History of Computers

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History of Computers by Mind Map: History of Computers

1. All Digital Computers

1.1. ENIAC

1.1.1. Stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator

1.1.2. Built in the University of Pennsylvania

1.1.2.1. Built between 1943 and 1945 by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert,

1.1.3. Big machine that filled up a 20 by 40 ft room

1.1.4. Weighed 30 tonnes

1.1.5. Used over 18,000 vacuume tools

1.1.6. Rooms had to be air conditioned because machines would use a lot of power which generated a lot of heat

1.1.7. Could only hold 20 numbers at a time

2. The Abacus

2.1. Used for mathematical calculations

2.2. Could do addition and subtraction

2.3. People mistaken the Chinese for being the first to use it when it was really the Babylonians

2.4. The modern ones have rods where the pebbles can slide back and forth, while the older ones don't have the rods

3. The Logarithm

3.1. 1617 created by John Napier

3.2. Could be used to do mulitiplication

3.3. Led to the "Slide Rule"

3.3.1. First built in 1632

3.3.2. In the 1960's was used by the Nasa engineers

3.3.2.1. New node

4. Calculating Clock

4.1. Invented by Wilhem Schickard in 1623

4.2. First gear driven calculating machine

4.3. Didn't get a lot of publicity because Wilhem died right after he created it

5. The Pascaline

5.1. 1642 created by Blaise Pascal, at age 19

5.2. Created it to help his father who was a tax collector

5.3. Could only add

5.3.1. Didn't sell a lot because of the price

5.3.2. Wasn't as accurate

6. Stepped Reckoner

6.1. Created by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

6.2. It could add, subtract, divide, and multiply

6.3. He was the first one to use the binary system

6.4. He died poor

7. Punched Cards

7.1. 1801 Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a power loom

7.2. Had your name, adress, phone number etc on it

7.3. Your gas bill would come with a punch card

7.4. Had your name, adress, etc

8. Difference Machine

8.1. Created by 1822 Charles Babbage

8.2. Machine was the size of a room

8.3. Had government funding, which costed a lot of money

8.4. Was never finished because of money issues

8.5. Analytic Engine

8.5.1. Large as a house, powered by 6 steam engines

8.5.2. Punched cards were used

8.5.3. The 2 main parts were the "store" and the "mill"

8.5.3.1. Today this is called the memory unit, and the central processing unit (CPU)

9. Hollerith Desk

9.1. Had a card reader

9.2. Sensed the holes in the cards

9.3. Gear driven mechanism

9.4. Large wall of dial indicators shows the count

9.5. Census machine was the first machine ever to be on a magazine cover

10. Mark 1 Computer

10.1. Partnership between havard and IBM in 1944

10.1.1. IBM

10.1.1.1. Hollerith built a company called Tabulating Machine Company

10.1.1.2. Later renamed to International Business Machine (IBM)

10.1.1.3. This business grew rapidly

10.1.1.4. Began to create mechanical calculators for business sales

10.2. First digital computer created in the US

10.2.1. Weighed 5 tons

10.2.2. 500 miles of wire

10.2.3. 8 ft tall and 51ft long

10.3. Ran non stop for 15 years

10.4. Waterpowered

10.5. Could only store 72 numbers

10.6. Calculated digits that were 23 digits long

11. Grace Hopper

11.1. 1953 she created the first high level language "flow matic"

11.2. Compiler

11.2.1. Program used to translate things into binary language

12. Apple 1

12.1. Steve Wozniack created the Apple I

12.2. Could be plugged into your tv

12.3. Had a keyboard

12.4. They were sold for about $500 each

13. J.V Atanasoff

13.1. Built a digital computer

13.1.1. Colossus

13.1.1.1. Built during World War 2 by Britain

13.1.1.2. Built it to break cryptographic codes used by Germany

13.1.1.2.1. Zuse

13.2. No gears, belts, shafts etc

14. Bill Gates

14.1. Went to Harvard and as a freshman he dropped out

14.2. Dropped out because he wanted to create and design new programs for his computer