History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. Gutenberg was inspired to make it by his love of reading.

1.1. He experimented with printing by metal typography.

1.1.1. Previously, wood printing was used in China.

1.1.2. It used movable type. Movable type is a system that uses movable components.

1.1.3. Metal created uniform type and was more durable.

1.1.4. He used an alloy that would melt at a low temperature. The metal was shaped with a mold. A matrix puts the shape of the letter into the mold.

1.2. Gutenberg also introduced oil based ink.

2. Cave Paintings

2.1. cave paintings are forms of visual art created by prehistoric people on the walls and ceilings of caves

2.2. Chauvet Pont d’Arc

2.2.1. oldest site

2.3. Altamira

2.3.1. red hue

2.4. Lascaux

2.4.1. most famous site

2.4.2. closed becuase of damage from carbon dioxide from visitors

2.5. Why were they created?

2.5.1. Storytelling

2.5.2. Religion

2.5.3. Instruction

2.6. Paint was made of

2.6.1. Water

2.6.2. Juice

2.6.3. Blood

2.6.4. Soil

2.6.5. Charcoal

2.6.6. Hematite

2.7. Cave paintings were made as far back as 40,000 years ago.

3. Cuneiform

3.1. Sumerians

3.1.1. theocratic culture

3.1.2. skilled artisans

3.1.3. had music

3.1.4. lived in the fertile crescent

3.2. written on clay tablets

3.2.1. The clay was wet, flattened, written on with a stylus, and then dried in the sun.

3.3. Pictographs

3.3.1. Pictopgraphs were used in cuneiform, and they evolved over time by getting more abstract.

3.4. Cuneiform was created to record business transactions.

4. Hieroglyphics

4.1. It was influenced by the Sumerian concept of expressing words with writing.

4.2. They had both logographic and alphabetic elements.

4.3. They were used to record information about religion and government.

4.4. Scribes were able to write them.

4.4.1. Military leaders would become scribes to communicate in battle.

4.4.2. Priests were often scribes so that they could write religious things on tombs. Tombs were decorated with hieroglyphics to show respect for the gods. The Books of the Dead were written to help the dead find their way to the afterlife. Priests would write instructions on how to perform rituals.

4.5. Hieroglyphics were deciphered becuase of the Rosetta Stone.

4.5.1. The stone had Hieroglyphics, Ancient Greek, and Demotic on it.

4.5.2. The Rosetta Stone now resides in the British Museum.

5. Phonetic Alphabet

5.1. There are several theories for the origin of the Phonetic Alphabet.

5.1.1. Hieroglyphics

5.1.2. Cuneiform

5.1.3. Independent Language

5.2. The Phonetic Alphabet was very successful.

5.2.1. Merchants used it and spread it to North Africa and Europe.

5.2.2. It was easy to learn.

5.3. Based on the principle that one letter represents on sound.

5.4. Letters started with consonants.

5.4.1. Vowels were not introduced until the Greek alphabet.

5.5. The Greek alphabet adopted the Phonetic letter form.

5.5.1. The Roman alphabet was based off of the Greek alphabet. The Roman alphabet was also known as the Latin alphabet. The Roman alphabet had two distinct styles of writing. There was a rigid formal style. There was a quicker informal style. The Roman alphabet had serifs. Serifs originated with the carving of words into stone. Serifs increased the legibility of the alphabet. The Roman alphabet had a baseline. The baseline is the line on which most letters sit. The baseline contributed to type aesthetics.

6. The Book

6.1. Scrolls were used before books.

6.1.1. Scrolls were rolled up pieces of papyrus or multiple sheets glued together.

6.1.2. Scrolls only allowed for sequential usage. Sequential usage means that you have to go through one part to get to the next part.

6.2. The codex replaced the scroll.

6.2.1. A codex is a bound and covered collection of handwritten pages. A codex was strong, sturdy, and could be accessed at any point without going through the previous parts.

6.2.2. Christianity used the codex for the Bible.

6.2.3. Monks were scribes for the church.

6.2.4. Parchment was used instead of papyrus. Parchment is a substrate made from animal skin. It was made by removing hair and fat and smoothing out the skin. Then, the hide was soaked in water, and calcium, flour, and salt were added. Finally, the skin was stretched out, flattened, and dried. Parchment is more durable than papyrus.

6.2.5. Illuminated manuscripts were used for religious texts. They were only used for religious texts because the work to make them was very laborious. These manuscripts had borders, illustration, and ornamentation. Many of the manuscripts were lost because of invading armies.

