Principles of School Drug Education

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Principles of School Drug Education by Mind Map: Principles of School Drug Education

1. Principle 9  Timely programs within a curriculum framework Principle 9: Locate programs within a curriculum framework, thus providing timely, developmentally appropriate and ongoing drug education. Drug education programs best provided in clear curriculum framework, thus achieving learning outcomes. Drug issues should be relevant to student development. Commencement from young age will be more effective The need to place drug education within a broader health context Drug education is best taught within a broader curriculum. Drug education should be founded on all aspects of students well-being. Rather than focusing on only drug issues, drug education should investigate choices in relation to lifestyles and priorities of young people. Drug education should provide targeted programs for particular drugs especially with older/ more at risk students. The critical importance of the timing of interventions Drug education should be provided before behavioral patterns change, programs should be started based on the time target age groups are in need of education. Schools should focus on educating students on drugs that are most likely to cause them harm. Preventing, postponing or reducing drug usage has important long-term health benefits. Include follow-up and additional health promotion messages to ensure drug education doesn’t diminish over time. Drug education programs need to be ongoing. Evidence base The need to place drug education within a broader health context Health programs need to be comprehensive in content – using social skills approach and concepts

2. Principle 5: Promoting collaborative relationships between students, staff, families and the broader community in the planning and implementation of school drug education.  Parent involvement helps increase communication and promotes positive attitudes towards healthy behaviour (Hawkins, Catalano and Miller 1992). It is important to involve students, families and the broader community in drug education programs to be effective, they need to be based on the needs of students who will participate in them. This will provide high school students with opportunities to assert their needs within program development and delivery is important for the determination of appropriate content and learning strategies. It will inform, consult, and support families as part of the school’s drug education process, and is likely to lead to better outcomes. A number of reviews on effective drug education programs recommend the inclusion of a parental component. To enhance this program schools should involve other schools and local groups, and health agencies to access up-to-date information on local drug use trends. The involvement of families and the community in drug education programs can increase the likelihood of their effectiveness and promote longer-lasting results (Evans and Bosworth 1997).

3. Principle 12

4. PRINCIPLE 1: Base drug education on sound theory and current research and use evaluation to inform decisions. - Necessary for drug ed to be based on proven strategies - Evidence based practice: current research, theory used to form appropriate programs for different groups of students - Professional judgement is required to implement and monitor programs developed - Outcomes need to be evaluated, determine effect – this needs to be done regularly - Evidence of effective activities inform future programs and practices Importance of sound theory & research: - Applying sound theory, research and evaluation – meet needs of school community and its students – makes program effective for target group - Not doing this may cause harm and in some cases increase likelihood of drug use Research available – inform drug education: - Comprehensive and expanding research base available – inform designing and implementation of drug education in schools - International research (drug education programs) – distinguished key components, effective programs – defined as those that demonstrated a reduction in drug us or risk-taking behaviours - Studies confirm, effective drug ed programs are based on needs and interests of students – they address contexts, cultural backgrounds, experiences - determine relevant and culturally appropriate drug ed for students THE USE OF MONITORING AND EVALUATION TO INFORM PRACTICE - Evaluating school’s drug ed means collecting, analyzing and interpreting information on programs possible effects, positive and/or negative – evaluation can inform improvement for the future - Monitoring school’s drug ed should be conducted as part of evaluation, checking progress of outcomes - monitoring programs can support effective implementation and provide meaningful evaluation of drug ed outcomes

5. Principle 4

6. - Principle 3 is establishing drug education outcomes that are appropriate to the school context and contribute to the overall goal of minimizing drug related harm. This ensures that goal set by schools are clear and realistic. - Schools need to clarify the extent of what they are aiming to achieve. It is important school understand and create their own goals. - Schools are in a position to contribute to the goal of drug relate harm. - Schools should have both obvious goals and specialized goals when considering students drug behaviour. - Minimizing harm associated with drug use should be the overriding goal of the school. - Research has shown that education concerning the use of harm drugs/alcohol both delaying the use or maintaining the non-use of drugs/alcohol has been beneficial to school aged children and adolescence. - While schools cannot “drug proof” young people, they can use educational interventions supported with goals and relevant outcomes it will minimize the use of drugs/alcohol. 3

