the learner finds the shortest path to the end rather than attempting to build schema. Making use of this effect when designing practice problems, can allow the learner to develop problem solving skills. Worked-Example Effect directs the learner to the steps needed to solve a problem. Examples allow them to see the steps and learn them. Split-Attention Effect requires a learner to divide his attention between two things, a graphic and text. This results in less working memory available for processing. Redundancy is repeating the same information over. This can be done effectively by repeating the information in text then graphic.

10. Evaluation is used to make decisions about the success of instruction.

10.1. Formative evaluation lets the teacher or designer know how well the instruction is serving the objectives. It is done while the instruction is in progress.

10.2. Summative evaluation takes place at the end of the instruction and measures how well the objectives were met.

10.3. Confirmative evaluation is ongoing and is gathered by interviews, questionnaires, reports, and tests.

10.4. When interpreting evaluating, one can compare the performance of learners to each other (relative standard), or compare their performance to a specific standard (absolute standard).

10.5. Evaluation is valid when it has been determined to measure exactly what has been learned about the objectives. It is reliable when it is proven to produce consistent results no matter where it is used.

11. Design For Technology-Based Instruction

11.1. Drill and Practice is useful for practicing and memorizing facts

11.1.1. Games add motivation to drill and practice

11.2. Tutorials are used to strengthen associations and to present new material

11.3. Hypermedia allows the learner to click on a link to additional information

11.4. Mayer (2008) developed 10 principles for reducing cognitive load on working memory in multimedia instruction.

11.4.1. coherence principle states that extra information should be excluded from animations and narration

11.4.2. signaling principle states the learning improves when attention is drawn to something

11.4.3. redundancy principle states that when material is repeated in different ways simultaneously, the result is cognitive overload

11.4.4. spatial contiguity states the related text and graphics should be placed near each other

11.4.5. temporal contiguity states that animation and narration should occur simultaneously

11.4.6. segmenting states that narrated animation should be presented in segments rather than one long one

11.4.7. pre-training states the the learner should understand the basics before seeing animations

11.4.8. modality states the animations with narration are more effective than animation with text

11.4.9. personalization and voice states that narration should be in a conversational style and in a human voice

11.5. Feedback provides the learner with knowledge of the result and correct response, they can be allowed to answer until it is correct, it can be elaborated comments, it can give feedback if response is incorrect so that the learner can understand why it was incorrect, it can be immediate or delayed

11.5.1. Remediation is related to feedback and occurs after it

11.6. Interactions within the instruction can be through the keyboard, mouse or touch screen, clicking a button, drag & drop, or through speech recognition

12. Planning for Implementation: sometimes the change is welcome, sometimes not and requires a plan to "sell" the clients on the proposed change.

12.1. Planned change is the selling process

12.1.1. Diffusion - communicating information to the client

12.1.2. Innovation- something new to an organization or person. The user will evaluate it for compatability with their needs and values. They will evaluate its complexity, and then try it. CLER Model- strategy for implementing an innovation. configuration, linkages, environment, and resources.

12.1.3. Adoption- the decision to use the proposed innovation A potential user comes to a decision about the innovation using the CBAM model- they are first aware of the innovation, express an interest, shifts theuir focus from themselves to the job, tires the innovation, and finally accepts and uses the innovation.

13. Project Management includes planing the scope, scheduling resources, budgeting, and managing the activities to produce a project.

13.1. The scope focuses the project, stating the purpose, stakeholders, and expected outcomes.

13.2. A project agreement starts with a proposal and spells out the specific purpose, timeline and plan for the work, and the budget.

13.3. Legal concerns

13.3.1. you may need to contract the services of consultants or outside vendors

13.3.2. you need to follow applicable state and federal laws governing the area of your project, and the timeliness of implementing it

13.3.3. be aware that some common legal issues can arise from injury during training, intellectual property issues, discrimination issues, equal access to the training, failure to provide the product in a timely and complete manner.

14. Gagne gives us 5 categories of learning outcomes and organizes effective learning into nine events of instruction.

14.1. learning objectives can be verbal (facts), motor skills (physical skill tasks), affective (attitude changes), meta cognition (problem solving or brainstorming), and intellectual (school skills)

14.2. Gagne gives us rules to follow as we organize instructional events: Gain attention, inform the learner of the objective(s), stimulate recall of prior knowledge, provide guidance such a s examples or reading, get the learner to perform or try the skill, provide feedback of their progress, assess their skill, then enhance their retention of the new learning and help them to transfer the knowledge to new situations.

15. A Learning Theory is a set of principles that explain learning behaviors. They should be prescriptive. Instructional Design should be based on learning theory. Design models are developed based on one or a combination of theories.

15.1. Behavioral theories try to encourage desirable behaviors and eliminate undesirable ones. They are based on reinforcement. A designer needs to arrange instruction to provide reinforcement, perform task analysis before developing materials, and use instructional objectives.

15.2. Social Learning theories use behavioral principles along with recognizing the role of mental processing and thought. They are based on positive and negative reinforcement and modeling. Instructional designers need to incorporate higher levels of mastery, make use of peer interaction, and recognize intrinsic motivation.

15.3. Cognitive Learning Theories are focused on what goes on in the mind. They are based on information processing, working memory, long term memory, and constructing knowledge.