6.2.6. Intricate and detailed work was created with natural quill pens. They were made by plucking feathers from geese, crows, and turkeys.

7. Gutenberg Press

7.1. John Fust invested in the printing press on the condition that if he wasn't paid back in time, he got the printing press and all related materials.

7.1.1. Fust sued Gutenberg when the time ended, and he took the printing press.

7.2. The first book printed on it was the Bible.

7.3. The printing press had seven major effects on communication.

7.3.1. It made script easier to read.

7.3.2. It made books at a faster rate.

7.3.3. It allowed the sharing of current information.

7.3.4. It decreased the cost of books.

7.3.5. It allowed the population to become more literate.

7.3.6. Demand for books increased.

7.3.7. The book and paper trades flourished.

7.3.8. Art and science flourished.

7.4. A hand press that presses letters with ink on them on to paper.

7.4.1. Developed from a device used to press grapes and olives.

8. Linotype Machine

8.1. Clephane was looking for an easier way to transcribe notes and legal briefs.

8.2. Sholes made the only commercially successful typewriter.

8.2.1. It was used a lot by stenographers.

8.2.2. Clephane tested the typewriter.

8.3. Celphane approached Ottmar Mergenthaler to help improve Clephane's machine.

8.3.1. He suggested using a metal matrix.

8.4. The Linotype machine allowed operators to set type mechanically.

8.4.1. The name comes from the fact that it can produce an entire line of type at once.

8.5. It allowed newspapers to print more pages with fewer operators.

8.5.1. The first one installed was in The New York Tribune.

8.5.2. This increased the number of pages that were included in newspapers.

8.6. The Lino type keyboard had 90 keys.

8.6.1. Uppercase letters had their own keys. Black keys were lowercase letters. White keys were uppercase letters. Blue keys were punctuation.

9. Photography

9.1. Obscura

9.1.1. An obscura is an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings.

9.1.2. It was a darkened room with a lens on one wall.

9.2. The word from photography came from John Hershel.

9.2.1. It comes form the Greek words for light and writing.

9.3. Joseph Niepce created the first successful photograph.

9.4. Daguerrotype

9.4.1. It was invented by Lois Daquerre.

9.4.2. It was the first practical photographic process.

9.4.3. It used a light sensitive sheet of metal exposed to light to create an image.

9.5. Callotype Process

9.5.1. It was invented by William Fox Talbot.

9.5.2. It used light sensitive paper exposed to light to create an image.

9.5.3. Multiple copies of a photograph could be made.

9.6. Wet Collodion Process

9.6.1. Glass plates were covered with collodion and used as a negative.

9.7. Dry Process

9.7.1. The dry process used gelatin. Gelatin is a colorless water soluble glutinous protein.

9.8. George Eastman

9.8.1. He created a film that was accessible to a wide variety of people.

9.8.2. He established the Eastman Kodak Company.

9.8.3. He introduced the Brownie.

9.9. Muybridge

9.9.1. He was hired to settle a debate about the movement of horses.

9.9.2. He invented the first motion picture camera.

10. Computer

10.1. Early Computers

10.1.1. Konrad Zuse invented the first freely programmable computer.

10.1.2. The Mark computers were designed by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper. They were used for ballistic calculations.

10.1.3. UNIVAC, the first commercial computer, was designed by John Preseper. Its name means Universal Automatic Computer.

10.2. IBM

10.2.1. Its name means International Business Machines.

10.2.2. It developed the IBMMTS computer. Its name means IBM Mathematical Translating System.

10.2.3. It introduced the floppy disk, which is named for its flexibility.

10.3. The first computer game was Space War.

10.4. Douglas Engelbert invented the mouse.

10.4.1. He created it so that he could be able to point at the screen.

10.4.2. It was named because it looked like a mouse with its tail.

10.5. The first internet was called ARPANET.

10.5.1. It was developed for the military.

10.6. Intel

10.6.1. It produced the first single chip processor, the Intel 4004.

10.7. Robert Metcalfe introduced the first ethernet.

10.8. Microsoft

10.8.1. It introduced MS-DOS.

10.8.2. It introduced WIndows. Windows was produced as a response to Apple's operating system.

10.9. Apple

10.9.1. It introduced Lisa. Lisa had a GUI, a graphical user interface. Xerox developed the GUI.

10.9.2. It introduced the Macintosh.