7. Principle 7: Acknowledge that a range of risk and protective factors impact on health and education outcomes, and influence choices about drug use. Drug education should be based on an understanding of the risk and protective factors that affect young people’s health and education. Schools that recognise the complexity of issues that may impact on students’ drug use are in a better position to provide relevant drug education. Key Considerations • Experience of drug use involves the interplay of the user, the drug, and the setting • Students at risk of harm as a result of their own or another’s drug use may benefit from education and interventions that address multiple risk factors and offer ongoing student welfare/pastoral care • School staff should be aware of student’s disruption in learning due to negative impacts of drug use • Research is suggesting that effective intervention in one area is likely to lead to benefits in other problem areas • When schools seek to enhance protective factors in young people’s lives and enhance students’ resilience, there are likely to be benefits in relation to drug-related issues and also in other areas of their lives • Drug use is a huge issue among young people • Drug use is often associated with peer pressure, as well as school and social life factors • “The more risks a young person experiences, the more likely that drug problems and related issues may occur.” • Depending on the individual, the more severe or minor the risks. The same effects occur but depending on the amount of risks and regularity of drug use will depend. • An understanding of the risk and protective factors impacting on patterns of youth drug use can assist schools to work more effectively at both prevention and intervention levels. • There are additional risks for the teenager, related to drugs and often have a huge impact on education. These include school - Failure - Truancy - Early school leaving - Poverty - family break-up - transience - lack of parental supervision - experiences of abuse - mental health or substance use problems in the home - membership of a high-risk peer group. • Experimentation and infrequent use by young people are associated with peer pressure and social factors. • “There also appears to be a difference in risk factors in relation to specific drug use behaviours, for example initiation into smoking, binge drinking and needle sharing.” Evidence Base The role of risk and protective factors in understanding and responding to drug use in young people. • Drug use is just not simply an individual behavior, but is shaped and cause by everything around them • There are a range of factors that cause drug use o Income o Employment o Poverty o Education o Access to community resources o Gender o Age • Research has shown people are a higher risk of drug use if they are faced o Economic disadvantage o Social or cultural discrimination o Isolation o Neighborhood violence o Population o Lack of facilities and service • When drug education is taken into account there are a lot of areas that need to be consider to make sure that the education will be effective o Complex personal, psychological, social and environmental factors • Evans and Bosworth (1997) note that to be effective, drug education programs must address environmental, personality and behavioral risk factors identified through research and move beyond behaviorist approaches that look at individual behavior to understand drug use. • Catalano and Hawkins (1996, p 152) state that it is clear that multiple biological, psychological and social factors at multiple levels in different domains contribute to some degree to drug use and other risk behaviours • Brounstein and Zweig (1999) propose that drug use can be understood as the interplay between the individual and environmental domains of society, family, community, school and peers. They suggest that building on and enhancing protective factors is a promising approach that focuses on developing positive elements in individuals and environments. • A comprehensive study of risk and protective factors conducted with Victorian secondary students (Bond et al. 2000), found an association between the number of risk and protective factors and the use of licit and illicit drugs among this group of students • schools can make a difference through acting as a protective factor in a student’s life and schools can enhance student resilience through promoting caring relationships, setting high but positive expectations and providing opportunities for youth participation and contribution. • “Benard and Constantine (2001), in a USA-based study, note that longitudinal developmental studies on resilience provide three important lessons for schools.” 1. “When young people are tracked into later life more than half the ‘highrisk’ children do succeed and are caring and competent adults.” 2. “Most young people succeed because somewhere in their families, schools and communities they have experienced important protective factors that gave them a sense of belonging and meaning.” 3. “Teachers and schools are more often than not identified as the turnaround people and places that tipped the scales from risk to resilience. Turnaround teachers are characterized as those who meet students’ basic needs for safety, belonging, respect, power, accomplishment and learning.”

