The tree line moving North, and also to higher altitudes.
Tundra ecosystems in Arctic areas being lost as the climate warms and other plants take over.
Permafrost thawing out.
The spread of species such as the spruce bark beetle changing the food chain.
Increases in the number and extent of Northern coniferous fires in Arctic Russia.
Global warming poses social and economic threats to the 155,000 Inuit living in the Arctic region. Global warming is disrupting their lifestyles, which are adapted to the cold but predictable climate in the Arctic. The impacts include<<, Each Winter Inuit men take their fishing shacks and equipment on to the ice for 3 months. Now the weaker and thinner sea ice collapses easily, making it more dangerous., The ice used to protect Inuit villages along the coast. However, coasts are now exposed to more ocean waves and storms, causing the destruction of entire villages, and forcing people to move further inland., 24 Inuit villages in Alaska are now threatened by flooding., 80%of Inuit still hunt Caribou, fish and marine mammals - all of which are declining in numbers. As marine stocks decline, the Inuit rely more on hunting Caribou for income, which in turn places greater pressure on caribou stocks. 70% of Inuit income is from paid employment or hunting, so declining stocks hit Inuit incomes hard.
Tourism is boosted, travel now the ice has melted is much easier. Inuit can get income from ice sculptures or print making.
Shrinking ice sheets affecting marine species.
Warmer water has reduced the quantity of marine plants on which many smaller fish feed.
The reduction of smaller fish species has affected those higher up the food chain, such as cod and halibut.
Then with cod and halibut numbers being reduced it affects larger species such as seals.
The Negative Multiplier Effect, Smaller seal stocks reduce the available food supply for polar bears.
The faster melting of ice has reduced the polar bears spring hunting season. Hudson Bay is now ice-free for three weeks longer than it was in 1985.
Female polar bears rely on the spring to build up their body fat to ensure their survival during the summer when the ice they hunt on recedes naturally.
Currently each animal loses 80kg of fat during the longer summer, making them susceptible to disease, and reducing their ability to reproduce or feed their cubs. Now they face the danger of complete extinction.