8. Principle 6

9. Principle 11

9.1.  Principle 11 is using student-centred, interactive strategies to develop students’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and values  Inclusive + interactive teaching strategies have been demonstrated to be the most effective way to develop students’ drug and alcohol-related knowledge, skills and attitudes  Interactivity involves students having opportunities to be involved in the exchange of ideas / experiences, practicing new skills, and receive feedback  Research has consistently identified interactive strategies as a critical component of effective programs  Teachers need to acknowledge and affirm, diversity, and engage all students in activities, and discourage processes that marginalize groups or individuals  Interactive learning is challenging, especially in sensitive and controversial issues, such as effective drug and alcohol education, being hard to teach then results in the failure to interactively use teaching strategies  Requires teachers to have specialized skills in facilitating student-centered learning, group techniques, and classroom management  Teachers need to be able to facilitate strategies – small group activities, discussion, promote constructive feedback on views and skills  Effective programs help develop students’ critical thinking, problem solving, and decision-making skills  Teachers need to acknowledge programs that focus only on information do not bring about change. Need to address skills of decision making, goal setting, stress management  Knowledge component is appropriate – information should be factual and balanced + relate to needs and interests of students  Teachers are critical to effective drug and alcohol education  Teacher help to guide students, involve them in gaining knowledge and guiding them through a set of activities, which are designed to enhance their skills / problem solving capacities in a way that enables them to take those skills beyond the school gate into social situation

10. Principle 8 Consistent policy and practice must be used when informing and managing drug-based education t children. All responses must keep in consideration the health and wellbeing of the students and support must be offered to those who are in need of it. Retaining students at risk in education should be a priority. The importance of implementing this policy is that it is essential for each school to develop drug prevention policies and procedures to minimize drug used and harm within the school. These should relate to the school’s values. Clear guidance and information must be provided and each school needs to develop its own unique policy – this can be collaborated with students and staff, families and the community. Schools also must have in place well-developed structures to support at risk students and classroom teachers must understand the importance of their roll in identifying at risk students in their class. • Drug use occurs through exposure. Experimentation, occasional use and addiction from the people around them. • For many adolescents, experimenting with drugs is influenced by peer and social factors. • Bad approaches to drugs can marginalize and stigmatize students • These approaches can lead to negative reactions from the affected students • Policies play a major role in supporting and reinforcing education practices in a health program • Keys of an effective program are clarity, coordination and consistency • Punitive school policies have not been effective in curbing substance used in students • Punitive action can escalate drug used as an adolescent seeks to live up to their new identity • Support rather than punishment is far more effective

11. Principle 2

12. Principle 10: Ensure teachers are resourced and supported in their central role in delivering drug education programs. The importance of supporting and developing teachers in the delivery of drug education – A teacher who knows the class, is best positioned to tailor programs to meet the needs of the students. –The teacher is well placed to access the appropriate school personnel to ensure follow-up. – Drug education aligns with the curriculum – Teachers require skills and support at both professional and systemic levels to ensure programs can be fully implemented. – Programs are most successful when teachers receive adequate resourcing, training and support, which are a keycomponent of the social skills elements of the curriculum. The possible use of peers/external leaders – The teacher, guided by school policy and informed about additional school health promotion or student leadership initiatives, might complement the program with the judicious use of peer leaders, visiting presenters and other health promotion activities. – Research suggests that peer leaders may be effective in prevention education but only when carefully selected, properly trained and well supported with management skills provided by professional teachers. 42 PRINCIPLES FOR SCHOOL DRUG EDUCATION Evidence base The importance of supporting and developing teachers in delivering drug education (Hawks et al. 2002). (Gatheouse Project: Glover et al. 1998; MindMatters project: Wyn et al. 2000; SHAHRP project: McBride et al. 2000). Dusenbury and Falco (1995) Botvin (1995) Tobler (2000) notes Hansen and McNeal (1999) The NHMRC (1996) Jackson (2002b) 43 SECTION 2: PRINCIPLES, KEY CONSIDERATIONS AND EVIDENCE BASE – adequate resources to support programs (inadequate guidelines, professional development and curriculum materials may constrain the effectiveness of implementation); – continued support and follow-up after training and opportunities to exchange learning and participate in collaborative decision-making – effective leadership of the school principal at every stage of implementation; – opportunity for regular feedback on student learning outcomes; and – informing and being supported by non-participating staff who may not be delivering a particular program but who can reflect the key messages across the school. – expansion of repertoire of skills for delivery methods, – increased comfort and confidence in using a range of methods, and – flow-on benefits occurring for students. The possible use of peers/external leaders Cuijpers (2002) Midford, Snow and Lenton (2001) Hawks et al. (2002)